Johnson (2010) argued the classification of the variables that could be reported differences in creativity topic as research study and the literature on this topic has been much flourished. The researches on creativity have been conducted in many different sub areas of psychology, social psychology, industrial psychology, clinical psychology, personality and cognitive psychology and developmental areas (Feist, 2006). The connection with the generating novel ideas, solving the intermingled problems and drive to implementation for development by the creative person who can be differentiated from the others persons due to these creative attributes (Harrington and Barron, 1981). Helson (1999) viewed that various studies have elaborated the characteristics of personality of creative person and distinguished that the creative persons wiling to generate new and novel ideas, unconventional, ambitions, and experiences, driven, impulsive, self confident and dominant. Currently most of the studies are conducting for effectively management of employees’ performance by improving their satisfaction level, motivation level, commitment level, attitude, behavior, skills and abilities, knowledge, well being and occupational health, and career management in the field of human resource management and development. The numerous studies are also doing in this field for examine over all organizational performance by managing organizational justices fairly, affective leadership style, organizational citizenship behavior, organizational politics, impact of organizational culture forces and drivers as well as for sustaining the development and growth of organization by establishing the organizational creativity climate, knowledge sharing environment, employees perceived innovation positively, designing and implementation for change or interventions, innovative technologies, and training for improving performance and skills of employees.
In this study I try to examine the relationships between work motivation and performance of the employees and their perception about innovation through establishing organizational creativity climate in the telecommunication organizations. There is very high competition among the telecommunication organizations because these organizations are growing rapidly all over the world by establishing creative climate among employees, in which organizational members are generating new and novel ideas for development and gain competitive advantage in telecommunication market. Various studies have been conducting to examine relationships of organizational climates and employee performance through bringing change in the telecommunication organizations which have ultimately purpose to develop the organizations’ works, human processes, technologies, structures, strategies, and human resources. But it is too difficult to implementation successfully of any intervention in the telecommunication organizations without diagnosing the problem because most of the employees don’t want to any change. These people are strongly satisfied with current work and they don’t accept any change due to lack of education, knowledge, skills, training programs, and negative attitude and also their motivation level is very low. So these types of people firstly require increasing their motivation level and capabilities for understanding the new phenomena of creativity climate and the managers should do fully cooperate with the people for increasing their motivation level and capabilities.
Previous studies have been conducted on organizational creativity climate and examined its impact on different variables like perceived innovation, work motivation, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. Very recently (Lin and Liu, 2012) distinguished the positive relationships between organizational creativity climate and perceived innovation and determined mediation role of work motivation between their relationships and they also recommended in this study for future research that the evidence for the relationships between climate and performance is reasonably convincing (Anderson and West, 1998), but to understand the relationship in depth will require consideration of the subtle dynamics among antecedents, mediating process, and contextual contingencies. In this study we want to examine the relationships between organizational creativity climate and perceived innovation and also work performance of the employees and mediation role of work motivation. The employees’ work performance would also include in the model because it may possible currently employees’ performance would be high but perception about innovation will be low and it also may possible their perception will be high but performance will be low as well as also possible perception will be high and performance also high. So I want to examine the impact of creativity climate on work performance and perceived innovation of the employees through work motivation level.
There are three research questions are following under: Will creativity climate increase the employee’s motivation, perceived innovation and employee’s performance? Will employee’s motivation increase the perceived innovation and employee’s performance? Will employee’s work motivation play mediation role?
This study will help the leaders and managers of the telecommunication organizations by establishing flexible and creative climate for increasing the motivation level and perception about innovation and performance of the employees. The managers should conduct training programs in which improve the employees’ skills, knowledge and attitudes that way they will be motivate to adopt change and intervention for sustainable development of the telecommunication organizations. It will help managers and practitioners to diagnose the problems of employees who don’t want to accept change in the telecommunication organization then to motivate them for taking participation in innovatively change management.
There area following objectives of this study; Examine the relationship between organizational creativity climate and work motivation. Determine the relationship between organizational creativity climate and perceived innovation. Examine the relationship between organizational creativity climate and work performance. Examine the relationship between work motivation and perceived innovation. Examine the relationship between work motivation and work performance. Examine the mediation relationship of work motivation between creativity climate and perceived innovation and employee performance
There are four variables which have used in this study first independent variable is organizational creativity climate (mean to establish a creative climate in which people develop new and novel ideas and bring innovative change in the organization for the sustainable development of the organization), second mediation variable is work motivation (mean to increase the intrinsic motivation of the employees by establishing flexible and creative climate in the organizations), and third dependent variables are perceived innovation (the perception about innovation would be positive of the employees when organizations establish creative climate inside the organizations then it leads for sustainable development of the organizations) and employees’ work performance (employees’ work performance would also increase by establishing the organizational creativity climate, increasing their work motivation level and when their perceptions about innovation being also positive).
