Volcanoes are planetary vents, that emit heated gases along with molten rocks and fragmented rock pieces. Eruptions can occur from these volcanic vents, causing strong displays of power within the planet as well as spewing out said rocks and gases. While majorly destructive, volcanoes are a necessary environmental occurrence, which allows the release of heat and gases that would be otherwise trapped within the planet. These vents are a needed and natural process from resulting thermal evolution. Heat does not escape from our Earth, which results in the melting of the mantle as well as the crust of the Earth. This causes the elevation of magma towards the surface, therefore showing signs of the thermal process. Whether it is an oceanic/subterranean Volcano, or a Strato-Volcanic development, they are all caused by a convection current thousands of miles between the molten core of the planet and the upper crust, forcing magma to rise through the deep layers of the planets mantle.
There can also be causes of low layering or layered tectonic plates or plate which relocates melting or melted magma to be shifted and pushed up through what is called a subduction Volcanoes, but still remains the same factor of having heated rock caused by the molten core diffused into the mantle by a melting process shifting into an upward motion out of the innards of the planet. As such, Volcanoes are closely related and associated with tectonic shifts, some on the edge of plate distortions like Japan’s Volcanoes, and some within the middle of these shifting occurrences like most of the Hawaiian Volcanic activity. The rising of these lava conduits may vary in how they proceed through the crust of the planet, some eruptions may flow out of the surface while others can be compacted to the point of explosion causing a spew and hurling effect on molten rock and magma shooting randomly out of the surface. Other times it can just ventilate sulphuric fumes, entrapped gases leaking out of the surface tension between itself and the upper crust, which in turn can also be a cause of the explosive reaction stated above from the mixture of such gases and tempered molten liquids colliding and fusing. While being seen as nothing but destruction, Volcanic activity brings about fertilization through soil, mass amounts of mineral depositories as well as geothermal displacement through energy and over time, they allow Earth to recycle and renew not only the contents on land, but the Atmosphere as well as the hydrosphere.
It’s stated in Live science, Earth’s crust is 3 to 37 miles (5 to 60 kilometers) thick, according to the U.S. Geological Survey. It is broken up into seven major and 152 smaller pieces called tectonic plates, according to a 2016 paper by Christopher Harrison at the University of Miami. (Bagley, M.,2018)
These plates glide above a layer of magma which is lighter in buoyancy around the edges of the plates which is where the magma forces in between the sections, erupting to what we know as lava. Upon emptying, A Volcano can form what is called a Caldera, a depression in the earth which is caused by the collapsing of a volcano after being vacated. There are other surnames associated with the transformation of recently depleted Volcanic activities such as volcanic plugs, lava plateaus and tuff cones, which all reference a different occurrence within other types of volcanic activities.
Steven Earle explains in the text Physical Geology, that Kimberlite eruptions that originate at depths greater than 200 km, within areas beneath old thick crust (shields), traverse the region of stability of diamond in the mantle, and in some cases, bring diamond-bearing material to the surface. All of the diamond deposits on Earth are assumed to have formed in this way; an example is the rich Ekati Mine in the Northwest Territories. (Earle, S.,2016)
Within the text, it explains that there is another special type of volcano, called Kimberlites, which develop deeper within the mantle upwards of up to 450 km below a 150 km threshold.
Kimberlite eruptions move materials to the surface quickly with bare minimum interaction against the surrounding rocks and minerals, making was is known as ultramafic deposits. Pressure decreases and the process to omit other materials in the rock takes place once kimberlite breaks to the surface.
Volcanoes have existed for a long time on Earth, likely causing disasters such as the Permian mass extinction about 250 million years ago, the greatest mass extinction in Earth’s history, according to a 2015 paper. (Bagley, M.,2018)
In my opinion, I do feel like volcanoes are a form of renewing the planetary cycle such as the Permian mass extinction. It shows all of the signs i’ve read so far as being a true statement; explosive StratoVolcanic activity, hurling and spewing hundreds of feet in diameter rocks, most likely into our upper atmosphere just to be rained down upon the planet, releasing its pent up heat pocketed by these giant Volcanoes. Also over time within the last hundred or so years there were devastating eruptions like in 1980 with Mt. Saint Helen, and in 1991 with Mount Pinatubo which was in my home country of the Philippines and affected my family personally. It seems to me that Volcanic activity is just a natural occurrence that the planet needs to survive, and the more we can understand and cooperate with them the better for us to survive hand in hand with nature.
Bagley, M. (2018, February 6). Volcano Facts and Types of Volcanoes. Retrieved December 7, 2018, from https://www.livescience.com/27295-volcanoes.html
Ball, J. (n.d.). Types of Volcanic Eruptions. Retrieved December 7, 2018, from https://geology.com/volcanoes/types-of-volcanic-eruptions/
Decker, B. B., & Decker, R. W. (2018, November 15). Volcano geology. Retrieved December 7, 2018, from https://www.britannica.com/science/volcano
Earle, S. (2016, August 12). 4.3 Types of Volcanoes. Retrieved December 7, 2018, from https://opentextbc.ca/geology/chapter/4-3-types-of-volcanoes/
Rafferty, J. P. (2009, July 30). Kimberlite eruption VOLCANISM. Retrieved December 7, 2018, from https://www.britannica.com/science/kimberlite-eruption
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