The competition in the banking sector is increasing at a tremendous rate. MNC banks in India are doing well in India and Standard Chartered Bank being one of them wants to increase the consumer base. Therefore, it is trying to do this through retail banking.
Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Standard chartered bank (scb)" essay for youCreate order
At this point of time the bank is expanding and is coming up with new branches all over India. It has recently opened a new branch there and if yes then how it can acquire new Customers. In two month’s time I was supposed to promote and sell their products (especially deposits) and to do a market study to know customers needs and requirements so that bank can improvise on them if possible. This time period was not enough to do an intense study. Therefore, I could collect limited data and kept my study limited to small a sample
Standard Chartered is the world’s leading emerging markets bank. It employs 29,000 people in over 500 offices in more than 50 countries in the Asia Pacific Region, South Asia, the Middle East, Africa, United Kingdom and the Americas. The Bank serves both Consumer and Wholesale banking customers. The Consumer Bank provides credit cards, personal loans, mortgages, deposit taking activity and wealth management services to individuals and medium sized businesses. The Wholesale Bank provides services to multinational, regional and domestic corporate and institutional clients in trade finance, cash management, custody, lending, foreign exchange, interest rate management and debt capital markets. With 150 years in the emerging markets the Bank has unmatched knowledge and understanding of its customers in its markets. Standard Chartered recognizes its responsibilities to its staff and to the communities in which it operates
Standard Chartered is the world’s leading emerging markets bank headquartered in London. Its businesses however, have always been overwhelmingly international. This is summary of the main events in the history of Standard Chartered and some of the organizations with which it merged.
Standard Chartered is named after two banks, which merged in 1969. They were originally known as the Standard Bank of British South Africa and the Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China. Of the two banks, the Chartered Bank is the older having been founded in 1853 following the grant of a Royal Charter from Queen Victoria. The moving force behind the Chartered Bank was a Scot, James Wilson, who made his fortune in London making hats. James Wilson went on to start The Economist, still one of the world’s pre-eminent publications. Nine years later, in 1862, the Standard Bank was founded by a group of businessmen led by another Scot, John Paterson, who had immigrated to the Cape Province in South Africa and had become a successful merchant. Both banks were keen to capitalize on the huge expansion of trade between Europe, Asia and Africa and to reap the handsome profits to be made from financing that trade. The Chartered Bank opened its first branches in 1858 in Chennai and Mumbai. A branch opened in Shanghai that summer beginning Standard Chartered unbroken presence in China. The following year the Chartered Bank opened a branch in Hong Kong and an agency was opened in Singapore. In 1861 the Singapore agency was upgraded to a branch, which helped provide finance for the rapidly developing rubber and tin industries in Malaysia. In 1862 the Chartered Bank was authorized to issue bank notes in Hong Kong. Subsequently it was also authorized to issue bank notes in Singapore, a privilege it continued to exercise up until the end of the 19th Century. Over the following decades both the Standard Bank and the Chartered Bank printed bank notes in a variety of countries including China, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Malaysia and even during the siege of Marketing in South Africa. Today Standard Chartered is still one of the three banks, which prints Hong Kong’s bank notes.
The Standard Bank opened for business in Port Elizabeth, South Africa, in 1863. It pursued a policy of expansion and soon amalgamated with several other banks including the Commercial Bank of Port Elizabeth, the Colesberg Bank, the British Kaffarian Bank and the Fauresmith Bank. The Standard Bank was prominent in the financing and development of the diamond fields of Kimberly in 1867 and later extended its network further north to the new town of Johannesburg when gold was discovered there in 1885. Over time, half the output of the second largest goldfield in the world passed through the Standard Bank on its way to London. In 1892 the Standard Bank opened for business in Zimbabwe, and expanded into Mozambique in 1894, Botswana in 1897, Malawi in 1901, Zambia in 1906, Kenya, Zanzibar and the Democratic Republic of Congo (D.R.C.), in 1911 and Uganda in 1912. Of these new businesses, Botswana, Zanzibar and the D.R.C. proved the most difficult and the branches soon closed. A branch in Botswana opened again in 1934 but lasted for only a year and it was not until 1950 that the Bank re-opened for business in Botswana. In Asia the Chartered Bank expanded opening offices in, Myanmar in 1862, what is now Pakistan and Indonesia in 1863, the Philippines in 1872, Malaysia in 1875, Japan in 1880 and Thailand in 1894. Some 34 years after the Chartered Bank appointed an agent in Sri Lanka it opened a branch in 1892 to take advantage of business from the tea and rubber industries. During 1904 a branch opened in Vietnam. Both the Chartered and the Standard Bank opened offices in New York and Hamburg in the early 1900s. The Chartered Bank gaining the first branch licence to be issued to a foreign bank in New York.
