In the Predynastic and Early Dynastic periods the weapons used were mainly maces (a heavy club typically having a metal head or spikes), daggers, or spears. Other weapons like the bow and arrow, and more. Most of the Egyptian army were infantrymen or Foot-soldiers, there were horse-drawn chariots, but no cavalry.
The Egyptians used these single-arched bows. They were hard to use. It was hard to draw, has a short range, and unreliable accuracy. The soldiers were all from lower level classes, so they hadn’t had much training. After the soldiers used 2 or more of their arrows they would close their opponents with hand weapons like daggers. At this time the Egyptian Navy never had any contact or fought with the others they were only used to transport the soldiers to their destination.
During this time period, the Egyptian soldiers got/made better weapons like they now had copper axes and swords that they carried. The bronze spear, body armor of leather over short kilts became a standard. They now also had a minister or war and a commander or chief in charge of the army. This way everything is more organized then in the Old Kingdom. There were these elite “shock troops” that were used as the vanguard (A group of people leading the way in new developments in ideas). Officers were in charge of an unspecified number of men in a troop.
Finally The horse-drawn chariots are being introduced to the Egyptians. The training that took place was indeed hard. The chariotry was an elite branch of the army/military and only was associated the upper classes. With the training procedure, the driver had to learn how to maneuver his two-horse chariot on an uneven surface at a full gallop while also keeping pace with his other chariot companions around him, his shield to protect himself and the bowman at his side doing his own job.
Under this new organization, a chain of command in a division,from highest to lowest rung. In each division there is a officer in charge of 50 soldiers who reported things that happened to a superior officer who was in control of 250 men. This officer who as well reported back to a captain who was responsible to a troop commander, above that commander is the troop overseer a military official in charge of a garrison (the troops stationed in a fortress or town to defend it). Who then reported to the fortification overseer, a higher official incharge of the forts where the stayed, where he also reported back to the lieutenant commander. The lieutenant in charge of getting the message to the general where he was responsible to thee vizier (the highest official) and the pharaoh (leader).
It was this army who which expanded Egypt into an empire and allowed
Opulent reigns of pharaohs such as Amenhotep III (1386-1353 BCE). Those under whose rule Egypt enjoyed unknown peace and/or prosperity. There were still conflicts but the army kept the unpleasantness far from their empire. This is also the army under Ramesses II (1279-1213 BCE) which occupied the Hittites (1274 BCE) at the famous Battle of Kadesh.
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