Creativity can also defined as the capabilities to generate new and novel but appropriate ideas which can be adaptable for tasks constraints (Sternberg & Lubart, 1999). According to Amabile (1996) founded eight factors which used for the measurement of organization creativity climate. First six factors (organizational encouragement, supervisory encouragement, working group support, freedom, sufficient resources and challenging work) are considered environmental stimulants and last two factors (organization impediments and workload pressure) are considered as obstacles to creativity.
The organizational encouragement described to establish organizational culture and climate which encourage the creativity by fair productive judgment of ideas, device of developing new ideas, compensation and recognition for creative and innovative work, actively sharing the ideas, and shared the purpose and vision that where the organization want reach (Amabile et al., 1996).
The supervisor plays role as a good work model, sets appropriate goals, supports the effective teamwork in the different groups, values the each member’s contribution and participation, and shows the confidence in the work group (Amabile et al., 1996).
The diverse people are working in the groups which are doing work according to their specific skills, communicating well with each other, opening new ideas, constructing challenges of each other works, helping, trusting and cooperating with each other, and feeling commitment with the work (Amabile et al., 1996).
Empowering the freedom and autonomy to the people of the group in which they do manage their own current works effectively and efficiently by developing new innovative and creative ideas as well as mean they have full control all over their works (Amabile et al. 1996).
The access of appropriate resources including information, money and funds, facilities, materials, and other instruments and equipments for completing works in the different groups of the organizations (Amabile et al., 1996).
The challenges and to do work hard by the people for accomplish difficult tasks and projects of the organizations in a specific time limit (Amabile et al., 1996).
The culture of the organization that create obstacles for establishing the creativity climate in the organization through harsh criticism of new ideas, internal politics problems, destructive internal competition, over emphasizes on status quo, and an avoidance of risk (Amabile et al., 1996).
The pressure of over loading work can also create obstacles for creativity environment in which includes extreme time pressure, distractions for creative work, and unrealistic expectations for productivity (Amabile et al., 1996).
Work motivation defined as the employees exert high level of effort by motivating themselves for achievement of tasks effectively and efficiently related their jobs in the organization (Ambrose and Kulik, 1999).
Van de Ven (1986) defined the perceived innovation as a positively thinking about the innovation that generating, designing, developing and implementing the new knowledge, ideas, changes or interventions successfully in the organization for current problem solving and sustainable development or growth of the organizations.
Work performance means the outcomes of the employees about their work and objectives align with the organization’s goals and objectives that are achieved by the employees to work effectively, efficiently and motivation and work performance of the employees measuring using different techniques of performance appraisal system.
Creativity can be defined as the invention of new and novel ideas that contributes to innovation, means the transformation of these ideas into practical and valuable new products, the creativity is normally supposed to occur as a role dealing with the persons and the circumstances (Scott & Bruce, 1994; Amabile, 1996). Creativity can also defined as the capabilities to generate new and novel but appropriate ideas which can be adaptable for tasks constraints (Sternberg & Lubart, 1999). Van de Ven and Angel (1989) defined the term innovation is about procedure for designing, developing and implementing of a new and novel ideas. The climate can be defined as the observed and chronic pattern action, perceptions, feelings, and believes which exemplify life in the organization (Ekvall, 1999). Pattersen et al., (2004) defined the climate as a function of mutual views and points with respect to individuals’ believes and perceptions about the policies, laws, practices and procedures in the organization. Mclean (2005) argued that the culture and climate are interchangeable or interlinked with each other in the organizations. The differences needed to highlight which are essential when conducting the researches’ in the perspective of organizational creativity climate and innovation (Amabile, Coon, Conti and Lazenby, 1996). McLean (2005) argued that organizational culture is concerning intensely held meanings, beliefs and assumptions whereas organizational climates are feelings or perceptions, feelings of, experiences in, the instantaneous environment of work. It is becoming progressive more essential for the organizations’ employees to analyze and understand the both internal and external climates for them. In these unstable and particular era of knowledge able economy in which the organizations need to increase the productivity on the employees and also essential for increasing the creativity of the employees (Borghini, 2005). Organizational creativity climate defined to establish creative working environment in which identify the organizational works that facilitate the creative thinking and innovative novel ideas in the organization (Amabile et al., 1996). The technological challenging environment in which there are increasing the globalization and competition with speedily and organizations require solving the current problems related products, services and procedures by generating and implementing the new novel ideas (Atwater and Carmeli, 2009). So, the main purpose of today has been becoming that to increasing the creativity and innovation of the employees in the organizations which is major requirement for the organizations’ success in future.
