Motivation Theory and Practice Name University

RUNNING HEAD: Motivation Theory and Practice Name University Name Instructor name Course Name Date Motivation Theory and Practice Introduction Motivation is the psychological process which gives the behavior a meaning or a purpose and direction (Kreitner, 1995); an internal drive to satisfy the unsatisfied needs (Higgins, 1994) and the will to achieve (Bedeian,1993). The word motivation has a different connotation in Psychology, it refers to the initiation, direction, intensity and persistence of behavior (Green, 1995). Thus motivation in simple terms can be defined as the desire or willingness to do something and the inner force which helps the individuals to achieve their goals and aims. Motivation is very important in business as the employer has to first of all understand as to what motivates the employees and what exactly should they do to motivate their employees so as to increase the over all productivity. Motivation has occupied a prominent place amongst researchers due to the fact that business has to motivate not only the employees but also should succeed in motivating the customers. This is so because of the increasing competition in business and the motivated employees can provide a firm with a distinctive advantage and a cutting edge on others by being more productive, which can keep the business organization thriving and surviving.

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Motivation has been attempted to be studied and analyzed by two schools of thought; the scientific school of thought and the Behavioral School of thought. Scientific Model The scientific method to management tasks was devised by pioneers like Frederic Taylor, (1856-1915). Under this model; employees are regarded as an input in the process of production of goods and services. The scientific approach lays importance on the scientific selection, training and development of the employees rather than giving them an option to choose their own tasks and the methods of training so as to carry out the work in accordance with scientifically devised procedures. According to this model human behavior was to be analyzed scientifically, by considering individuals as parts of the machines. Taylor broke down the tasks into smallest units in order to figure out the best approach. Here each worker was assigned a single job in which he is trained like the motions of the parts of the machine. He then made a science for each element of work and restricted the behavioral alternatives of the worker in accordance with his social & physical environment, task, capacity, speed, durability and cost in order to remove the human variability (Terpstra, 2005). This model of Taylor was successful as it increased production and profitability as it was based on rationality rather than the trial and error methodology in management, and this led to enhanced efficiency in work.

But this approach to the treatment of human beings as machines was opposed by the managers, who called it as dehumanization of work. The other feature of this model was that observation and breaking the timings on the basis of stop-watch timing also faces a strong resistance on the ground that nobody likes his work to be so closely monitored. Taylor’s method though criticized had an impact on the work as it was a very novel efficient and more productive method of work, which totally changed the nature of the industry itself as the departments of work study, personnel, maintenance and Quality check did not exist at all before the scientific model was invented by Taylor (Buford, 2000). Though there have been many developments in this field later but the scientific model has remained the basis for all the other models which developed later, as they were only modifications and not original.

Behavioral approach The Behavioral Model approaches the concept from the identification of the elements and specific influences which motivate individuals to increase their efficiency and productivity. Many people have contributed to this approach of motivation and have put forth their theories on these lines. The theory of hierarchy of needs by Maslow (1943) is one such attempt in this regard. According to this theory human needs are considered in the form of hierarchy, ascending from lowest to the highest. Maslow argues that lower level needs have to be satisfied before the higher level needs, as once the needs are satisfied, they cease to be a motivator. To keep the workers in action their lower needs should be satisfied and their higher needs to be satisfied only later.

Maslow has elaborated the five needs as; Physiological, security or safety, social, Esteem and self actualization needs. Physiological needs – are the most basic human needs which are important for sustenance like food, water, warmth, shelter, sleep etc. Maslow argued that unless physiological needs are satisfied to a degree, no other motivating factor can work.

• Safety or Security needs – are those needs which relate to one’s security, protection and stability in the personal life. They are free from physical danger and emotional harm; viz, fear of unemployment, loss of property, food and shelter.

• Social Needs – are needs for love, affection and belongingness and social acceptance. People are social beings and try to satisfy their needs for acceptance and friendship as man cannot afford to live in isolation.

• Esteem – is the need for reputation and esteem, which man expects after his social needs are satisfied. They are; power, prestige status and self confidence.

