Common and widespread mental

Did you like this example?


Depression is a common and widespread mental disorder affecting millions of people worldwide; [6] Thus, this review is mainly aimed to focus upon the action mechanisms, side effects, toxicity and the logical analytical approaches possibly used in forensic toxicology for the identification of one or more Antidepressant Drugs and their metabolites from biological test matrices.

Antidepressant: Types & Functions

Antidepressant covers many varieties of drugs having different modes of actions like [16]

Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Common and widespread mental" essay for you

Create order

Figure: Mechanism action of Monoamine reuptake inhibitors (MAOIs), Tricyclic anti-deprassant (TCA) and Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).

According to the “Monoamine Theory of Depression,” (proposed by Schildkraut in 1965) the decrease in monoamine neurotransmission is thought to be responsible for inducing depression in an individual. Thus, medication with Antidepressantdrugs (TCAs, MAOIs, SSRIs, and SNRI etc.) rise in the amount of neurotransmitters. Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and heterocyclic antidepressants (SSRIs, SNRIs) inhibit the norepinephrine transporter (NET) and the serotonin transporter (SERT) by competing for the binding site of the amine transporter results in the increase levels of both NE (Norepinephrine) and 5HT (5-hydroxytryptamine or Serotonine) in the synaptic cleft. In addition to this the Monoamine reuptake inhibitors (MAOIs) inhibits an enzyme MAO (monoamino oxidase) released from mitochondria (MO) which convert 5-HT to 5 hydroxyindole acetic acid (HIAA) and norepinephrine (NE) to 3-methoxy 4-hydroxy phenyl glycol (MHPG). This phenomenon increases the stores of NA and 5-HT thus contributes to higher level of Neurotransmitters in Brain. [19]

Adverse effects

Antidepressants are supposed to increase the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior, especially in children accompanying other depressive and psychiatric disorders. [17] [18] [19] The European Medicines Agency showed warning on the use of Antidepressants which might increase the risk of suicidal behavior in children and adolescents. [19] Thus, these drugs may be responsible for the fatality and intoxication and their growing rate all over the world may show threatening effects which is the matter of global concern. Thus, increasing prescription rate and adverse effects of antidepressant drugs results in a growing interest for their determination from biological matrices, proved to be very helpful in the field of Forensic.

Biological Samples use for the Screening of Antidepressant Drugs

Biological samples are the basic requirement of Forensic Toxicology as it solves several related questions which make basis of judgement, consultation and expertise for the field. The biological matrices generally encountered for analysis are urine [34], hair, nails, vitrous humour etc.

The most important and encountered biosample used for analytical purposes is Blood (plasma, serum). Toxicological effects can correlate more effectively with their concentrations in blood which can be determined qualitatively [42]

Another important biological sample is Urine which is a widely used specimen employed for screening, identification and testing of unknown drugs accompanying advantages that it forms in high amount, readily available, easy to collect and contains much useful information about the major metabolic functions of the body. [48]

A next alternative to the blood and urine specimen is the Oral fluid; for it’s applications in therapeutic and toxicological drug monitoring [54]

When the analytical studies get concern with long duration of exposure to the detection window hair analysis makes a complementary approach for the detection of antidepressant drugs with the additional advantages that the hair sample can be stored at room temperature for a long time without degradation and it is easy to collect. [62]

Except from all the above described biomatrices very precise and rarely encountered biological sample is Vitreous Humor. It’s a fluid mainly composed of water and hyaluronic acid (major component) found between the lens and retina of the eye proved to be the best choice for analytical examinations as it is relatively well isolated and protected from putrefaction. (Quoted reference) Two different fatality cases were reported where the extraction of drugs is done from Vitreous humor. One case has been reported of citalopram fatality where the extraction of drug is done from Vitreous humor yeilding concentration of citalopram (SSRI) less than 0.04mg/L and in second case venlafaxine fatality is reported where postmortem analysis revealed the concentrations of Fluoxetine (SSRI) and it’s metabolite Norfluoxetine as 5.2 mg/l and 2.2mg/l respectively. [64]

Other than these specimens, body tissues like liver [71], cerebrospinal fluid etc. canalso encountered for toxic and therapeutic drug monitoring biological matrices.

Techniques for Sample Preparation

The bioanalytical methods form two basic approaches that are the sample preparation step and detection of the compound of interest. Several methods have been published for the determination of one or more antidepressants in biological matrices for therapeutic monitoring or for toxicological purposes. For making biological samples suitable for analytical purposes some treatments should be given to overcome the matrix effects such that the other materials should not interfere with the analytical separation that is the extractability of the analytes in the sample inturn the results of the analysis. [96] These techniques are rapidly gaining acceptance in bioanalytical seperations to reduce time and labor producing satisfactory results with high selectivity and sensitivity over a wide dynamic range, contributing as very fine detection techniques.

Commonly Prescribed New Generation Antidepressant Drugs and their Metabolites

Several new antidepressants that inhibit the serotonine (SERT) and norepinephrine transporters (NET) have been consistently using for therapeutic purposes. [108]

Sertraline is an effective and highly utilized SSRIs group of drug, [113]

Another SSRIs group of Antidepressant drug is Fluoxetine, using worldwide in the therapy of major depression. It is metabolized via N-demethylation by the [117] nitrogen phosphorous detector (NPD) (Thesis- 103) and electron capture detector (ECD) (Thesis- 76), used for the rapid analysis of fluoxetine from biological samples, achieved detection limits up to nanogram level.

Citalopram is a selective and potent serotonine reuptake inhibitor, [78]

Another very important group of Antidepressant drug is SNRIs includes drugs like Venlafaxine which inhibits serotonine, noradrenaline, and to a lesser extent dopamine reuptake. [117] (Thesis-82) is also used for determination of venlafaxine, provided satisfactory results.

In the majority of the published analytical methods for determination of Antidepressant drugs, gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography is applied in combination to different kinds of columns (operating under different separation conditions), mobile phases and detectors. High-performance liquid chromatography is described for the determination of selective serotonine reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI) and their metabolites in human plasma using fluorescence, mass and photo-diod array detector; Micellar liquid chromatography, the technique which allowed direct injection of biological samples, utilized appropriately selected surfactants in the mobile phase to maintain solubilization of interfering proteins of biological samples.Other than chromatography, separation technique like capillary electrophoresis after in-line solid-phase extraction is described for the analysis sertraline, fluoxetine and fluvoxamine from plasma samples. A survey of most recent multiresidue analytical methods developed for the determination of different kinds of Antidepressant drugs in different types of biological test matrices with their specific cleanup procedures including the choice of mobile phase, stationary phase, detector system and validation data is summarized in the tabular form below.


Analytical Method



Extraction method


Mobile phase

Detector system

Limit of detection/quantification (ng/L)/ analytical range




Fluoxetine and norfluoxetine

Automated SPE

XTerra MS C18

Formic acid in methanol and water

Triple stage, ESI, positive mode, SRM

Fluoxetine and norfluoxetine, m/z 310.3 and 296.2 resp.Linearity,0.5-50ng/mL for both the analyte.