Amabile (1988) proposed a theoretical model of creativity climate and innovation in the organizations in which he explained the two main factors of different elements that assimilate the componential model of individual creativity into the organizational climate. He elaborated the first elements is organizational components (management practices, resources and organizational motivation) of model that estimated the overall innovation within the organizations and these components affect the work climate of individuals’ within the organizations. Where as second elements are individual components (expertise, task motivation and creativity skills) of model which affected by above organizational components that predicted the overall creativity with in the organizations. Amabile (1993) examined the relationships between work climate and personality and intrinsic motivation. He discussed that personality and organizational climate influenced significantly on intrinsic motivation of the employees. There have been founded the significant relationships of these dimensions; Organization encouragement, supervisory encouragement, work group support, challenging work and organizational impediments with the organizational creativity climate but also have identified the non significant relationships of these factors freedom, sufficient resources and work load pressure with the organizational creativity climate (Amabile, Conti, Coon, Lazenby and Herron 1996). Andersen and West (1996) have developed the four factor model in which measuring the climate for work group innovation. The have taken collected data form 155 individual of 27 hospital management teams and concluded these four dimensions (vision, participative safety, task orientation and support for innovation) significantly related with the organizational climate for the innovative development of the work group or teams. Baer and Frese (2003) have collected data from 47 German mid sized companies and founded positive and significant relationships between climate for initiative and goal achievement and return on assets and also founded significant relationships between climate for psychological safety and goal achievement and return on assets. They have also examined the significant moderation affect of process innovation between climate for initiative and goal achievement and return on assets and also identified the moderation affect of process innovation between climate for psychological safety and goal achievement but they have founded non significant its moderation affect between climate for psychological and return on assets. The high quality LMX in the organization climate and it also motivate the organizational employees; for increasing their creative and innovative capabilities (Carmeli and Atwater, 2009). A research has been determined that the leaders created momentum at workplace in the organization for promoting the creativity of the employees by progression of behavior supporting the high quality interpersonal relationship with their employees and motivate them to do innovative work for the development of organization in future (Carmeli and Atwater, 2009). They founded the perception of employees about supportive and high quality relationships among them and their leaders also as well require synergy for their effective management that way they can adopt the innovative and creative work in the organization. A study investigated the significant relationships between psychological climate and job involvement and effort and performance, and effort and job involvement significantly related with job performance as well as effort played full mediation role between job involvement and job performance (Brown and Leigh, 1996). Another study propped a theoretical framework which influenced the organizational creativity and innovation she explained this model on the basis of theories and past studies’ literatures. She elaborated that when well recognized mediating structures that affect creativity are deliberately renewed then the creativity of any firm is achieved (Borghini, 2005). Choi (2005) identified the individual and contextual predictors of creative performance and also examined the mediation affect of psychological processes. He collected data from 28 instructors who were teaching the 450 students and founded direct and significant positive relationships between psychological processes (creative self efficacy and creative intention) and creative performance. He has been also originated psychological processes played significant full mediation role in the relationships of individual characteristics (intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, creative personality, cautious personality and creative ability) and contextual factors (supportive leadership and open group climate) on creative performance. The study investigated the significant relationships between organizational realities and organizational outcomes and organizational climate and its determinants (structures, policies, tasks, goals, strategies, leaderships, resources, work load, technologies and staff characteristics) have played mediation role in the relationships of organizational realities and organizational outcomes (Ekvall and Ryhammar, 1999). Griffin (2000) has conducted study to examine the link of safety climate with safety performance, knowledge and motivation and he has conducted two studies on this topic. In first study data has been collected from 1403 employees of seven Australian manufacturer and mining organizations and founded the significant positive relationships between safety climate (management values, safety inspections, personal training and safety communication) and components of safety performance (safety compliance and safety participation) and also examined the significant partial mediation of safety knowledge in the relationships of safety climate and safety compliance (first component of safety performance) but not significant mediation affect between climate and safety participation (second component of safety performance). In second studies he did analyze the mediation affect of compliance motivation, safety knowledge and participation motivation and data collected from 381 employees of Australian manufacturer organizations. He has concluded the significant positive relationships between safety climate (management values, safety practices, safety training, safety equipment and safety communication) and components of safety performance (safety compliance and safety participation) and also examined the significant partial mediation of compliance motivation, safety knowledge and participation motivation in the relationships of safety climate and components of safety performance (safety compliance and safety participation) but significant negative affect of compliance motivation between climate and safety participation (second component of safety performance). Ismail (2005) has examined the relationships of organizational learning, organizational creativity climate on innovation. She collected data from 259 employees who were working in 18 private sector organizations (small, medium and large size organizations) and founded significant relationships between learning organizations and organizational innovation and also determined the significant relationships between creativity climate of organizations and its innovation.