Even internal and external esteem factors like self respect, autonomy, achievements, recognition and attention (Source)

• . Self actualization – is the drive to become what one is capable of becoming. It’s the need to grow and use abilities to the fullest potential. It includes growth and self-fulfillment by achieving one’s potential to accomplish something. The hierarchy is shown in the figure below: [pic] As given in Maslow’s hierarchy triangle of needs, every need satisfied will be followed by the next on the hierarchy level which becomes important and dominant for example, when physiological needs are satisfied, people look for their safety, which becomes important now and when all the needs are satisfied motivation stops. Thus the crux of this theory is finding out the level of hierarchy in a person’s life. Maslow’s theory of needs is widely recognized and is adopted by the managers all over the world. The theory is easily understood and its intutive logic has made it implementable but the emperical evidence of the measurement of its success after its implementation in the validation of the theory is not found.

Hence the quantitative impact of the theory of needs is not accurately measured. Two Factor Theory: “If you want people to do a good job, give them a good job to do” says Frederick Herzberg’s (1959). This motivational theory of Herzberg is based on a two-component approach and is known as the Two Factor theory. He draws a distinction between things which prevent dissatisfaction and those that create satisfaction (Herzberg, 1959). Dissatisfaction leads to de-motivation and because the discontent environmental factors known as Hygiene factors, people are de-motivated at their work place. The hygiene factors include security, status, relationship, personal life, salary, working conditions, company policy and administration (Bedeian, 2003), which are basically essential and do not lead to motivation but their absence would certainly de-motivate the workers. The second component of the Hygiene theory involves those factors, whose absence causes no dissatisfaction but their presence motivates the workers like the work and organizational environment. These factors are termed as motivational factors by Herzberg. Factors like growth prospects, career progression and advancement, responsibility, challenges, recognition and achievements are the motivational factors. The theory focuses on the fact that mere removal of the dissatisfying features from a job does not make the work satisfactory but both the approaches of hygiene and motivation should exist simultaneously to make the Herzberg’s approach applicable and it is a modification of the Maslow’s theory hierarchy of needs.

The Herzberg’s theory has been criticized as vague, but in the present conditions of business, where the contents and contexts of employment have become major issues, the accurate application and implementation based on the motivational ideas of the theory would give very good results. pic] Diagrammatic representation of Herzberg two-factor theory (Web 2) Vroom’s Expectancy Theory is based on the perception that motivation depends on the values and beliefs of a person and it examines whether the motives of an individual will be fulfilled . i. e the belief of the employee that his efforts will increase his performance, which would enhance his rewards (Vroom, 1964). According to the theory individuals can be motivated on the basis of a positive correlation between efforts of the worker and his performance, which should lead to a reward. Consequently, the reward should be able to satisfy his needs and desire to equate his efforts. The theory therefore states that the strength of an individual’s motivation depends on their expectation of the results of heir performance, which contributes to the satisfaction of their need.

Hence motivation is the result of a rational calculation (Vroom, 1964). Further the calculations depend upon people’s beliefs and the expectancy multiplied by the probability of performance leading to a reward (instrumentality), multiplied by the perceived value of the reward (Valence) (Source). Motivation = Expectancy * Instrumentality * Valence can be used to predict whether a particular reward will motivate an individual or not. Thus Vroom’s theory is applicable to those situations where someone does something on the expectation of a certain outcome or a result or it is the association between expected outcomes and the contribution the people can make towards the results (Bowen, 1991). Though critics have appreciated the basics of the Vroom’s theory but issues have been raised about the validity of the motivation equation as a product of expectancy, instrumentality and valence. Porter-Lawler Expectancy theory has also contributed to the concept of motivation in terms of expectancy and it is on the same lines as Vroom’s theory and suggests that motivational level is based on the value attributed to the reward by an individual. Performance in a task is mainly determined by the efforts made and the ability of an individual and his perception of the job. Hence, satisfaction of the individual depends upon the fairness of the reward (Bowen 1991) Porter and Lawler point out that perceived inequality in this model plays a pivotal role in job satisfaction. Dissatisfaction according to this theory is caused by the inequality of the reward, which should be constantly and continuously evaluated.