Even the First World War offered opportunities for expansion when the Standard Bank set up a branch in Tanzania shortly after British troops occupied the formerly German administered Dar es Salaam in September 1916. Both banks survived the inter-war years but the world trade slump led to the closure of operations in the Canary Islands, Liberia, the Netherlands, and Equatorial Guinea. Disaster struck the Chartered Bank’s office in Yokohama, Japan, when an earthquake in 1923 killing a number of staff destroyed it. The Second World War particularly affected the Chartered Bank when numerous Asian countries were occupied by Japan.
The Chartered Bank opened its first overseas branch in India, at Calcutta, on 12 April 1858 Eight years later the Calcutta agent described the Bank’s credit locally as splendid and its business as flourishing particularly the substantial turnover in rice bills with the leading Arab firms. When the Chartered Bank first established itself in India, Calcutta was the most important Commercial city and was the centre of the jute and indigo trades. With the growth of cotton trade and the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, Bombay took over from Calcutta as India’s main trade centre. Today the Bank’s branches and sub-branches in India are directed and administered from Mumbai (Bombay) with Calcutta remaining an important trading and banking centre. Standard Chartered is the largest international banking Group in India. Key businesses include Consumer Banking-Primarily credit cards, mortgages, personal loans and wealth management and wholesale Banking, where the Bank specializes in the provision of cash management trade, finance, treasury and custody services. It is the largest international banking group in India with an employee base of nearly 3500 people across the country. It also boast the largest branch network amongst all international banks in India-with 61 branches in 15 cities. With over 2.3 million retail customers, and a Credit Card base in excess of 1.3 million, it is the leaders in the consumer banking business. The wholesale bank has over 1200 corporate customers with a 33% market share in value with over 270 top transnational companies in India.
Banking, in a traditional sense is the business of accepting deposits of money from public for the purpose of lending and investment. These deposits can have a distinct feature of being withdrawable by cheques, which no other financial institution can offer. In addition, banks also offer various other financial services which include. Issuing Demand Drafts & Travellers Cheques Credit Cards Collection of Cheques, Bills of exchange Safe Deposit Lockers Issuing Letters of Credit & Letters of Guarantee Sale and Purchase of Foreign Exchange Custodial Services Investment & Insurance services The business of banking is highly regulated since banks deal with money offered to them by the public and ensuring the safety of this public money is one of the prime responsibilities of any bank. That is why banks are expected to be prudent in their lending and investment activities. Every bank has a Compliance Department, which is responsible to ensure that all the services offered by the bank, and the processes followed are in compliance with the local regulations and the Bank’s corporate policy. The major regulations and acts that govern the banking business are Banking Regulations act, 1949 Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999 Indian Contract Act Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881 Banks lend money either for productive purposes to individuals, firms, corporates etc, or for buying house property, cars and other consumer durable and for investment purposes to individuals and others. However, banks do not finance any speculative activity. Lending is risk taking.