The previous studies and literature shows broad range of organizational innovation’s dimensions including both internal and external (Amabile, Coon, Conti, Herron and Lezenby, 1996). The combination of both employee’s personal creativity and climate factors of the organizations which are essential for developing a creative and innovative attitude, perception, believe and behavior at workplace of the employees within the organizations (Einarsen and Matheisen, 2004). The previous studies have examined the many different individual differences in creative persons like openness to experience (Helson, 1999), cognitive style (Kaufmann, 1991), intrinsic motivation (Amabile, 1996) and this is only possible when organization will try to set up a creative and innovative climate. According to organizational creativity climate several dimensions have analyzed in the literature, for instance dimensions introduced by Amabile in 1996 and MacLean in 2005. 14 different dimensions for measuring the organization creativity climate revealed by the authors after review of 42 research papers in which dimensions are includes; positive supervisor relations, challenges, resources, positive peer group, mission clarity, positive interpersonal exchange, top management support, autonomy, intellectual stimulation, flexible and risk taking, participation, reward orientation, organizational integration and product emphasizes (Bedell, Hunter, and Mumford, 2007). The behavior measured by different dimensions, like planning and setting goals appropriately, raising employees energy, showing openness to new ideas, shaping quality communication, interaction with work unit members, supporting group work, value individual contribution, providing constructive feedback, and showing confident (Atwater and Carmeli, 2009). Ten rules for transforming innovation which addressed on decisions, control of action, and the use of hierarchal structure, information, lack of encouragement or supervisory support and regarding culture perspectives which are possible to results reduce the innovation and creativity (Kanter, 1983). The dimensions of creativity climate assesd by situational outlook questionnaire which are using for the measure of climate for creativity and change, these dimensions are including challenge/involvement, freedom, trust/openness, ideal time, playfulness/humor, conflict, idea support, debate, and risk taking (Isaksen, Lauer and Ekvall, 1999; Isaksen, Lauer, Ekvall, and Britz, 2001). According to Amabile (1996) founded eight factors which used for the measurement of organization creativity clime. First six factors (organizational encouragement, supervisory encouragement, working group support, freedom, sufficient resources and challenging work) are considered environmental stimulants and last two factors (organization impediments and workload pressure) are considered as obstacles to creativity. In this study, I have used these eight dimensions of that scale which developed by Amabile et al., in 1996, because these dimensions also recently used by the Cilla in 2011 and very recently used these dimensions by Lin and Liu in 2012, they concluded the significant relationships organizational encouragement, supervisory encouragement, working group support, sufficient resources, freedom and challenging work with perceived innovation.
This organization is encouraging the employees to solve the problems in creative way. The mechanism of this organization is very supportive in which developing and encouraging the new and novel ideas. This organization judges fairly all ideas. This organization is encouraging the employees to do creative work by fairly distributing rewards. Ideas are flowing actively and lively in this organization. In this organization, people have clear knowledge about vision, mission and goals so that they are trying to do work effectively.
My supervisor plays a good role model for me. My supervisors set the goals and objective appropriately. My supervisors encourage and support my job in group with in this organization. My supervisors give the value of individual works and ideas to projects and he encourage me to increase my confidence level in the work group.
In my work group, people are communicating freely and openly with each other for doing works creatively. In my work group, people have variety skills to do creative works. In my work group, I have much influence over work and work related elements. In my work group, people are creating new and novel ideas. In my work group, people are highly committed to (our) works. In my work group, people are encouraging to build trust and do help with each other for solving the intermingled problems in creative way.
This organization is providing me appropriate resources according to need my works. This organization is providing me all available facilities related my works and the project requirements. This organization is providing me all require data for completing projects effectively. This organization is providing me complete Information, adequate materials and sufficient funds to do work effectively.
This organization encourages me to get feedback from other employees about my work performance. This organization empowers me to decide my work that how works can be carries out effectively. This organization delegates me by establishing flexible and creative climate in which, I have full control over my own works and ideas. This organization supports me to create new ideas and take decision freely which idea is better for doing works effectively.
In this organization my current work is very challenging. In this organization I am doing work on very important projects. In this organization I need to do complete my work successfully and urgently which is requirement of organization. In this organization my work’s tasks are very challenging and recognize me as a best worker.
In this organization many people are facing several problems due to negative political environment. In this organization, generating very harsh and criticize ideas. In this organization top management is focusing on status quo and don’t wants to any creative change. In this organization people are feeling pressure to adopt any creative change for the improvement of product quality.
In this organization, I have very short time to complete my works properly. In this organization employer expects to me to accomplish too much works by using insufficient resources. In this organization, I have no clear information and direction to complete projects successfully. In this organization, I have lack of facilities, inappropriate materials and insufficient funds to do complete project effectively.
Porter and Lawer (1968) firstly defined the two categories of motivation “intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation” Intrinsic motivation defined as the motivators to do perform work its willingly while extrinsic motivation define as to do perform work due to tangible reward or monetary compensation etc. Pintrich and Shunk (1996) defined the term motivation as linking process that happen when individual person start and maintain the all his/her activities, works and actions regarding goal direction in the organization. Work motivation defined as the employees exert high level of effort by motivating themselves for achievement of tasks effectively and efficiently related their jobs in the organization (Ambrose and Kulik, 1999).