Fluoxetine and norfluoxetine

On-line extraction using column switching

Oasis HLB and Discovery HS C18

Formic acid in acetonitrile and water

ESI, positive mode, SIM

LOQ,25ng/ml for both .




citalopram and it’s metabolites

liquid/liquid extraction

narrow bore C18


Tandem mass spectrometre

LOQ 25 pg/mg




Venlafaxine,desmethylvenlafaxine, N,O-didesmethylvenlafaxine

liquid-liquid extraction


water (ammonium acetate: 30mmol/l, formic acid 2.6mmol/l, trifluoroacetic acid 0.13mmol/l) and acetonitrile (60:40, V/V)


LOD were 0.4, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.2ng/ml for VEN, ODV, NDV and DDV resp.




Venlafaxine ,O-di desmethylvenlafaxine

solid-phase extraction with C1 cartridges

reversed-phase column -C8

75% aqueous phosphate buffer containing triethylamine and 25% acetonitrile

Fluorescence detector

LOQ 1.0ngmL−1 and LOD 0.3ngmL−1



oral fluid

amitryptiline, paroxetine and sertraline

solid-phase extraction with Bond elute column {Acid compounds were eluted with acetone while basic and neutral compounds with dichloromethane:isopropanol:ammonium (80:20:2, v/v/v)}

methylsilicone capillary column

Carrier gas He, Flow rate 0.8ml/min

selected-ion-monitoring (SIM) mode.

Between0.9 and 44.2ng/ml (LOQ)




citalopram and it’s metabolites

SPE (Waters

Oasis HLB cartridges)

reversed-phase column -C18

40% acetonitrile: 60% aqueous tetramethylammonium perchlorate

Fluorescence detection at 300 nm, exciting at 238 nm

(LOQ) 1.5 ng mL−1 citalopram and desmethylcitalopram , 2.0 ng mL−1 for didesmethylcitalopram




fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline, fluoxetine, citalopram, mirtazapine, milnacipram, venlafaxine, desmethylcitalopram, didesmethylcitalopram, norfluoxetine, O-desmethyl venlafaxine, desmethylmirtazapine

liquid-liquid extraction

Symmetry C8

acetonitrile-phosphate buffer 10 mM

UV (230 nm and 290 nm)

LOD, 25 to 500 ng/mL (100-2000 ng/mL for venlafaxine and its metabolite),
LOQ, 25 ng/mL (100 ng/mL for venlafaxine and its metabolite)




fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, fluvoxamine, Citalopram, norfluoxetine, desmethylcitalopram, didesmethylcitalopram, desmethylvenlafaxine, and desmethylmirtazapine

liquid-liquid extraction.

XTerra RP18 column

Acetonitrile and ammonium formate buffer (4 mmol/L)

Tandem mass spectrometre

LOD, 5-500 ng/mL (20-2000 ng/mL for venlafaxine and desmethylvenlafaxine) and
LOQ, 5 ng/mL (venlafaxine and desmethylvenlafaxine: 20 ng/mL)




fluvoxamine, milnacipran, paroxetine, sertraline, fluoxetine, citalopram, venlafaxine, desmethylcitalopram, didesmethylcitalopram and norfluoxetine

liquid-liquid extraction.

Beckman C18 reversed-phase column

(50%, v/v) acetonitrile in a sodium phosphate buffer (0.05 M with pH 3.8)

UV (200.4 nm)

15 ng/ml -fluoxetine, 25 ng/ml-venlafaxine, norfluoxetine, citalopram and its metabolites, 40 ng/ml- sertraline, 50 ng/ml-fluvoxamine


Capillary Liquid chromatography


citalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine and their metabolites

reversed-phase C8 SPE

Kromasil, C18

acetonitrile-45 mM ammonium formate (25:75, v/v).


LOQ between 0.05 to 0.26 μM




fluoxetine and norfluoxetine

Sample treated with acetonitrile and isolated supernatants were directly injected

Discovery C18

0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile (40: 60)

ESI- Tandem Mass spectrometre, (m/z 310 → m/z 44.3 for fluoxetine, m/z 296 → m/z 134 for norfluoxetine)

LOD, fluoxetine, 0.02 ng/mL and 0.03 ng/mL, norfluoxetine





liquid- liquid extraction.

cyano column

63:37 (v/v) methanol-sodium phosphate buffer (0.05M) containing 2mLL−1 triethylamine

Fluorescence detector

LOQ up to 2ngmL−




Sertraline, N-desmethyl sertraline

liquid-liquid extraction

Betasil C8 column

750 mL methanol + 250 mL deionized water + 2.5 mL, 1.0 M ammonium trifluoroacetate.

tandem mass spectrometry

SER, NDS were were m/z 306.2→159.0, 292.1→159.0, resp.




venlafaxine (VEN) and O-desmethyl venlafaxine (ODV)


Betasil C18 column


tandem mass spectrometry

m/z 278.27→121.11 for VEN, m/z 264.28→107.10 for ODV



Pharmaceutical formulations.

Olanzapine, fluoxetine.


Inertsil C18 reversed phase column

40:30:30 (v/v/v) mixture of 9.5mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate, acetonitrile & methanol


LOQ, 0.005 & 0.001μgmL−1 for olanzapine and fluoxetine resp.




Citalopram, fluvoxamine and paroxetine

On-line SPE with column switching.(Oasis/HLB)

Oasis HLB and Symmetry C18

Formic acid in water and acetonitrile

Triple stage, APCI, positive mode, SRM

LLOQ, 20 microg/ L for citalopram & fluvoxamine and 10 microg/L/ for paroxetine. LOD, 5 microg/ L for all






Hypersil BDS C8

Aqueous ammonium formate and acetonitrile

ESI, positive mode, SIM

Analytical range, Citalopram 0.50-250ng/mL




Fluoxetine and norfluoxetine


Lichrospher 100 RP-8 E

Aqueous ammonium formate and acetonitrile

ESI, positive mode, SIM

Analytical range, Fluoxetine 2.5-250ng/mL, norfluoxetine 10-250ng/mL






Beta Basic C-8

Aqueous ammonium formate and acetonitrile

Triple stage, ESI, positive mode, SRM

Analytical range, Sertraline 0.5-60.0ng/mL





Stir bar sorptive extraction

Luna C18

Aqueous ammonium acetate and methanol

ESI, positive mode, SIM

Analytical range, Fluoxetine 10-500ng/mL




Fluoxetine, citalopram, paroxetine and venlafaxine



Aqueous ammonium acetate and acetonitrile

ESI, positive mode, SIM

Analytical range, Fluoxetine, citalopram, paroxetine, venlafaxine 5.0-1,000.0ng/mL





liquid-liquid extraction

Hypersil BDS C8 microbore column

10mM ammonium formate- formic acid and acetonitrile (30:70 v/v)

Positive electrospray ionization with selected ion monitoring mode.

m/z- 325 citalopram, m/z- 281 imipramine, LOQ- 0.50 ng/ml.