We’re living in a world dominated by the new idea economy, ticking to the beat of Internet time, where customers are quality conscious, time conscious and price conscious. Technology is creating new agile players making the existing ones obsolete. In this scenario, the role of internet and its impact on banking still appears to be a puzzle. Banks around the world are subject to the same radical changes -new competition, technology, deregulation, and globalization. But, eventually, the classic rules of business will reassert themselves in this virtual environment and the winners will be the first and best movers. The challenges in this millennium for the banking industry are enormous. The technology and Banking sector reforms, together are lifting the competitive intensity of the Banking business. In Banking, embedding knowledge into products can enhance value, and connecting different knowledge sources can create innovative products. The banks that are first to market with the right mix of technologies, strategies and partnerships would be the sure winners. The banking environment worldwide is undergoing massive transformation. Despite the, not so favorable, market sentiments and an apparent backlash against dotcoms, serious players in established industries like banking, remain convinced that the Internet will have a profound impact on the banking sector. Mergers and acquisitions are changing the financial landscape, and cross-border linkages are drastically altering the business characters, in general and banking operations, in particular. But drawing firm conclusions can be dangerous, as mergers and consolidation take many different forms and the impact can give mixed results. But, there is growing concern as to whether mergers deliver the expected benefits and whether cross-border deals are feasible, particularly in Europe, where cultural considerations are seen as barriers to success. In Europe, players are beginning to assert themselves, as the Nat West battle is resolved. Nat west, one of the UK’s biggest banks, was forced to accept a hostile takeover bid from a smaller rival, Royal Bank of Scotland in December 2000. Earlier in November 1999, Nat west rejected a similar bid by another small bank, Bank of Scotland. This move left the scene set for Royal Bank of Scotland to submit its long anticipated bid for Nat West. It was followed by a flurry of bid and counter bid by the two Scottish banks as Nat west fought to keep its independence. The Royal Bank of Scotland finally won by convincing the Nat West shareholders to accept its £25 bn offer. This outcome has set the tone for a long overdue round of consolidation in the European financial sector. Coming home, Indian banking sector has come a long way from being a sleepy business institution to a highly proactive and dynamic entity. Indian banking system is in the midst of a technological revolution. It is impacting the Indian industry in three ways – firstly, by providing efficient and effective delivery Channels, secondly, it is dramatically influencing the client profile, which in turn leads to the third change i.e. the Human Resources Management. As a service sector, it calls for a change in the attitude of the personnel that would have a salutary effect on customers. Indian Banking that was operating in a highly comfortable and protected environment till the beginning of 1990s has been pushed into the choppy waters of intense competition. Mergers and acquisitions, have been heating up in the new private banking sector since the HDFC-Times Bank merger came through in November 1999. The deal shook an otherwise placid Indian banking world and generated a kind of pressure on banks to shake hands with their peers to cope up with the competition. Going forward, the premium valuations of private banks compared to public sector banks depend on their ability to maintain high earnings growth and quality of assets. The current downturn in the economic activity could result in the increase of non-performing assets for most of the banks. The winner in the market would be the one who can sustain the high growth in business without compromising the asset quality. In this millennium, banks should strive to achieve significant increases in their productivity, efficiency, and profitability. The areas of challenges that lie ahead for the Indian banking sector would be: Restructuring and Reorganizing banks’ setup, leaner offices, merging and forging of strategic alliances to take advantage of the geographic spread of branch network of banks, develop new products and services that would meet the emerging needs of customers and professional Management structures that would be responsive to the changes in the business environment. The book “Banking In The New Millennium” examines this changing landscape for the banking services. The purpose of this book is to present the current trends, the emerging scenario and the building blocks in banking sector. A brief section is also dedicated to retail banking that is growing in a big way. The book is divided into four sections analyzing the various aspects of the banking scenario. Packed with the right mix of articles on e-banking, retail banking, and mergers and acquisitions, this book is intended to serve as an executive reference book on Banking.
After the nationalization of Banks, increasing adoption of technology, continuous mergers in the banking, modernizing backroom operation in the banks and competition pave the path of growth of Indian banking. By the mid-1990, the near monopoly of public sector banks faced the competition by the more customer-focused private sector entrants. This competition forced older and nationalized banks to revitalize their operations. Year 1992 was the golden period of Indian Banking system due to the scam-tainted stock market. Large proportion of household saving moved into the banking system, which recorded an annual growth of 20 percent in deposit. But along with the continuous growth and modernization, there are several challenges confronting the banking sector. The main challenges facing the banking sector are the deployment of funds in quality assets and the management of revenues and costs. The problem of NPA (non- performing assets), overall credit recovery systems still exist. There is a continuous reforms and modernization is in process. A number of recon mediations of two Narasimham committees have been implemented. Foreign Banks focusing on corporate and on the middle class consumer and providing then better service. Nationalized Banks are also attempting to get on the path of automation. Strong Banks will acquire the weaker banks. The member of foreign banks operating in India has increased significantly and their share of total assets has also increased. In the year 2001 estimated foreign bank account for 14.7 percent of the total net profit of commercial banking sector in India. In spite tangible progress and the contribution of Narasimham I and Narasimham committee reports the banking sector in India suffering from systemic and structural problem.