The internal motivation of the employees can increase their satisfaction and commitment level with the works and they are highly committed with the beliefs and values of the group (Vansteenkiste et al., 2006). A study investigated the significant positive relationships among motivational orientation (intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation), organization innovative climate and innovative behaviors. Data was collected from 254 employees of Taiwanese enterprises and have been founded significant relationships of motivational orientations and organization innovation climate with innovative behaviors of the employees and the study has also examined the significant moderation affect of extrinsic motivation in the relationships of intrinsic motivation and innovative behaviors. There has been also determined the non significant moderation effect in the relationships of intrinsic motivation and innovative behaviors and intrinsic motivation has played moderation role between extrinsic motivation and innovative behaviors, finally organization innovation climate has also played significant moderation role between extrinsic motivation and innovative behaviors (Kao and Tsai, 2004). Another study has been conducted to examine the associations of various bases of power, behavior alteration techniques, immediacy behaviors and use of affinity seeking techniques of the teachers with motivation of students and data was collected from 366 students. The study’s results have been founded significant and positive associations of immediacy behaviors and use of affinity seeking techniques of the teachers with the motivation of students and significantly negative association of teacher’s various bases of power with the student’s motivation and also determined the non signification association between behavior alteration techniques of teacher’s and motivation of students (Richmond, 1990).
The very famous studies of motivation in which explained various dimensions of motivation by different authors (Maslow, Alderfer, Hertzberg, McClelland, McGregor, Vroom, Edwin Locke etc) in history which dimensions of motivation presented today by the name of “motivational theories” (Hierarchical theory, ERG theory, Two factors theory, Three needs theory, Theory X & Y, Expectancy theory, goal setting theory, equity theory and job characteristics model etc). Maslow (1958) proposed five basic dimensions of motivation by the name Maslow’s hierarchical needs theory in which dimensions are including: physiological needs (Needs to satisfy hunger and thirst), safety needs (needs to feel that is world is organize and predictable, need to feel safe, secure and stable), social needs (need to love and be loved, to belong and be accepted, need to avoid loneliness and alienation), self esteem needs (need to self esteem, achievement, competence, and independence, need for recognition and respect from others) and self actualization needs (need to live up to one’s fullest and unique potential). Alderfer (1972) proposed three dimensions of motivation by the name ERG needs theory in which are including dimensions: existence needs (Maslow’s fundamental needs), relatedness needs (needs for interpersonal relations) and growth (needs for personal creativity or productivity influence). Hertzberg (1959) proposed two factors theory of motivation one factor is presenting the name of hygiene factors that were led to dissatisfaction and another is motivator factor that were led to satisfaction. Hygiene factors are including dimensions: company policy and administration, supervision, work condition, salary relationship with peers, relationships with supervisor, personal life, and relationships with subordinates, status, and security. Motivational factors are including dimensions: achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility, advancement and growth. McClelland (1962) introduced three dimensions of motivation by the name three needs theory in which are including dimensions: needs for achievement, needs for affiliation needs for power. McGregor (1960) defined two types of characteristics of person for motivation by the name of theory X and theory Y and in which theory X present the person who is lazy in doing work effectively and theory Y represent that person who is willing to do work effectively and efficiently at inside and out side the organization. Edwin Locke (1968) introduced goal setting theory of motivation; he argued that employees would be much motivated when they do set their own goals by participation with the managers or employers in the organizations. He suggested that the goals ought to be specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and timely. Vroom (1964) proposed expectancy theory for motivation; he elaborated three dimensions which were led to over all motivation of the employees and these dimensions are valence (the significance association between individual’s work and his/her expectation), expectancy (the faith that better effort will result in better performance) and instrumentality (the faith that if he/she perform well then a valid outcome will be there). Self-determination theory (STD) recommended that autonomous motivation consists on intrinsic motivation, integration of regulation, extrinsic internalized motivation, identification of regulation, and motivation which is controlled motivation, regulated of external behavior, interjected of regulation (Deci & Gagne, 2005). Subordinates may be satisfied with the both categories of motivation for improving their performance and the challenging and these tasks and objectives serves like optimistic feedback that increases the intrinsic motivation (Deci, 1975). Armstrong (2006) distinguished that there were some factors that can be used for manipulation of the human’s or employees’ behavior and these factors are including; autonomy and have control for management of own resources, to value the importance of work, freedom to do act, develop and improvement of capabilities, having career development opportunities and scope for use. Minbaeva (2008) supporting the arguments that people who are intrinsically motivated involved ego in their works, perceived positively about further works, more committed with their works, and effected much on the works of organizations for its future development. Hackman and Oldham (1976) developed job characteristics model (JCT) in explain the important dimensions for increasing the motivation level of employees and dimensions are including; skills variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback. Skills variety: number of different skills required. Task identity: completion of task provides a clearly identified outcome. Task significance: job has impact on others. Autonomy: freedom to complete task as one sees fit. Feedback: job provides information about performance. In this study we have used Job characteristics model for measuring the work motivation and considered these dimensions can fulfill the certain conditions in which employees do work effectively. These dimensions were much predicted to show high performance, greater productivity, high commitment, better attendance, positive behavior, and reported high level of work motivation and satisfaction of the employees. Recently these dimensions also have been used by Lin and Liu in 2012 at Taiwan for measuring the work motivation level of employees and their study was more relevant to our study’s topic.
