Black people and white people segregation already continue for so long time in America history. Black children can’t take same school with white children, and they didn’t allowed take bus with white people either. Although the Declaration of Independence stated that “All men are created equal,” due to the institution of slavery, this statement was not to be grounded in law in the United States until after the Civil War. Futhermore, Although the thirteenth amendment to the United States constitution outlawed slavery, however, the government actually guaranteed the rights of citizenship to all persons born or naturalized in the United States, including due process and equal protection of the laws after three years when the fourteenth amendment was published. The fifteen amendment which was protecting voting rights were intended to eliminate the last remnants of slavery and to protect the citizenship of black Americans. In 1975, Congress also passed the first Civil Rights Act which held the equality of all men before the law.
This act called for fines and penalities for anyone found denying patronage of public places. However, the Supreme Court reasoned that this act was beyond the scope of the 13th and 14th Amendments, as these amendments only concerned the actions of the government, not those of private citizens. At the end of ninteen century, segregation situations were popular and segregation laws were uiverse in the world. All of amendments for stoping segregation were ignored. White people and colored people still can’t use same room or things in public area like Threater, station, and school. Since the 1896 decision happened, the supreme court in Plessy v. Ferguson that racially segregated public facilities were legal, so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal. Although many people felt that these laws were unjust, it was not until the 1890s that they were directly challenged in court. In 1892, an African-American man named Homer Plessy refused to give up his seat to a white man on a train in New Orleans, as he was required to do by Louisiana state law. Because of this action, he was arrested. Pleyssa claimed that segregation violate the fourteenth amandement, and he against it on the court. Until 1896, his case was move to the supreme court, unfortunately, By a vote of 8-1, the Supreme Court ruled against Plessy.
By the early 1950s, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) started to fight against segregation, and they try to get help from the supreme court. The mose famous case in that time was Brown v Board of Ed. It was happened in 1591, Oliver Brown who was a plaintiff filed a class action lawsuit with the Topeka Board of Education in Kansas in 1951 because his daughter Linda Brown who was a third grader, had to take a bus to a segrated elementry school that was much farther from her home than the nearby school for white children. Futhermore, Linda Brown was denied entry to Topeka All-White Elementary School. Oilver Brown appeals that Although the law was published in 1896 said black people and white people have equal environment and life, they actually won’t get same equal and fair living condition and education with white people. Oilver Brown thinks black and white segregation already violate equal protection clause in the 14th Amendment. U.S. district court realize that school segregation have vile affects upon to colored chilren, futhermore, it makes colored children feel inferiority. However, they still insist on separate but equal stragegy.
Justices have a lot of different opinions and ideas about this events. First time in the court and then in the supreme court. The supreme court heard arguments in the case in 1953, but the justices were deeply divided they decided to put the case on hold to allow for new briefs and argument while the case on hold. Cheif Justice, Fred Benson was died and was replaced by california governor for warrant who believed segregation was unconstitutional understanding. Many people in the south would resist this decision because white people have more power and noble social status, and they still want to control the power. Believed a unanimous decision was important to give the court’s ruling legitimately. When the case resumed in 1954, the court still divided to both side. One side is justices believe that segregation was a violation of the 14th Amendment equality clause, and another side is they believed it was a federalism issue and decisions about how to end segregation should be left at the base. School really be equal if students are segregated merely based on the color of their skin. The most persuasive argument is equality clause because everyone should be equal when God born us. Some people thinks that we are segrated people based on their skin color. Chief Justice Warren wrote and rewrote the court’s decision until he had finally achieved a unanimous opinion leaving the question of the equality of the schools of fact. Earl Warren mention that we must look instead of at the effect of segregation itself on public education. The immediate consequence of these decision were result in a rising attention for equality in school. His decision make people in the world realize not only segregation but equal doctrine have violation of the constitution, but also all the cases are unconstitutional. Because of the segregation of education, it makes colored children stamped an inherent badge of inferiority on African-Americans students. The reason why white students don’t like go to same school with colored students because white students thinks black students ancestor are slavery before, and black guys have lower status than them. So they don’t have power to live or study together.
Finally, The United States Supreme Court unanimously ruled that segregation in public schools violated the fourteenth amendment to the constitution, which prohibits states from denying equal protection to anyone within their jurisdiction. The decision declared separate education facilities for white and African American students inherently unequal. Therefore, in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), the Supreme Court proposed the principle of “separate but equal” and held that it did not apply to public education. According to this principle, public facilities of white people and African Americans are not subject to the provisions of laws that violate the equal protection, if the facilities are roughly equal. The Supreme Court’s opinion in Brown v. education committee in 1954 legally ended decades of segregation in America’s public schools. Originally named after Oliver Brown, this was the first plaintiff listed in Brown v. Topeka education committee (KS) lower court case, a landmark decision that effectively resolved six separate segregation cases from four states and merged under Brown v. board of directors. The Supreme Court of the United States has ruled that state law establishing separate public schools for black and white students is unconstitutional. The decision effectively overturns Plessy v. Ferguson 1896 decision to allow state-sponsored segregation as long as it applies to public education. I agreee with the Court’s decision because this decision end the segregation in the United States. This decision also intergrated black people colored people, and provide colored people better environment to study and live. To society, it make police reduce inspection time and procedures, People also have power to refuse to search. It also motivate bill of rights happened, and it make more and more people can get higher education. No more racism between them, and it also will increase the spread of culture acknowledge.The court decision make this society more stable because people have rights to know the police information.They can better regulate disputes. It has helped the United States become a more democratic country.
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