Data collection has been done from both sources primary as well as secondary. Primary data : by meeting various managers of the Standard Chartered Bank, Citibank, ABN-AMRO Bank, ICICI, HDFC, HSBC, GTB, UTI and IDBI. Secondary data: From newspaper, magazines, Libraries.
Investment in India – Banking – Banking System Introduction The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is India’s central bank. Though public sector banks currently dominate the banking industry, numerous private and foreign banks exist. India’s government-owned banks dominate the market. Their performance has been mixed, with a few being consistently profitable. Several public sector banks are being restructured, and in some the government either already has or will reduce its ownership. Private and foreign banks The RBI has granted operating approval to a few privately owned domestic banks; of these many commenced banking business. Foreign banks operate more than 150 branches in India. The entry of foreign banks is based on reciprocity, economic and political bilateral relations. An inter-departmental committee approves applications for entry and expansion. Capital adequacy norm Foreign banks were required to achieve an 8 percent capital adequacy norm by March 1993, while Indian banks with overseas branches had until March 1995 to meet that target. All other banks had to do so by March 1996. The banking sector is to be used as a model for opening up of India’s insurance sector to private domestic and foreign participants, while keeping the national insurance companies in operation. Banking India has an extensive banking network, in both urban and rural areas. All large Indian banks are nationalized, and all Indian financial institutions are in the public sector. RBI banking The Reserve Bank of India is the central banking institution. It is the sole authority for issuing bank notes and the supervisory body for banking operations in India. It supervises and administers exchange control and banking regulations, and administers the government’s monetary policy. It is also responsible for granting licenses for new bank branches. 25 foreign banks operate in India with full banking licenses. Several licenses for private banks have been approved. Despite fairly broad banking coverage nationwide, the financial system remains inaccessible to the poorest people in India. Indian banking system The banking system has three tiers. These are the scheduled commercial banks; the regional rural banks that operate in rural areas not covered by the scheduled banks; and the cooperative and special purpose rural banks. Scheduled and non-scheduled banks There are approximately 80 scheduled commercial banks, Indian and foreign; almost 200 regional rural banks; more than 350 central cooperative banks, 20 land development banks; and a number of primary agricultural credit societies. In terms of business, the public sector banks, namely the State Bank of India and the nationalized banks, dominate the banking sector. Local financing All sources of local financing are available to foreign-participation companies incorporated in India, regardless of the extent of foreign participation. Under foreign exchange regulations, foreigners and non-residents, including foreign companies, require the permission of the Reserve Bank of India to borrow from a person or company resident in India . Regulations on foreign banks Foreign banks in India are subject to the same regulations as scheduled banks. They are permitted to accept deposits and provide credit in accordance with the banking laws and RBI regulations. Currently about 25 foreign banks are licensed to operate in India. Foreign bank branches in India finance trade through their global networks. RBI restrictions The Reserve Bank of India lays down restrictions on bank lending and other activities with large companies. These restrictions, popularly known as “consortium guidelines” seem to have outlived their usefulness, because they hinder the availability of credit to the non-food sector and at the same time do not foster competition between banks. Indian vs foreign banks Most Indian banks are well behind foreign banks in the areas of customer funds transfer and clearing systems. They are hugely over-staffed and are unlikely to be able to compete with the new private banks that are now entering the market. While these new banks and foreign banks still face restrictions in their activities, they are well-capitalized, use modern equipment and attract high-caliber employees. Government and RBI regulations All commercial banks face stiff restrictions on the use of both their assets and liabilities. Forty percent of loans must be directed to “priority sectors” and the high liquidity ratio and cash reserve requirements severely limit the availability of deposits for lending.The RBI requires that domestic Indian banks make 40 percent of their loans at concessional rates to priority sectors’ selected by the government. These sectors consist largely of agriculture, exporters, and small businesses. Since July 1993, foreign banks have been required to make 32 percent of their loans to these priority sector. Within the target of 32 percent, two sub-targets for loans to the small scale sector (minimum of 10 percent) and exports (minimum of 12 percent) have been fixed. Foreign banks, however, are not required to open branches in rural areas, or to make loans to the agricultural sector. Commercial banks lent dols 8 billion in the Indian financial year (IFY, April-March) 1997/98, up sharply from dols 4.4 billion in the previous year. The deployment of gross loans was as follows:
|Gross Bank Loans||100|
|Loans to Trade||0.07|