My job is totally depend upon me to do my work effectively and I can use different skills and technologies to do complete my job effectively. My job creates lot of varieties and gives opportunities to do achieve effectively job related tasks from start to end.
My job increases my capabilities to perform all functions independently of my supervisors and managers.
My job is very important and has influence on decision which can significantly affect the organizational works My job can significantly affect the work performance of other employees in this organization.
My job has designed purposely and I known that how it will be relate with the organization’s mission and vision.
My supervisors provide me fairly and positive feedback after accomplishment of my work creatively. The review of literature of employees’ work motivation presents that the employees needs to enjoyment, self-expressions, personal challenges, interests and satisfaction at workplace when they do work in any organizational set up (Amabile, 1993). The creativity capabilities and innovative experiences must be attached to the employees’ motivation for generating new ideas and establishing creative climate by improving the quality of employees’ behavior at workplace (Amabile, 1988).
Van de Ven (1986) defined the perceived innovation as a positively thinking about the innovation that generating, designing, developing and implementing the new knowledge, ideas, changes or interventions successfully in the organization for current problem solving and sustainable development or growth of the organizations.
The dissemination of new ideas or entity about innovation term among people in well defined system of any society has been concerning according to the diffusion theory of innovation within sociology. Various diffusion studies have conducted in rural areas’ society by the many rural development sociologists and have concerned new designing and framing method or implementation. Bernett (1953) was proposed firstly the important characteristics of innovation and perception of people about innovation. The diffusion of innovations model has been developed by the Rogers in 1962 and he elaborated that how innovations enter into the social system. Very few researches have conducted on the perception of potential adopters mean perceived innovation of the employees before adopting any innovative change. Rogers & Shoemaker (1971) found 49 to 87 percent variation in rate of adopters to adopt any innovative change in the organization, but these studies were not focused on the perception of those employees about innovation. They developed important typologies for the evaluation of innovation and then there have abundance of arguments related innovation adoption of innovations. Runyon and Steward (1987) used five characteristics for measuring the perceived innovation and these attributes of perceived innovation are including: Relative advantage, Compatibility, Complexity, Price, and Uncertainty. Ram and Seth (1989) used only three dimensions for measuring the perceived innovation and these dimensions of perceived innovation construct are including: Compatibility, Price and Uncertainty. Gatignon and Robertson (1991) identified nine factors for measuring the perceived innovation and these factors of perceived innovation are including: Relative advantage, Compatibility Complexity, Observability, Trialability, Price, Uncertainty, Product symbolism, and Marketing strategy. Rogers (1995) introduced five attributes for measuring the perceived innovation and these attributes of perceived innovation are including: Relative advantage, Compatibility Complexity, Observability, Trialability. Petter and Olson (1996) recognized eight elements for measuring the perceived innovation and these elements of perceived innovation are including: Relative advantage, Compatibility Complexity, Observability, Trialability, Price, Product symbolism, and Marketing strategy. The definitions or concepts of these all of above attributes, dimensions, factors, or elements are as following under: 220.127.116.11. Relative advantage: The degree to which an innovation is perceived as being better than its precursor or superior to the competitive products. 18.104.22.168. Compatibility: The degree to which an innovation is perceived as being consistent with existing values, needs, and past experiences of potential adopters. 22.214.171.124. Complexity: The degree to which innovations is perceived as being difficult or understand to use it. 126.96.36.199. Observability: The degree to which the results of an innovation are observable or describable to others. 188.8.131.52. Trialability: The degree to which an innovation may be experimented or tried before adoption. 184.108.40.206. Price: The degree to which cost of the new product or innovation 220.127.116.11. Uncertainty: The degree to which an innovation as being may risk be real or perceived and unclear about the outcome or consequences. 18.104.22.168. Product Symbolism: The degree to which an innovation as being meaning, purpose and experiences about the product and using it. 22.214.171.124. Marketing Strategy: The degree to which an innovation as being identify the specific type of the strategy require able for the innovation or new product introduces in the market. In this study we have used five items that adopted from KEYS scales and this scale developed by Amabile et al., 1996 for measuring the perceived innovation and considered these items can fulfill the certain conditions in which employees do work effectively. Recently these items also have been used by Lin and Liu in 2012 at Taiwan for measuring the perceived innovation of employees and their study was more relevant to our study’s topic.
In this organization, area of my job is creative and innovative. In this organization, area of job is providing me opportunities to create new and novel ideas to do work effectively. In this organization, overall working environment is encouraging to my own creativity. In this organization, creation of new and novel ideas is including in daily routine works. In this organization, overall climate of works group is creative in which group members do decision for creating novel ideas for the its development.