Fluoxetine, citalopram, paroxetine and venlafaxine


Macherey- NA Gel C18 column

Water (formic acid 0.6%, ammonium acetate 30mmol/l) and acetonitrile, 35:65 (v/v)

Electron spray ionization

LOD, Fluoxetine 0.5, citalopram 0.3, paroxetine 0.3 and venlafaxine 0.1 ng/ml




Fluoxetine and Norfluoxetine

liquid-liquid extraction

Reverse phase C18 column

Phosphate buffer and acetonitrile

Fluorescence detector

LOD, 3mg/l




20 antidepressants: amoxapine, amitriptyline, citalopram, clomipramine, dothiepin, doxepin, fluoxetine, imipramine, maprotiline, mianserin, paroxetine, sertraline, trimipramine, nortriptyline, monodesmethylcitalopram, desmethylclomipramine, desipramine, norfluoxetine, desmethylmianserin,N-des methylsertraline

On-line extraction using column switching

Cyclone and Xterra MS C18

Ammonium acetate in water, formic acid in acetonitrile and water

Triple stage, ESI, positive mode, SRM

Analytical range for all compounds, 10-500ng/mL



Oral Fluid and Plasma

amitriptyline, imipramine, clomipramine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, fluvoxamine, citalopram and venlafaxine and their metabolites nortriptyline, desipramine, norclomipramine and norfluoxetine.

Automated SPE

Sunfire C18 IS Column

Acetonitrile and ammonium formate buffer (pH 3.0; 2 mM)

tandem mass spectrometer (ESI+ mode) with triple quadrupole

LLOQ -2 ng/ L (except clomipramine LmsZLOQ -10 ng/ L) for both oral fluid and plasma



Urine and Plasma

amitriptyline, imipramine and sertraline

hollow fiber-based (polypropylene) liquid phase microextraction

Zorbax Extend C18 column

0.02 M acetic acid solution and methanol (54:46) (pH 4.0)


LOD found between 0.5 and 0.7 μg L−1




fluoxamine, fluoxetine, sertraline, venlafaxine, mitrazapine, citalopram



He- carrier gas (floe rate- 1.2 ml/min)

MS with Electron Impact Ionisation

Less than 0.4ng/ml-1

Salgado petinal

Abbreviations: APCI atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation, ESI eletrospray ionisation, LLE liquid-liquid extraction, LOD limitation of detection, LOQ limit of quantification, SIM single ion monitoring, SPE solid-phase extraction, SRM selected reaction monitoring , ESI electron spray ionization, UV ultraviolet, FD fluorescence detector, LC_TMS liquid chromatography tandom mass spectrometry, LC_MS, GC_MS gas chromatography mass spectrometry, RP-HPLC reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography.

Thus, this table is framed for the comparative study of the major analytical approaches used in the detection and identification of Antidepressant Drugs and their metabolites in different biological matrices in order to develop the new methods with the aim to increase the sample throughput and to improve the quality of analytical methods. Analytical methods for the detection of ADs and their metabolites in biological matrices are of interest in the field of forensic toxicology which involves the analysis of drugs and poisons in biological specimens and interpretation of the results to be applied in a court of law. Several analytical methods have been developed for analysis of these antidepressants in biological matrices. These methods provide a good precision and accuracy over the entire analytical range and allowing the development of very rapid and efficient analytical methods by using newer kind of analytical techniques.


As the subject of Antidepressants toxicity is evolving, newer methods for their analysis are also evolving. However, some classes of Antidepressants drugs are less toxic and well tolerated but can lead to toxic or fatal drug interactions and these also encountered in many Clinical and Forensic cases. The research in this field is very active and results in a large number of papers published every year. Therefore, this review is mainly aimed to target latest analytical and instrumental methods used in the detection and characterization of various Antidepressant drugs and their metabolites in biological test matrices in turn focused on their toxic as well as therapeutic aspects which would be definitely prove to be helpful in future research and still there is lots of work required in this area as it’s prescription rate and toxicity is evolving day by day all over the world. Non-destructive and sophisticated instrumental techniques can also build a new strategy of examination and investigation for the drugs of interest. Future trials should also consider, using different kinds of detecting techniques and methods which would allow for easier comparison and interpretation of results across studies as the subject is of global concern. Despite the success of all validate methods there is a continuing need for sustained innovations in bioanalytical studies releated to forensic cases which needs fast, sensitive and non-destructive methods of analysis. Thus, future work in this area will definitely prove to be a promising from forensic prospect.


This study is carried out at the Department of Research and Development, Gujarat Forensic Sciences University, Gandhinagar, India.

I am indebted to Professor Y. K Agrawal, Director, Department of Research and Development, Gujarat Forensic Sciences University, for giving support, encouragement and moreover the valuable guidance during preparation of this article.


Sarah M.R. Wille, Development of a solid phase extraction for 13 ‘new’ generation antidepressants and their active metabolites for gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis, J. Chromatography A, 1098 (1-2) (2005) 19-29.

Musselman DL, Evans DL, Nemeroff CB, The Relationship of Depression to Cardiovascular Disease, J. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 55 (1998) 580-592.

Luz Romero, Ana Montero, Begoña Fernández and Jose M. Vela, Depressive Disorders: Introductory and Basic Aspects, in: H. Bushmann, J.L. Diaz, J. Holenz, A. Parraga, A. Torrens, J.M. Vela, Antidepressants, Antipsychotics, Anxiolytics- From Chemistry and Pharmacology to Clinical Application, vol-1, 2007,Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Company, 3-35.

Rosario Perez-Egea, Victor Pérez, Dolors Puigdemont and Enric Alvarez, Depressive Disorders: Clinics, in : H. Bushmann, J.L. Diaz, J. Holenz, A. Parraga, A. Torrens, J.M. Vela, Antidepressants, Antipsychotics, Anxiolytics- From Chemistry and Pharmacology to Clinical Application, vol-1, 2007,Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Company, 51- 104

Goodman and Gilman’s, The Pharmacological basis of Therepeutics., Goodman L.S, Hardman G.J, Limbird L.E, Gilman A.G (editors), 10th edition, McGraw-Hill, New York , 2001.

Leslie Iversen and Richard A. Glennon, Antidepressants, in: Donald J Abraham (6 th ed.), Burger: Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Discovery of Nervous System Agents, John Wiley and Sons, 2003, 484.

D. Murdoch and D. McTavish, Sertraline: A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic potential in depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder. J. Drugs, 44 (4) (1992) 604-624.

R. Kuhn, The Treatment of Depressive States with G 22355 (Imipramine Hydrochloride), J. American Psychiatry, 115 (5) (1958) 459-464.

D. Healy, The three faces of the antidepressants: A critical commentary on the clinical-economic context of diagnosis, J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 187 (3) (1999) 174-80.

