Franklin Roosevelt is the 32nd president of the United States. He is the first and only president to be elected president four times. He also led the United States through two of the two worst crises of the 20th century – the Second World War and the Great Depression. During this time, he greatly expanded the power of the federal government through the New Deal. He successfully escaped the turmoil of the German national socialism and Japanese militarism.
Franklin Roosevelt was born on January 30, 1882 in Hyde Park, New York. His father and mother were Dutch and French wealthy families from New York State, and Roosevelt was their only child. And his grandmother, Mary Rebecca Aspinwall, is the first cousin of Elizabeth Monroe, the wife of the fifth president of the United States, James Monroe. Roosevelt grew up in a good environment. His mother, Sarah, is a man with a desire, and his father, James, is an old and cold person, because he was 54 years old when Roosevelt was born. Sarah has had a decisive influence on Roosevelt’s childhood and early years. Frequent European travel makes Roosevelt familiar with German and French. And Roosevelt even learned various skills such as riding, shooting, boating and polo. At that time, Groton’s college football was popular, and he actively organized the cheerleaders as administrators. He is good at debate and is a member of the ‘Debating Society’. He has a good grade at Groton High School, giving the impression that he is using a pleasing person to strengthen his position, so that Rexford Tidwell thinks the practice of dealing with difficult problems at Groton became his model of behavior in a later similar situation. After graduating from Groton College, I once wanted to enter the Annapolis Naval Academy, hoping to become a naval officer in the future. But the elderly father is firmly opposed.
Roosevelt entered Harvard University to study political science, history, and journalism, in 1900. Roosevelt is not outstanding in his academic performance. At Harvard, he became president of the school magazine ‘The Harvard Crimson.’ He cleverly used the influence of his cousin Theodore Roosevelt. Roosevelt received his BA in History from Harvard University in 1903 and entered Columbia University School of Law in 1904. In March 1905, married Eleanor. The president personally attended the wedding ceremony, which made the wedding very grand, but Franklin found that most people came from the president, which inspired his determination to go to politics. On March 17, 1905, despite his strong opposition, Roosevelt married Eleanor Roosevelt. Roosevelt dropped out of school in 1907 because he had passed the New York State Bar exam. In 1908, he was employed by the prestigious Wall Street Carter Ledyard and Milburn Law Firm, dealing primarily with corporate law matters.
The 1932 presidential campaign was conducted against the background of a severe financial crisis. In November 1932, Roosevelt participated in the election of the presidential candidate and proposed plans to implement the ‘New Deal’ and revitalize the economy. When he first participated in the election, he told people through his speech: ‘The governor is not just an acrobat. We chose him not because he can roll over or roll over. He is engaged in mental work and tries to benefit the people. With this perseverance and optimism, Roosevelt finally defeated Hoover in an absolute way in 1933 and became the president of the United States. When Roosevelt took office in March 1933, the United States was at the bottom of the Great Depression in history. A quarter of the working population is unemployed. Farmers are in dire straits with the price of agricultural products falling by 60%. Roosevelt delivered a warm speech when he was sworn in, telling people that what we are worried about is to fear ourselves and to propose policy goals to achieve national rejuvenation and good neighborliness. After staying at the White House, Roosevelt actively promoted the ‘Roosevelt New Deal’ with ‘relief, reform and revival’ as its main content.
The ‘New Deal’ gave up the traditional laissez-faire, changed the government’s intervention in the economic field, integrated deficit financing, and vigorously developed public utilities to stimulate the economy. In order to promote the New Deal, Roosevelt established a group of liberal lawyers, experts and scholars to discuss policy and policy issues. From March 9 to June 16, 1933, the US Congress held a special meeting at the request of President Roosevelt. Roosevelt presented various information to supervise and guide the legislative work of Congress. Congress passed the ‘Emergency Banking Act’, the ‘Federal Emergency Relief Act’, the ‘Agricultural Adjustment Act’, the ‘National Industrial Renaissance Act’ and the ‘Tennessee River Basin Management Act’ at an alarming rate.The new measures from 1933 to 1934 focused on ‘rejuvenation.’ The main measures include: maintaining bank credit, depreciating the dollar, stimulating foreign trade, restricting agricultural production to maintain agricultural prices, avoiding bankruptcy of farmers, and stipulating agreed prices to reduce competition. New deals in 1935 – 1939 focused on ‘reliefs’ and ‘reforms”. The main measures are: more effective use of administrative intervention, slow inflation, extensive public construction and emergency relief, tax insurance, taxation by tax, corporate income tax and excess profits tax. Roosevelt’s New Deal restores public confidence in the United States.