Job performance concerns the knowledge, skills and attitudes that are required to enable an individual to perform the activities listed in the job description as per the competency profile that a human resource or similar professional may have developed through job analysis. Work performance means the outcomes of the employees about their work and objectives align with the organization’s goals and objectives that are achieved by the employees to work effectively, efficiently and motivation and work performance of the employees measuring using different techniques of performance appraisal system.
Currently the most of studied are conducting to measure the performance by reactions of user to performance appraisal (Jawahar, 2007). The reactions are approximately always appropriate and adverse reactions can to difficult the largest part carefully constructed the system of appraisal (Murphy and Cleveland, 1995). The very few studies assumed the expression of performance appraisal and its effect on employees’ commitment and work performance instead of testing the employees performance critically (Williams and Levy, 2004) the described the most of the studies conducted to examine the relationships between reaction of performance appraisal, attitude and behavior of the employees. The determinations of individual person differences which can effect the association between reactions of the performance appraisal and employees’ work performance of the individual may discover the situations in which performance appraisal is much or less effective that study such as to capitulate results of relatively in practical (Fletcher, 2001). The fundamental activities of performance appraisal are Goal setting and feedback that are broadly assumed the impact of performance positively by increasing specific information, knowledge, and motivation which are important for increasing the performance of employees (Fletcher, 2001). Kuvaas (2006a) concluded the positive association between reactions of performance appraisal and commitment of the organization and intrinsic motivation plays moderate role between their relationships. The positive association founded between reactions of the performance appraisal and employees’ work performance in which autonomy orientation acts as moderate between their relationships (Kuvaas, 2007). Kuvaas (2011) found the increasing and positive interaction between reactions of the employees and employees work performance in which feedback plays moderate role between their relationships. In this study we used the 6 dimensions (acceptability, hard working, extra effort, better perform, engagement of job, and quality of work) of Kuvaas for measurement and identify the work performance of the employees because Kuvaas constructed the advance dimensions of work performance.
I always perform better than the expectations of my supervisors. I always try to work hard for completing my task in time. I always spend extra time for achieving tasks effectively. I frequently do perform excellent and get reward from my supervisors. My works’ quality is very high for performing well to achieve any task effectively. I always committed with my job rather than just do job.
Various studies have examined that creative behavior of employees in the organization strongly affected by the employee motivation (Shalley et al., 2004; Griffin and Neal, 2000; Brown and Leigh, 1996; Oldham and Cummings, 1996). Mitchell (1982) viewed that job design has been supposed to support the employee’s motivation and has been long measured an important contributor to performance, motivation and satisfaction of employees. The perceptions in the perspective of organizational creativity climate were affected by employees’ motivation for generating new and novel ideas in the organizations (Amabile, 1996). West and Richards (1999) described that the cognitive arrangement of both factors working environment and personal qualities are fostered the creative behavior at workplace. The organizational climate significantly influenced on the employees’ perceptions, attitude, cognition and behavior (Hoffmann, 1997) and climate has been affected the performance of the employees by the manipulation and modification of their psychological process (Isaksen et al., 2001). The main objective of the organizational creative climate is to examine those variables by which organizational ability can transfer the positive knowledge, skills and attitude into its employees for increasing their performance and effectively achievement of organizations’ goals (Abbey and Dickson, 1983; Denison, 1990; Baer and Frese, 2003). The creative climates supports for the creation, perceptions about innovation, consideration, develop new products and provision of new services, technical ways for work designing, as well as creative climate promotes understanding, concept, approaches, utilization, and adoption of new and novel ideas for the sustainable development of the organizations in future (Isaksen et al., 1999). Kao and Tsai (2004) founded the positive relationships between innovative behavior and organizational creativity climate and data was collected from 254 employees of Taiwanese enterprises. The creative climate affected the innovation of organizations or firms (Ismail, 2005). Porter (1996) identified there was uncompleted understanding of organizational behaviors and adopters’ performance at individual (micro) and organizational (macro) in complex and dynamic climate of the organizations. Many researchers have suggested that to examine the relationships of organizational climate and performance at different levels individual and organizational level (Klien et al., 2000; Hitt et al., 2007). Most of the studies have identified that creative climate was an important factor for increasing the performance in the organizations (Amabile et al., 1996; Ekvall, 1996) and various studies have also examined the relationships between organizational creative climate and outcome (Payne and Pugh, 1976; Abbey and Dickson, 1983; Eckvall and Ryhammer, 1999; Baer and Frese, 2003). The organizational creative climate was affected the performance of teachers at campus (Chiou, 2002). Choi (2004) identified that there were some variables which create obstacles for creativity climate in the organizations and these variables can hinder the performance of the employees for adopting any innovative change as well as also would disturb the employees’ psychological mechanism but these variables yet not have been investigated systematical in various studies. Amabile (1988 & 1996) developed a componential model of the organizational creativity climate that addresses the individual work performance and perception about innovation of the employees at workplace. According to the Amabile model, she recognized two main factors which are important for examining the organizational creative climate first factor was climate stimulants in which includes six dimensions (organizational encouragement, supervisory encouragement, work group support, freedom, sufficient resources and work challenge) and these dimensions supports the creative climate and second factor was climate obstacles which consists on two dimensions (organizational impediments and workload pressure) and these dimensions hinder the creative climate in the organizations. We hypothesized according to aforementioned studies and arguments that: H1a: There is positive relationship between organizational stimulants (organizational encouragement, supervisory encouragement, work group support, freedom, sufficient resources and work challenge) to creative climate and work motivation. H1b: There is negative relationship between organizational obstacles (organizational impediments and workload pressure) to creative climate and work motivation. H2a: There is positive relationship between organizational stimulants (organizational encouragement, supervisory encouragement, work group support, freedom, sufficient resources and work challenge) to creative climate and perceived innovation. H2b: There is negative relationship between organizational obstacles (organizational impediments and workload pressure) to creative climate and perceived innovation. H3a: There is positive relationship between organizational stimulants (organizational encouragement, supervisory encouragement, work group support, freedom, sufficient resources and work challenge) to creative climate and work performance. H3b: There is negative relationship between organizational obstacles (organizational impediments and workload pressure) to creative climate and work performance.