Consumer Banking Offers a wide range of premium banking products and services through the network of 90 branches in 19 cities across the country to cater to customer’s diverse financial needs. Wealth management offers a complete and comprehensive range of products to fulfill a gamut of customer investment and financial needs. These include domestic and NRI transaction accounts (with several value-add products and services like ATM and globally valid Debit Card, phone banking, extended banking, any branch banking, door step banking and investment advisory services), distribution of capital market and insurance products and dematerialization services and finances against shares. Standard Chartered also offers Priority Banking that is ‘personalized banking for the privileged few. Standard Chartered Group is a leading credit card issuer in India and has several firsts to its credit. These include issuance of the first Global Credit Card in India, the first Photo card, the first Picture Card. Our card division under Unsecured Payments is also the first in South Asia to be accorded an ISO 9002 certification. The credit Cards and Personal Loans Offer include co-branded cards with unique value propositions and cards like ‘Sapnay’ for the middle-market segment. The division offers a range of personal loan products and also a personal line of credit through products such as “Smart Credit”. Our Secured Loan Division offers mortgage auto loans and also unique overdraft products like ‘Mileage’ that offer revolving credit facility against the security of a used or new car. Standard Chartered Finance (SCF), an NBFC is our Centre for Excellence in Service and product distribution arm. Products include loans/leases for new passenger cars, used cars commercial vehicles and medical equipment. Standard Chartered Finance has an extensive network of branches in India.
Standard Chartered is particularly strong in Institutional relationships and is the preferred correspondent bank for over 300 domestic and international bank, the largest such private sector network in India. The Bank focuses on service quality and all its operational units in trade, cash management, treasury and custody are ISO certified. Standard Chartered is India’s largest foreign trade finance bank and offers a full complement of trade finance products, including export credit in foreign currency, export letters of credit confirmations, merchanting trade and buyer credits. It is one of the few banks in India to offer services like channel financing forfeiting, without recourse export finance, project export and service export approvals and sponsorships. As a leading cash management supplier across emerging markets, Standard Chartered Offers Complete end to end cash management solutions for corporate and institutions. The Greenwich survey for 2001 nominated Standard Chartered the “Best Cash Management Service Quality Bank in India Range of Products include vostro accounts, draft drawing, telegraphic transfers and an international payments facility that allows foreign currency payments without a separate account. Standard Chartered’s custody and clearing service unit has served Foreign Institutional Investor’s in India with Superior client servicing, supported by Sophisticated and flexible computerized systems. It is the only custodian in India to earn the ISO 9001:2000 standards certification. Standard Chartered has received top ratings in Industry’s benchmark surveys the Global custodian survey 2000 and the Global Investor Survey 2000.
Standard Charted provides a complete 24 hour coverage of the world’s foreign exchange markets. It provides a broad range of products like Exotic currencies, Derivatives, Debt Capital markets, Currency Options and Electronic trading. Standard Chartered was the first bank in India to introduce its on-Line Treasury, a browser enabled dealing system that enables real-time transactions. Standard Chartered is also recognized as a leading market for the Indian Rupee. The Bank’s Treasury-the No.1 Treasury in India-is amongst the most active treasuries in the country, being a market maker in local currency and money markets. While we seek to provide advice, treasury products and services to our global clients in the Indian market, we also have active relationships with some of the biggest and most diversified Indian companies and many medium sized companies. With a large specialized sales force, we cater to all foreign exchange, money market and risk management needs of our corporate clients. Treasury has an active inter bank desk which, apart from being a market maker in the Indian Rupee spot and the forwards market, actively quotes for other currencies. The money Market Desk is a leading player in the Rupee markets and in Government and corporate debt trading. The derivative Desk is a market maker in the Rupee Interest rate swap market. We also run one of India’s largest derivative books and offer products up to 7 years tenor. The corporate desk is amongst the largest among the foreign banks in India. With a presence in 5 major cities with state of the art dealing rooms and a corporate sales force of over 20 dealers, we have an unmatched reach and service capability across India. In addition to servicing currency market and investment needs of corporate clients, our corporate desk is active in advisory services pertaining to structuring and risk management. Standard Chartered Mutual Fund is one of the largest and fastest growing debt funds in the market. Standard Chartered Mutual Fund is the only fund that focuses only on the debt segment and prides itself on having developed one of the finest interest rate tracking models.