Timothy Niacaris and Leon Avery, Serotonin regulates repolarization of the C. elegans pharyngeal muscle, J. Experimental Biology, 206 (2003) 223-231.

Michael J. Owens, W. Neal Morgan, Susan J. Plott and Charles B. Nemeroff, Neurotransmitter Receptor and Transporter Binding Profile of Antidepressants and Their Metabolites , 283 (3) (1997) 1305-1322.

William Z. Potter and Leo E. Hollister, Antidepressant Agents, in: Bertram G. Katzung (10 th ed.), Lange: Basic and Clinical Pharmacology- Antidepressant Agent, McGraw-Hill company, New York, 2007, 475.

Bhavin N. Patel, et al., Analysis of second-generation antidepressant drug, sertraline and its active metabolite, N-desmethyl sertraline in human plasma by a sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method, J. Pharmaceutical and Biomedical analysis,44 (2007)594-601.

Bhavin N. Patel, Naveen Sharma, Mallika Sanyal, Pranav S. Shrivastav, analysis of second generation antidepressant drug, sertraline and its active metabolite, N-desmethyl sertraline in human plasma by a sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method, J. Chromatography B, 877 (3) (2009) 221-229.

Barry Levin, Therapeutic Drugs 1: Anticonvulsant and Anti-Arrhythymic drugs, in: Barry Levin (2nd ed.), Principles of Forensic Toxicology, American Association for Clinical Chemistry, 2003, 298-313.

Pacher P, Kohegyi E, Kecskemeti V,Furst S, Current trends in the development of new antidepressants, J. Curr. Med. Chem. 8 (2001) 89-100.

Richard C. Shelton, Classification of antidepressants and their clinical Implications, J. Clinical Psychiatry, 5 (7) (2003) 27-32.

L. Labat, Separation of new antidepressants and their metabolites by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, J. Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, 773 (1) (2002),17-23.

Weller et al., Report of the commitee on Safety of Medicines Expert Working Group on the Safety of SSRIs antidepressants. Medicines and healthcare products regulatory agency; London 2004.

D.R.A. Uges and J.M.H. Conemans, Antidepressants and antipsychotics,in: M.J. Bogusz (2nd ed.), Handbook of Analytical Separations, Elsevier Science, 2000, 229-257.

H. P Rang, M. M Dale, J. M Ritter, R. J Flower, RANG & DALES’s Pharmacology, 6th ed, Elsvier, Churchill Livingstone, 2007, 560- 568.

Sara Markowitz and Alison Cuellar, Antidepressants and Youth: Healing or Harmful? J. Soc. Sci. Med. 64(10) (2007), 2138-2151.

Laurence Y. Katz, Anita L. Kozyrskyj, Heather J. Prior, Murray W. Enns, Brian J. Cox and Jitender Sareen, Effect of regulatory warnings on antidepressant prescription rates, use of health services and outcomes among children, adolescents and young adults, Journal of Canadian Medical Association ,178 (8) (2008), 1005-1011.

Jon N Jureidini, Christopher J Doecke,Peter R Mansfield, Michelle M Haby, David B Menkes, Anne L Tonkin, Efficacy and safety of antidepressants for children and adolescents, J. Biomedical, 328 (2004) 879-883.

/ 13. ‘Principles of Forensic Toxicology,’ Barry Levin, Therepeutic Drug 2: Antidepressants: 298-313.

Kawachi I, Physical and psychological consequences of weight gain. J Clin Psychiatry, 60(21) (1999) 5-9.

Masand PS: Weight gain associated with psychotropic drugs. J. Exp. Opin. Pharmacother. 1 (2000) 377-389.

SarahM.R.Wille, et al., Determination of antidepressants in human postmortem blood, brain tissue, and hair using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, J. 123(6) (2009), 451-458.

Rosen RC, Lane RM, Menza M. J Clin Psychopharmacol.19 (1) (1999), 67-85.

28. Montejo-Gonz alez AL Llorca G, Izquierdo JA, Ledesma A, Bousono M, Calcedo A, Carrasco JL, Ciudad J, Daniel E, De La Gandara J, Derecho J, Franco M, Gomez MJ, Macias JA, Martin T, Perez V, Sanchez JM, Vicens .E, SSRI induced sexual dysfunction: Fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, and fluvoxamine in a prospective, multicenter, and descriptive, clinical study of 344 patients. J. of Sex Marital Therapeutic, 23 (1997) 176- 194.

Pacher P, Ungvari Z, Kecskemeti V, Furst S. Review of cardiovascular effects of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, compared to tricyclic antidepressants, J. Curr Med Chem,5(5) (1998),381-390.

Rodriguez de la Torre B, Dreher J, Malevany I, Bagli M, Kolbinger M, Omran H, Luderitz B, Rao ML. Ther Drug Monit. 23(4) (2001) 435-440.

WHO Drug Information Safety and Efficacy Issues, Maternal use of SSRIs and neonatal effects, 17 (4) (2003)

Couper FJ, Pemberton M, Jarvis A, Hughes M, Logan BK, Prevalence of drug use in commercial tractor-trailor drivers, J. Forensic Sci. 47(3) (2002) 562-567.

Jones AW. Driving under the influence of drugs in Sweden with zero concentration limits in blood for controlled substances. J.Traffic Inj. Peev. 6 (4) (2005) 317-22.

Choo RE and Huestis MA, Oral fluid as a dignostic tool, J. Clin. Chem. Lab Med. 42 (2004) 1273-87.

Samyn N, de Boeck G, Cirimele V, Verstraete A, Kintz P, J. Anal. Toxicol. 26 (2002), 211-215.

Jones GR. Interpretation of postmortem drug levels, in; drug abuse handbook, Karch SB, editor Boca Raton, FL; CRC press, 1998, 970-985.

Skopp G , Preanalytic aspects in postmoterm toxicology, Forensic Science Int. 142 (2-3) (2004) 75-100.

Cook DS, Braithwaithe RA, Hale KA, Estimation antemortem drug concentrations from post mortem blood samples: The influence of postmortem redistribution, J. Clin. Pathology, 53 (4) (2000) 282-285.

Mandrioli R, Maria Addolorata Saracino, Silvia Ferrari, Domenico Berardi, Ernst Kenndler, Maria Augusta Raggi, HPLC analysis of the second-generation antidepressant sertraline and its main metabolite N-desmethylsertraline in human plasma, J. Chromatography B. Analytical Technology Biomed. Life Sciences, 836(1-2) (2006) 116-9.

Jignasha Patel, E. P. Spencer, R. J. Flanagan, HPLC of Sertraline and Norsertraline in plasma or serum, Biomedical Journal of Chromatography 10 (6) (1998) 351-354.