Now days, the management style is changing rapidly in all over the world (Robbins, 2000). In the changing environment of world most of the organization’s leaders are managing the human resources through increasing the motivation and innovation capability of their followers or employees because the employees’ motivation is organizations’ life blood (Sharma, 2006). Effective and efficient organizations can increase the motivation level of employees for gaining these competitive advantages like decrease turnover intention and absenteeism; increase the productivity, work life satisfaction and revenue; and improve the work performance (Lin, 2007). So it is main responsibility for the organization’s leaders establish the assumptions to keep motivate their employees (Birkin, 2006) and these assumptions can lead the leaders to make mistakes when they are trying to keep motivate their followers/employees (Simon and Enz, 2006). Persona social life and work, Management style, structure and culture as well as environment of the organization affect the motivation level of employees (Lin, 2007). There are many theories Maslow’s (needs hierarchy theory), MeClelland’s (personality approach), Victor Vroom’s (Expectancy theory) that support this hypothesis that when employees’ motivation will increase their work performance also increase. Beside it Vroom’s VIE theory, Locke and latham’s goal theory, Bangharas’ self efficacy theory, Weiner’s attribution theory, Hertzberg’s (job design theory), Adim’s (Equity theory), these theories help to develop and improve the behavior of the employees and provide positive thinking to leaders and employees that increase their & other motivation level for doing work effectively and willingly (Drake and Kossen, 2002). H4: There is positive relationship between work motivation and perceived innovation. H5: There is positive relationship between work motivation and work performance.
There is significant association between clinical symptoms and functioning and intrinsic motivation plays mediation role between their relationship (Yamada, Lee, Dinh, Barrio, and Brekke, 2010) they have concluded there is negative relationship between symptoms and functioning when intrinsic motivation plays fully mediation role between their relationship. There is association between instructor learning and student and intrinsic motivation does act as a mediator between their relationship (Richmond, 1990) he investigated the positive relationship between the instructor behavior and motivation level of the student for learning more and effectively. The characteristics for the motivation is self determination theory and work motivation in which elaborate the basic needs, desires and general necessities for education, nourishment and attaining knowledge which are essential for human development and reality (Sheldon, Deci, Ryan & Kasser, 1996). The characteristics for the motivation is self determination theory and work motivation in which elaborate the basic needs, desires and general necessities for education, nourishment and attaining knowledge which are essential for human development and reality (Sheldon, Deci, Ryan & Kasser, 1996). There are important and fundamental psychological needs (competence, autonomy, and relatedness) which influence the intrinsic motivation of the employees and work climate which support satisfaction of the three fundamental psychological needs will increase the motivation level of the employees intrinsically and it support internalization completely of the extrinsic motivation of the employees and ultimately it effect the employees’ work outcomes, changing behavior positively, effective performance, job satisfaction, organizational citizenship behavior, and positive attitude, well being and psychological adjustment of the employees (Gagne & Deci, 2005). Researchers have postulated the importance of determining the mediation affect of work motivation between climate and performance (Kopelman at al., 1990; Petterson et al., 2004). There were significant relationships of work motivation as mediation between organization creative climate and perceived innovation (Lin and Liu, 2012). The above mentioned arguments were elaborated the mediation role of work motivation between organizational climate, leadership, and individual behavior, perceived innovation but never proposed any study in which examine the mediation affect between organizational creative climate and current work performance of the employees in the Pakistani organizations. So on the basis of above past studies we hypothesized that: H6a: Employees’ work motivation plays mediation role between organizational creativity climate and perceived innovation. H6b: Employees’ work motivation plays mediation role between organizational creativity climate and work performance. Organizational Creativity Climate Work Motivation Perceived Innovation Work Performance
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