Liabilites ProductsAsset ProductsServices
|aXcess Plus Savings Account ?Gold ?Executive ?Classic ?Diva ?Instabuy||Credit Card ° ATM ?Gold ?Executive ?Classic ?Diva ?Instabuy||ATM|
|Super value Savings Account||Smart Credit||Me Banking|
|Corporate Executive Account||Personal Loan||Phone Banking|
|2-in-1 aXcess Plus account||Auto Finance||Room Service A/c Opening Cash Drop Cash/Cheque pick up|
|Debit Card||Mileage||Branch Banking- Ø 62 Branches Ø 365 days Ø 24 Hours|
|Business Plus 365 days s 24 Hours||Mortgage||Remittances Ø Demand drafts/ pay orders Ø Telegraphic transfers|
|Value Add||Home Saver||Collection|
|Enhanced Business Plus||Lockers|
|Super Value Business Plus|
|2 in 1 Current Account|
|NR Current Account|
Bank Deposits Bank basically offer two types of deposits: Demand Deposits. Term Deposits.
, by its nature, are payable as and when the depositor makes the demand to pay. There are two types of accounts which are demand deposits in nature. These are: Savings Account Current Account Any amount can be deposited in these accounts at any time. The amount deposited or a part of it can be withdrawn any time by using a cheque. However, banks normally stipulate a minimum balance to be maintained in these accounts.
is offered only to individuals and non-trading entities. Banks also pay interest on Savings Accounts. The interest is paid on the minimum balance held in the account between the 10th and the last day of a month. The interest is paid every half year. The rate of interest on savings Accounts is determined by RBI. Current accounts can be opened in the name of individuals or any firm or a company. No interest is paid on the balances held in this account. Term Deposits are the deposits where a fixed sum of money is kept for a specific period and the money is repaid only on expiry of this period. The interest offered on these deposits depends on the period of the deposit. Banks accept term deposits for periods ranging from 15 days to 10 years. However, our bank accepts deposits. The interest is normally paid out every quarter. But at the request of a customer, the interest can be paid every month but at a discounted rate of interest. Three most common forms of term deposits are: Fixed Deposits Reinvestment Deposits Recurring Deposits
Are those where the customer deposits a fixed amount for a certain period and the bank pays interest on it every quarter? On the expiry of the term, the principal amount is paid back to the customer or the deposit is renewed at the request of the customer. Reinvestment deposit is similar to a fixed deposit with the difference that the interest payable every quarter is compounded with the principal amount. In effect, the interest on a Reinvestment deposit is paid along with the principal on maturity only.
is the deposit where certain amounts say Rs.1000- is deposited every month as a monthly installment for a certain period ranging from 6 months to 5 years. The total amount deposited over the period is paid with accrued interest on maturity only.
In case a Term deposit is to be paid before its due date, a penal interest is charged. As per RBI guidelines, banks are now free to determine the penal rate. However, the penal rate is advised to the customer at the time of opening of account. As per the Income Tax Act, if the total amount of all deposit of a customer, including the interest on it, with a bank branch exceeds Rs. 20,000/- no deposit or any interest should be paid in cash. It can be credited in the account of the depositor. TDS on Interest Interest earned on Term Deposit(other than Recurring Deposit) are subject to tax deduction at source if the total interest earned during a Financial year (April-March) by the customer on his/her deposits at a branch exceeds Rs. 5000.