Therefore discriminatory practices should be avoided at the work place and equality among the employees should be imbibed by the employers at the place of work. Elton Mayo known for his “Hawthorne Experiments” analyzed the human aspects of motivation and came to a conclusion that motivation was a very complex phenomenon and was not concerned with only about pay, work condition and morale but also about psychological and social factors. Thus he emphasized on the need for recognition and a sense of belongingness as vital factors of motivation. Comparison between Scientific and Behavior approaches The two approaches to the concept of motivation differ from each other as there is an underlying factor which differentiates between them. According to the Scientific Approach, work is inherently unpleasant to most of the people and financial incentives are very lucrative to them than other factors like the nature of work, role profile, work environment etc. hile the Behavioral approach emphasizes on the social aspects like the role of social processes in organization and belongingness and feeling of being important and useful. Thus this approach emphasizes on the human needs more than monetary benefits. So individuals tend to contribute to the success of the organization through their efforts towards the organizational effectiveness.

Scientific management is an effective technique for a capitalist system and a money economy where the company’s sole objective is the improvement of efficiency and profitability. (Higgins, 2004). Human approach occupies a prominent place in today’s work environment, as company’s success is judged by the qualitative parameters where worker motivation contributes to the success of the company. Conclusions The changing environment is posing a challenge to the business organizations in the present day situation and the solution to the motivation problems is becoming more and more complex due to the changing factors of motivation (Bowen & Radhakrishna, 2001). The management of the business should be able to understand and comprehend the process, theories and fundamental components of motivation. They should not forget that interest work and employee pay are the main components of motivation along with job enlargement, promotions, monetary benefits and non-monetary compensations. Ten motivating factors have been researched (Higgins, 2004) and they are; interesting work, good wages, full appreciation of work done, job security, good working conditions, promotions and growth in the organization, feeling of being in on things, personal loyalty to employees, tactful discipline, and sympathetic help with personal problems. Thus in order to motivate to enhance the efficiency and productivity in a business organization, a motivation program has to be designed on the basis of the knowledge of the factors which are essential for the motivation of the employees. References: Books and Journal Adams, J. S. (1965). Inequity in social exchange. In L. Berkowitz (ed. ), Advances in experimental social psychology.

New York: Academic Press. Bedeian, A. G. (2003). Management (3rd ed. ). New York: Dryden Press. Bowen, B. E. , & Radhakrishna, R. B. (1991). Job satisfaction of agricultural education faculty: A constant phenomena. Journal of Agricultural Education, 32 (2). 16-22. Buford, J. A. , Jr. , Bedeian, A. G. , & Lindner, J. R. (2005). Management in Extension (3rd ed. ). Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University Extension. Buford, J. A. , Jr. (2000). Extension management in the information age. Journal of Extension, 28 (1). Dickson, W. J. (1973). Hawthorne experiments. In C. Heyel (ed. ), The encyclopedia of management, 2nd ed. (pp. 298-302). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Harpaz, I. (2004). The importance of work goals: an international perspective. Journal of International Business Studies, 21. 5-93. Herzberg, F. , Mausner, B. , & Snyderman, B. B. (1959). The motivation to work.

New York: John Wiley & Sons. Higgins, J. M. (2004). The management challenge (2nd ed. ). New York: Macmillan. Kovach, K. A. (1997). What motivates employees? Workers and supervisors give different answers. Business Horizons, 30. 58-65. Kreitner, R. (2005). Management (6th ed. ). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, July 1943. 370-396. Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and Human Behavior. New York: Free Press. Smith, G. P. 1994). Motivation. In W. Tracey (ed. ), Human resources management and development handbook (2nd ed. ). Terpstra, D. E. (2005). Theories of motivation: borrowing the best. Personnel Journal, 58. 376. Vroom, V. H. (1964). Work and motivation.

New York: Wiley . Web sites (Web 1) Motivation theorists and their theories (online) (cited 15 December) Available from https://www. accel-team. com/motivation/theory_01. html (Web 2) Motivation (online) (cited 16 December) Available from URL https://choo. fis. utoronto. ca/FIS/Courses/LIS1230/LIS1230sharma/motive1. htm[pic][pic][pic]

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