M.A Martínez , de la Torre CS, Almarza E., Simultaneous Determination of Viloxazine, Venlafaxine, Imipramine, Desipramine, Sertraline, and Amoxapine in Whole Blood: Comparison of Two Extraction/Cleanup Procedures for Capillary Gas Chromatography with Nitrogen-Phosphorus Detection, J. Analytical Toxicology, 26 (2002) 296-302.

L. Kristoffersen, A. Bugge, E. Lundanes, L. Slordal, Simultaneous determination of citalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine and their metabolites in plasma and whole blood by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and fluorescence detection, J. chromatography B,734 (1999)229-246.

Susan king Strasinger and Marjorie Schjub De Lorenzo, Urine analysis and body fluids, 5 th ed. F.A Davis company, Philadelphia, 2008, 30.

Poklis A. Analytical and Forensic Toxicology, in: Klaassen CD, Amdure MO, Doulls J, Casarett and Doull’s toxicology (5th ed.) Mc Graw Hill, New York, 1996, 951-67.

Skopp G, Preanalytic aspects in postmoterm toxicology, J. Forensic Science Int. 142 (2-3) (2004) 75-100.

N. Unceta, et al., Simultaneous determination of citalopram, fluoxetine and their main metabolites in human urine samples by solid-phase microextraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 46(4) (2008) 763-70.

L. Labat,M. Deveaux, P. Dallet, J. P. Dubost., Separation of new antidepressants and their metabolites by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, 773 (1) (2002) 17-23.

V. Pucci, M. Raggi and E. Kenndler, Separation of eleven central nervous system drugs by capillary zone electrophoresis, J. Chromatogr. B vol. 728 (1999) 263-271.


Flarakos J, Luo W, Aman M, Svinarov D, Gerber N, Vouros P, Quantification of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone in plasma and saliva from adult and pediatric patients by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry J Chromatogr A 1026 (2004):175-183.


Dumortier G, Lochu A, Zerrouk A, Van NV, Colen DM, Roche RD, Degrassat K, Whole saliva and plasma levels of clozapine and desmethylclozapine, J. Clin. Pharm. Ther. 23 (1) (1998) 35-40.

Pichini S, Altieri I, Zuccaro P, Pacifici R, Drug monitoring in nonconventional biological fluids and matrices, J.Clin. Pharmacokinet. 30 (3) (1996) 211-228.

Kintz P, Samyn N, Use of Alternative Specimens: Drugs of Abuse in Saliva and Doping Agents in Hair, J. Ther. Drug Monit. 24 (2) (2002) 239-246.


Samyn N, de Boeck G, Verstraete AG, The use of oral fluid and sweat wipes for the detection of drugs of abuse in drivers. J. Forensic Sci. 47 (6) (2002)1380-1387.

Mitona Pujadas, Simona Pichini b, Ester Civit a,1, Elena Santamari˜na c,1, Katherine Perez c,1, Rafael de la Torre, A simple and reliable procedure for the determination of psychoactive drugs in oral fluid by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, J. Pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis, 44 (2007), 594-601.

Flarakos J, Luo W, Aman M, Svinarov D, Gerber N, Vouros P (2004) J Chromatogr A 1026:175-183.

Wood M, de Boeck G, Samyn N, Morris M, Cooper DP, Maes RA, De Bruijn EA, Development of a rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of amphetamines in human plasma and oral fluid by LC-MS-MS, J Anal Toxicol 27 (2) (2003), 78-87.

Rosas ME, Preston KL, Epstein DH, Moolchan ET, Wainer IW, Quantitative determination of the enantiomers of methadone and its metabolite (EDDP) in human saliva by enantioselective liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection, J. Chromatogr. B 796 (2) (2003) 355-370.

Fritz Pragst and Marie A. Balikova, State of the art in hair analysis for detection of drug and alcohol abuse, J. Clinica. Chimica. Acta, 370 (1-2) (2006) 17-49.


Musshoff F, Madea B, Analytical pitfalls in hair testing, J. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 388 (2007) 1475-1494

Kintz P, Tracqui A, Mangin P, Detection of drugs in human hair for clinical and forensic application, Int. J. Legal Med. 105 (1992) 1-4.


Ferrara SD, Quantification of Citalopram or Escitalopram and Their Demethylated Metabolites in Neonatal Hair Samples by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry, J. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, 30(4) (2008), 467-73.

U.G. Sidelmann, U. Braumann, M. Hofmann, M. Spraul, J.C. Lindon, J.K. Nicholson and S.H. Hansen, Directly Coupled 800 MHz HPLC−NMR Spectroscopy of Urine and Its Application to the Identification of the Major Phase II Metabolites of Tolfenamic Acid,

Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 69 (4) (1997) 607-612.

Maurer HH, Tenberken O, Kratzsch C, Weber AA, Peters FT, Screening for library-assisted identification and fully validated quantification of 22 beta-blockers in blood plasma by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, J. Chromatogr. A, 26 (2004) 169-181.

Leikin JZB, Watson WA, Postmoterm Toxicology; what the dead can and cannot tell us, J.Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol. 41 (1) (2003) 47-56.

Leikin JZB, Watson WA, Postmoterm Toxicology; what the dead can and cannot tell us. J.Toxicol Clin Toxicol 41 (1) (2003) 47-56.

Cook DS, Braithwaithe RA, Hale KA, Estimation antemortem drug concentrations from post mortem blood samples: The influence of postmortem redistribution, J. Clin. Pathology 53 (4) (2000) 282-285.

OH Drimmer, Gerostamonios J, Postmortem drug analysis: Analytical and Toxicological aspects, J. The. Drug Monit. 24(2) (2002) 199- 209.

Kintz P, Value of hair analysis in postmoterm toxicology, J. Forensic Sci.Int 142 (2-3) (2004) 127-24.

Robert D. Johnson, et al., The Distribution of Fluoxetine in Human Fluids and Tissues, J. Analytical Toxicology, 31 (7) (2007) 409-414.

Ilett KF, Judith H Kristensen,2 L Peter Hackett,3 Michael Paech,4 Rolland Kohan,5 and Jonathan Rampono Distribution of venlafaxine and its O-desmethyl metabolite in human milk and their effects in breastfed infants” British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 53(1) (2002), 17-22.

TeresaGray and MarilynHuestis, Bioanalytical procedures for monitoring in utero drug exposure, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. August. 388(7) (2007) 1455-1465.

Mortier KA, De Leenheer AP, Determination of paramethoxyamphetamine and other amphetamine-related designer drugs by liquid chromatography/sonic spray ionization mass spectrometry, J. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 16 (9) (2002), 865-870.

Nicholas H. Snow, Solid-phase micro-extraction of drugs from biological matrices, J. Chromatography A, 885 (1-2) (2000) 445-455.

Fernandes C, Jiayu P, Sandra P, Lanças FM, Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction-LC-MS for the Analysis of Fluoxetine in Plasma, Chromatographia 64 (9-10) (2006), 517-521.

Constantinos Pistos, Irene Panderi and Julia Atta-Politou, Liquid chromatography-positive ion electrospray mass spectrometry method for the quantification of citalopram in human plasma, J. Chromatography B, 810 (2) (2004) 235-244.