In 1935, the US Congress passed a Pitman resolution aimed at maintaining the United Nations. The resolution stipulates that during the war, the United States was banned from exporting weapons and equipment, as well as the ‘sales and purchases’ clause, which is valid for two people. In the year, the President was authorized to apply for cash in the United States to purchase non-military materials and ship them to domestic ships. In the face of aggression and expansion of fascist countries, isolationism and Chinese legislation equate to the acquiescence and connivance of aggression and expansion. In order to guide the United States and its public to prepare for the anti-fascist war and strengthen the US defense force, Roosevelt carried out a determined artistic struggle with isolationism. In December 1938, at the initiative of Roosevelt, the Pan American Conference adopted the ‘Lima Declaration’, reflecting the determination of the United States to combat fascism. In September 1939, after the outbreak of the Deborah War, Roosevelt had to issue a formal neutral statement and implement Chinese legislation. At the special parliamentary meeting on September 21, Roosevelt tried to bring disaster to the United States through the embargo policy. On December 6, 1941, President Roosevelt read the intercepted Japanese secret electricity and told his assistant Harry Hopkins that he did not warn the Navy and Navy Pacific Fleet before attacking Pearl Harbor after receiving the secret electricity. Commander General Husband Edward Kimmel or Lieutenant General Walter Schott of the Army’s Hawaiian Department. On December 7, 1941, Japan sneaked into the US Pacific Fleet in Pearl Harbor, destroying 16 warships and causing more than 2,400 US military personnel and civilian casualties. A few weeks after the sneak attack, Japan conquered the Philippines, and the colonies of British and Dutch Southeast Asia. In February 1942, it won Singapore and pushed from Myanmar to the border of British India before May, cutting off the Republic of China. Land supply line. The American public’s decisive battle mood formed overnight and united under Roosevelt’s leadership. At this time, Roosevelt published his famous ‘National Shame Speech.’
Despite the wave of anger that swept the United States after the Pearl Harbor Incident, Roosevelt took precedence over defeating Nazi Germany from the outset. On December 11, 1941, when Germany and Italy declared war on the United States, this strategic decision was easier to implement. Roosevelt met with Churchill in late December and planned a wide-ranging informal alliance between the United States, Britain, China and the Soviet Union. The three goals of the alliance are to prevent Germany from expanding in the Soviet Union and North Africa; to launch a Western European offensive, to smash the two fronts between Nazi and Germany; and to defeat Japan to save China. In November 1943, Roosevelt met with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Chinese National Government President Chiang Kai-shek at the Cairo meeting, and then went to Tehran to negotiate with Churchill and Stalin. At the Tehran meeting, Roosevelt and Churchill told Stalin that the Allied forces would attack France in 1944, and Roosevelt also mentioned plans to establish a new international organization after the war.
By the beginning of 1945, the Allied forces had advanced to Germany. In February 1945, Roosevelt went to Yalta in the Soviet Union in Crimea in the worsening health condition, and once again met with Stalin and Churchill. After the war, Eastern European Americans criticized the Yelda Conference for legalizing the Soviet Union’s control of Eastern European countries; while President Roosevelt felt that the situation was out of control and pinned all hopes on negotiations with Stalin after the war. Roosevelt hopes to maintain a good relationship with Stalin during the war. Perhaps he is not willing to follow Churchill’s suggestion to violate Stalin’s will to help the Poles in the Warsaw uprising, and to suppress George Earl’s accusation that the Soviet Union is responsible for the Katlyn massacre. One of the reporting factors.
Roosevelt wanted to establish an effective international organization, the United Nations, to safeguard post-war peace. He originally planned to attend the inaugural meeting of the United Nations scheduled to open in San Francisco on April 27, 1945. But health conditions have gone from bad to worse since 1944. In the presidential campaign in 1944, Roosevelt played his last vitality, defeating Governor Dewey and re-electing the president for the fourth time. After taking office, he went to the hot springs to recuperate. On April 12, 1945, Roosevelt died of a sudden cerebral hemorrhage in a hot spring in Georgia. After the funeral in Washington, his body was buried in Hyde Park Village, New York. On the day of his death, he wrote two sentences: ‘The only thing that hinders us from achieving our goals tomorrow is our doubts about today. Let us move forward with strong and positive confidence!’ According to Roosevelt’s wishes, the United States established Roosevelt. The library keeps Roosevelt’s public and private documents for later research.
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