RF Suckow, MF Zhang and TB Cooper, “Sensitive and selective liquid-chromatographic assay of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine in plasma with fluorescence detection after precolumn derivatization,” Journal of Clinical Chemistry, l 38 (1992) 1756-1761.

Ming Yao, Vinod R. Shah, Wen Chyi Shyu and Nuggehally R. Srinivas, Sensitive liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric assay for the simultaneous quantitation of nefazodone and its metabolites hydroxynefazodone m-chlorophenylpiperazine and triazole-dione in human plasma using single-ion monitoring, J. Chromatography: Biomedical Applications, 718 (1) (1998) 77-85.

Macek J, Ptacek P, Klima J, Rapid determination of citalopram in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography , J. Chromatography B, 755 (1-2) (2001) 279-285.

Bakkali, E. Corta, J. I. Ciria, L. A. Berrueta, B. Gallo, F. Vicente, Solid-phase extraction with liquid chromatography and ultraviolet detection for the assay of antidepressant drugs in human plasma, J. Talanta, 49 (4) (1999) 773-783.

He Juan, Zhou Zhiling and Li Huande, Simultaneous determination of fluoxetine, citalopram, paroxetine, venlafaxine in plasma by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, J. Chromatography B, 820 (1) (2005) 33-39.

Green R, Houghton R, Scarth J, Gregory C, Determination of Fluoxetine and its Major Active Metabolite Norfluoxetine in Human Plasma by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry, J. Chromatographia, 55 (2002)133-S136.

MartaCruz-Vera, RafaelLucena1, SoledadCárdenas1 and MiguelValcárcel, Combined use of carbon nanotubes and ionic liquid to improve the determination of antidepressants in urine samples by liquid chromatography, J. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 391(4) (2008) 1139-1145.

Andrea Rodrigues Chaves, Glaico Chiericato Júniora and Maria Eugênia Costa Queiroz, Solid-phase microextraction using poly(pyrrole) film and liquid chromatography with UV detection for analysis of antidepressants in plasma samples, J. Chromatography B, 877 (7) (2009) 587-593.

S. Ulrich and J. Martens, Solid-phase microextraction with capillary gas-liquid chromatography and nitrogen-phosphorus selective detection for the assay of antidepressant drugs in human plasma, J. Chromatogr. B, 696 (2) (1997) 217-234.

Ali Esrafili, Yadollah Yamini, Shahab Shariati, Hollow fiber-based liquid phase microextraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography for extraction and determination of some antidepressant drugs in biological fluids, J. Analytica Chimica Acta, 604 (2) (2007) 127-113.

F. Sporkert and F. Pragst, Use of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) in hair analysis for organic compounds , J. Forensic Science International, 107 (1-3) (2000) 129-148.

87. X.P. Lee, T. Kumazawa, K. Sato and O. Suzuki.Detection of tricyclic antidepressants in whole blood by headspace solid-phase microextraction and capillary gas chromatography, J. Chromatogr. Sci. 35 (7) (1997) 302-308.

A. Namera, M. Yasjiki and T. Kojima. In: J. Pawliszyn, Editor, Applications of Solid Phase Microextraction, Royal Society of Chemistry, London, 1999, 510.

J. Tytgat and P. Daenens, Solvent-free sample preparation by headspace solid-phase microextraction applied to the tracing of n-butyl nitrite abuse, Int. J. Legal Med. 109 (1996) 150-154.

. J. R. Veraart and U. A. Th. Brinkman, Dialysis-solid-phase extraction combined on-line with non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis for improved detectability of tricyclic antidepressants in biological samples, J.Chromatography A, 922, (1-2) (2001) 339-346.

J.R. Veraart, J. van Hekezen, M.C.E. Groot, C. Gooijer, H. Lingeman, N.H. Velthorst and U.A.Th. Brinkman Electrophoresis 19 (1998) 2944.

J.R. Veraart, M.C.E. Groot, C. Gooijer, H. Lingeman, N.H. Velthorst and U.A.Th. Brinkman, On-line dialysis-SPE-CE of acidic drugs in biological samples, J. Analyst, 124 (1999)115.

Andrea Rodrigues Chaves, Silvana Maciel Silva, Regina Helena Costa Queiroz, Fernando Mauro Lancas, Maria Eugenia Costa Queiroz,Stir bar sorptive extraction and liquid chromatography with UV detection for determination of antidepressants in plasma samples, J. Chromatography B, 850, (1-2) (2007) 295-302.

L.P. Melo, A.M. Nogueira, F.M. Lanças, M.E.C. Queiroz, Polydimethylsiloxane/polypyrrole stir bar sorptive extraction and liquid chromatography (SBSE/LC-UV) analysis of antidepressants in plasma samples, J. Analytica Chimica Acta, 633 (1) (2009) 57-64.

HailinZhu, JinwenLuo, GuogangZheng and JianzhongShenTuet, Sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for assay of fluoxetine and its metabolite norfluoxetine in human plasma and application of method to pharmacokinetic analysis, 64 (9) (2009) 941-950.

Wayne M. Mullett, Determination of drugs in biological fluids by direct injection of samples for liquid-chromatographic analysis, J. Biochemical and Biophysical Methods, 70 (2) (2007) 263-273.

Lexi-Comp (September 2008). " Retrieved on November 29, 2008.

haffer D, Craft L. Methods of adolescent suicide prevention, J. Clin. Psychiatry, 60(2) (1999) 70-4.

Peterson T. et al., A survey of prescribing practices in the treatment of depression.” Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, (Elsevier) 26(1) (2002): 177-87.

. Nice, “Depression: Management of Depression in Primary and Secondary care National Institute for Clinical Excellence; London, 2004.

(101. P Mc. Manus et al., Recent Trends in the use of Antidepressant Drugs in Australia, 1990-1998, 2000, Med. J. Aus 173 (9): 458-61.)

Wayne D Hall, Andrea Mant, Philip B Mitchell, Valerie A Rendle, Ian B Hickie, Peter McManus, Association between antidepressant prescribing and suicide in Australia, 1991-2000: trend analysis, J. Biomedical 326 (2003) 1008-11.

Michael Bauer, Prescribing patterns of antidepressants in Europe: Results from the Factors Influencing Depression Endpoints Research (FINDER) stud J. European Psychiatry, 23(1) (2008) 66-7.

Isacsson G. Suicide prevention : A medical breakthrough? J. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 102 (2000) 113-117.

I.M. Anderson, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors versus tricyclic antidepressants: a meta-analysis of efficacy and tolerability, J. Affect. Disord. 58 (2000) 19-36.

Kobayashi K, Ishizuka T, Shimada N, Yoshimura Y, Kamijima K, Chiba K, Sertraline N-demethylation is catalyzed by multiple isoforms of human cytochrome P-450 in vitro, J. Drug Metab. Dispos. 27 (7) (1999) 763-766.

Obach RS, Cox LM, Tremaine LM, Sertraline is metabolized by multiple cytochrome P450 enzymes, monoamine oxidases, and glucuronyl transferases in human: an in vitro study, J. Drug Metab. Dispos. 33 (2) (2005) 262-70.

D.R.A. Uges and J.M.H. Conemans, Handbook of Analytical Separations, Elsevier Science (2000) p. 229.

Shuguang Ma, Recent advances in applications of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to the analysis of reactive drug metabolites, J. Chemico-Biological Interactions, 179 (1) (2009) 25-37.

Hostetter A, Ritchie JC, Stowe ZN, Amniotic fluid and umbilical cord blood concentrations of antidepressants in three women, J. Biol. Psychiatry, 48 (10) (2000) 1032-1034.

Hendrick V, Stowe ZN, Altshuler LL, Hwang S, Lee E, Haynes D. Placental passage of antidepressant medications, The American Journal of Psychiatry, 160 (5) (2003) 993-996.

GholamrezaBahrami, MohammadiBahareh, Farshchi Amir, GhiasiGolbarg, Quantitative Analysis of Sertraline in Human Serum by LC with Fluorescence Detection After Pre-Column Derivatization with 4-Chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan, J. 70 (1-2) (2009) 323-327.

Lucca A et al., J. Therepeutic Drug Monitoring, 22 (2002), 271-276. (not getting)

Alessandro Musenga , Ernst Kenndler , Laura Mercolini , Mario Amore , Salvatore Fanali , Maria Augusta Raggi, Determination of sertraline and N-desmethylsertraline in human plasma by CE with LIF detection, J. Electrophoresis, 28 (2007) 1823-1831.

" Retrieved 2007-04-14.

" Retrieved 2007-04-14.

Manuela T. Maya, Constantino R. Domingos, M. Teresa Guerreiro, Jose A. Morais, Determination of the antidepressant fluoxetine in human plasma by LC with UV detection, J. Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 23 (6) (2000) 989-996.

CarmenSalgado-Petinal, et al., Rapid screening of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors in urine samples using solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, J. 382 (6) (2005) 1351-1359.

Handbook of Analytical seperations, vol-4, 2003, Publisher Elsevier, Edited by Ian D. Wilson.

Kaoru Kobayashi, Yukio Kuroiwa Identification of cyto P450 Isoforms involved in citalopram N- demethylation by human liver microsomes, J. Pharmacology and Experimental Therepeutics, 280 (2) (1997) 927-933.

Clayton A, Keller A, McGarvey EL. Burden of phase-specific sexual dysfunction with SSRIs". Journal of affective disorders, 91 (1) (2006) 27-32.

Lacassie E, Gautier JM, Marquet P, Rabatel JF, Lachatre G, J. Chromatography B, 742 (2000) 229.

C. J. Chromatogr. B, 794(1) (2003) 35-47.

Holliday SM, and Benfield P, Venlafaxine- A review of it’s pharmacology and therapeutic potential in depression, Drugs, 49 (2) (1995) 280-294.

M. A. Raggi, V. Pucci, R. Mandrioli, C. Sabbioni, S. Fanali, Determination of Recent Antidepressant Citalopram in Human Plasma by Liquid Chromatography – Fluorescence Detection, J. Chromatographia, 57 (5/6) (2003) 273.

Otton S. V, Ball S. E, Cheung S. W, Inaba T, Rudolph R. L, Sellers E. M. Venlafaxine oxidation in vitro is catalysed by CYP2D6, Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 41 (1996) 149-156.

Fogelman S. M, Schmider, J, Venkatakrishnan K, von Moltke L. L, Harmatz J. S, Shader R. I, Greenblatt D, O- and N-demethylation of venlafaxine invitro by human liver microsomes and by microsomes from c-DNA transfected cells: effect of metabolic inhibitors and SSRI antidepressants, J. Neuropsychopharmacology, 20 (5) (1999) 480−490.

G. Tournel, N. Houdret, V. Hedouin, M. Deveaux, D. Gosset and M. Lhermitte, High-performance liquid chromatographic method to screen and quantitate seven selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in human serum, J. chromatography B , 761 (2001) 147-158.

Wilson Roberto Malfara, Carlo Bertucci, Maria Eugênia Costa Queiroz, Sonia Ap. Dreossi Carvalho, Maria de Lourdes Pires Bianchi, Evandro Jose Cesarino, Jose Alexandre Crippa and Regina Helena Costa Queiroz, Reliable HPLC method for therapeutic drug monitoring of frequently prescribed tricyclic and nontricyclic antidepressants, J. Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 44 (4) (2007) 955-962.

J.F. Nash, R.J. Bopp, R.H. Carmichael, K.Z. Farid and L. Lemberger. Determination of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine in plasma by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection, J. Clin. Chem. 28 (1982) 2100-2102.

V. Dixit, H. Nguyen and V.M. Dixit, Solid-phase extraction of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine from serum with gas chromatography—electron-capture detection, J. Chromatogr. 563 (1991), pp. 379-384.

S. Joron and H. Robert, Simultaneous determination of antidepressant drugs and metabolites by HPLC. Design and validation of a simple and reliable analytical procedure J. Biomed. Chromatogr. 8 (1994) 158-164.

P.I. Orsulak et al.. J. Clin. Chem. 349 (1988) 1875-1878.

P. Thomare, K. Wang, Van der Meersch-Mougeot, B. Diquet, Sensitive micromethod for column liquid chromatographic determination of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine in human plasma, J. Chromatogr. 583 (1991) 217-221.

Wen Liu,Hua-lin Cai, Huan-de Li, High performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/ESI) method for simultaneous determination of venlafaxine and its three metabolites in human plasma, J. Chromatography B, 850 (1-2) (2007) 405-411.

Kollroser M. Schober C, An on-line solid phase extraction – liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of citalopram, fluvoxamine, and paroxetine in human plasma. J. Chromatographia 57 (2003) 133-138.

Willy E. Lambert, Jan F. Van Bocxlaer and AndréP. De Leenheer, Potential of high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection in forensic toxicology, J. Chromatography B- Biomedical Sciences and Applications, 689 (1) (1997) 45-53.

Eva M. Koves, Use of high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection in forensic toxicology, J. Chromatography A, 692 (1-2) (1995) 103-119.

H. Kirchherr and W.N. Kühn-Velten, Quantitative determination of forty-eight antidepressants and antipsychotics in human serum by HPLC tandem mass spectrometry: A multi-level, single-sample approach, J. Chromatography B, 843 (1) (2006) 100-113.

J. Esteve-Romero, S. Carda-Broch, M. Gil-Agusti, M.-E. Capella-Peiro and D. Bose, Micellar liquid chromatography for the determination of drug materials in pharmaceutical preparations and biological samples, J. Trends Anal. Chem. 24 (2005) 75-91.

David Schaller, Emily F. Hilder, Paul R. Haddad,Separation of antidepressants by capillary electrophoresis with in-line solid-phase extraction using a novel monolithic adsorbent, J. Analytica Chimica. Acta, 556 (1) (2006) 104-111.

S.Souverain, M.Mottaz, S.Cherkaoui, J.L.Veuthey, Rapid analysis of fluoxetine and its metabolite in plasma by LC-MS with column-switching approach, J. 377 (2003) 880-885.

Titier Karine, Castaing Nadège, Scotto-Gomez Emmanuelle, Pehourcq Fabienne, Moore Nicholas, Molimard Mathieu, High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method with Diode Array Detection for Identification and Quantification of the Eight New Antidepressants and Five of Their Active Metabolites in Plasma after Overdose, J. Therapeutic drug monitoring, 25 (2003) 581-587.

Nadege Castaing, Titier K, Receveur-Daurel M, Le-Deodic M, Le-bars D, Moore N, Molimard M, Quantification of Eight New Antidepressants and Five of their Active Metabolites in Whole Blood by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometre, J. Anal. Toxicol. 31(6) (2007) 334-41.

Jignesh Bhatt, Arvind Jangid, Gantala Venkatesh, Gunta Subbaiah, Sadhana Singh, Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method for simultaneous determination of venlafaxine and its active metabolite O-desmethyl venlafaxine in human plasma, J. of Chromatography B, 829 (1-2) (2005) 75-81.

B.VenkateswaraReddy, K. V. N. Suresh Reddy, J. Sreeramulu, G. V. Kanumula, Simultaneous Determination of Olanzapine and Fluoxetine by HPLC, J. 66 (1-2) (2007) 111-114.

Pistos C, Panderi I, Atta-Politou J, Liquid chromatography-positive ion electrospray mass spectrometry method for the quantification of citalopram in human plasma, J. Chromatogr B, 810 (2) (2004) 235-244.

Djordjevic S, Kovacevic I, Miljkovic B, Vuksanovic J, Pokrajac M, Liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric method for the determination of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine in human plasma: application to clinical study, J. Farmaco, 60 (2005):345-349.

Jain DS, Sanyal M, Subbaiah G, Pande UC, Shrivastav P, Rapid and sensitive method for the determination of sertraline in human plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), J. Chromatogr. B, 829 (2005) 69-74.

Juan H, Zhiling Z, Huande L, Simultaneous determination of fluoxetine, citalopram, paroxetine, venlafaxine in plasma by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, J Chromatogr B 820 (2005) 33-39.

F.L Sauvage, et al., A Fully Automated Turbulent-Flow Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Technique for Monitoring Antidepressants in Human Serum, J. Therapeutic drug monitoring , 28 (2006)123-130.

A. de Castro, M. Concheiro, O. Quintela, A. Cruz, M. Lopez-Rivadulla, LC-MS/MS method for the determination of nine antidepressants and some of their main metabolites in oral fluid and plasma: Study of correlation between venlafaxine concentrations in both matrices, Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 48 (1) (2008) 183-193.

Vitrous humor, Barry S. Levin and Rebecca A. Jufer, Drugs-of-Abuse testing in Vitreous humor, in: Amanda J. Jenkins, Drug testing in Alternate biological specimens, Humana Press, Totowa (USA), 2008, 117- 128.

T. References

(129) (Thesis- 80)- Lacassie E, Gaulier JM, Marquet P, Rabatel JF, Lachatre G. Methods for the determination of seven selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and three active metabolites in human serum using high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography. J. Chromatogr. B Biomed. Sci. Appl. 2000; 742: 229-238.

(Thesis- 79)- Baumann P. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Clin. Pharmacokinet. 1996; 31: 444-469.

(Thesis- 225)- DeVane CL, Liston HL, Markowitz JS. Clinical pharmacokinetics of sertraline. Clin. Pharmacokinet. 2002; 41: 1247-1266.

(Thesis- 76)- Eap CB, Baumann P. Analytical methods for the quantitative determination of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for therapeutic drug monitoring purposes in patients. J. Chromatogr. B Biomed. Appl. 1996; 686: 51-63.

(Thesis- 103)- Ulrich S. Direct stereoselective assay of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine enantiomers in human plasma or serum by two-dimensional gas-liquid chromatography with nitrogen phosphorus selective detection, J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci. 2003; 783: 481-490.

(Thesis 59)- Bezchlibnyk-Butler K, Aleksic I, Kennedy SH. Citalopram–a review of pharmacological and clinical effects. J. Psychiatry Neurosci. 2000; 25: 241-256.

(Thesis 81)- Eap CB, Bouchoux G, Amey M, Cochard N, Savary L, Baumann P. Simultaneous determination of human plasma levels of citalopram, paroxetine, sertraline, and their metabolites by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. Sci. 1998; 36: 365-37.

(Thesis-263)- Morton WA, Sonne SC, Verga MA. Venlafaxine – a structurally unique and novel antidepressant. Ann. Pharmacother. 1995; 29: 387-395.

(Thesis-85)- Duverneuil C, de la Grandmaison GL, de Mazancourt P, Alvarez JC. A high-performance liquid chromatography method with photodiode-array UV detection for therapeutic drug monitoring of the nontricyclic antidepressant drugs. Ther. Drug Monit. 2003; 25: 565-573.

(127) (Thesis-84)- Tournel G, Houdret N, Hedouin V, Deveaux M, Gosset D, Lhermitte M. High-performance liquid chromatographic method to screen and quantitate seven selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in human serum. J. Chromatogr. B Biomed. Sci. Appl. 2001; 761: 147-158.

(Thesis-275)- Waschgler R, Moll W, Konig P, Conca A. Quantification of venlafaxine and Odesmethylvenlafaxine in human serum using HPLC analysis. Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 2004; 42: 724-728.

(Thesis-276)- Bhatt J, Jangid A, Venkatesh G, Subbaiah G, Singh S. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method for simultaneous determination of venlafaxine and its active metabolite O-desmethyl venlafaxine in human plasma. J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci. 2005; 829: 75-81.

(117) (Thesis-82)- Salgado-Petinal C, Lamas JP, Garcia-Jares C, Llompart M, Cela R. Rapid screening of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors in urine samples using solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 2005; 382: 1351-1359.

(41) (Thesis-270)- Martinez MA, de la Torre CS, Almarza E. Simultaneous determination of viloxazine, venlafaxine, imipramine, desipramine, sertraline,and amoxapine in whole blood: comparison of two extraction/cleanup procedures for capillary gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection. J. Anal. Toxicol. 2003; 27: 8A-8A.

Having doubts about how to write your paper correctly?

Our editors will help you fix any mistakes and get an A+!

Get started
Leave your email and we will send a sample to you.
Thank you!

We will send an essay sample to you in 2 Hours. If you need help faster you can always use our custom writing service.

Get help with my paper
Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website. You can leave an email and we will send it to you.