Technology innovation and fierce competition among existing banks have enabled a wide array of banking products and services, being made available to retail and wholesale customers through an electronic distribution channel, collectively referred to as e-banking. The integration of e-banking applications with legacy systems implies an integrated risk management approach for all banking activities of a banking institution. Latest recommendations of Basle committee recognise that each bank’s risk profile is different and requires a tailored risk mitigation approach appropriate for the scale of e-banking operations, the materiality of the risks present and the willingness and ability of the institution to manage their risks. This implies that a “one size fits all” approach to e-banking risk management issues may not be appropriate. Banks have traditionally been in the forefront of harnessing technology to improve products and efficiency. Technology is altering the relationships between banks and its internal and external customers. Technology has also eroded the entry barriers faced by many industries. With one time investment, technology has brought about superior products and channel management with a special focus on customer relationship. The incremental costs incurred for expansion and diversification are also more beneficial. The major driving force behind the rapid spread of e-banking is its acceptance as an extremely cost effective delivery channel. But on the flip side, it is associated with risks such as reputation risk, security risk, cross-border risk and strategic risk, which are unique to e-banking. Banks need to have an effective disaster recovery plan along with comprehensive risk management system in place to tackle the problems. An effective risk management tool is significant not only to the bank but also to the banking system as a whole. All these issues underscore the importance of sound supervisory policies and a high level of international co-operation among the bank regulators. The Basle Committee on Banking Supervision has taken the lead in this area through the creation of its Electronic Banking Group – a group comprising 17 central banks and bank supervisory agencies in the late 1999. The main focus of this group has been to develop sound risk management practices. Internet has created plenty of opportunities for players in the banking sector. While the new entrants have the advantage of latest technology, the good-will of the established banks give them a special opportunity to lead the online world. By merely putting existing services online won’t help the banks in holding their customers close. Instead, banks must learn to capitalize their customers’ different online financial-services relationships. The article “Will Banks Control Online Banking?” focuses on how banks have to reinvent their role to remain as their customers’ preferred bank. Coming home, India is on the threshold of a major banking revolution with the invasion of net banking. With the concept of payment gateway coming in, banks are vying with one another for the lion’s share in the market. Highlighting the benefits of payment gateway over the open-loop payment mechanism, the article “Banking in the Cyberworld” gives a brief report of the tug of war between the two major Indian e-banking players. The case “Internet Banking in Malaysia” is about how developments in the area of Telecommunications and Information Technology are revolutionizing the Malaysian banking sector. Today, Malaysian commercial banks have the privilege of advanced and efficient delivery channels for their products and services. This includes automated teller machines (ATMs), automated self-banking channels such as the BSN Commercial Bank’s Electronic Banking Center (EBC) and Phileo Allied Bank’s virtual kiosks and PC-banking. One unique feature that differentiates Malaysia from other countries is the responsible role played by the government. In order to encourage consumers to embrace information technology, the Malaysian government is allowing a deduction of RM500 (US $ 130) from taxable incomes on every computer purchased, thereby setting a trend for others to follow.
Retail banking is undergoing dramatic changes. The old relationship between banks and customers is changing. Changing business models, cost relations, customer relations, deregulation, convergence of economic and monetary policies, globalization of financial markets and systems, incessant introduction of new products and services, more discerning, more demanding and less loyal customers are a few of the important change drivers. As the players in the market adapt themselves to tougher competition ahead, they have to alter their product mix, delivery channels and corporate structure to serve their functional role. Some of the banking activities that are deemed very appropriate today were considered inappropriate, difficult and `out of policy pronouncement of central banks’ in the past. To quote one example, housing finance and consumer durable loans that are very personal in nature,were considered `inflationary’ and were discouraged by banks some 15 years back. But today the situation is different. Similarly in future, banks may have to serve customers by bundling certain financial services that are not currently combined or they may merge banking services with non-banking services such as tickets to concerts, sporting events, vacation planning and the like. Thus the market will Redefine the roles and banks have to gear themselves up for a fierce competition. This section highlights the importance of retail banking and explains why banks are changing their strategies and shifting their focus to retail banking. Retail banking is gaining importance with the changing customer preferences. Customers are seeking products and services that help them simplify and take control of their lives. The greatest challenge for the retail banks will be to provide `Anytime, Anywhere, banking’ to retain their customers. Unless they penetrate deep into the retail market today, their survival will be jeopardized. Distribution channel, human resources, technology, operation, etc., are the key areas, where transformation is needed for banks to become a leader in retailing business. “Tomorrow’s Leading Retail Bank”, developed by Price water house Coopers, is a blue print that defines the attributes of a bank that will enable sustainable success. Retail banking in India is experiencing a fierce competition as the foreign, private and public sector banks are competing with one another to expand their respective market share. Leading banks are now adopting product-centric and channel-centric models to penetrate the market. With the increasing competition, customer service is becoming the key factor for differentiation. This section also provides a glimpse of the impact of Internet on retail banking. Credit card issuers have greeted the Internet revolution with a sense of profound feeling of opportunity and a vague feeling of dread as well. The competition is heating up between the on-line start-ups and the traditional credit card issuers. While the start-ups have the advantage of state- of-the art technology, the conventional issuers have their brand names, good customer base and economies of scale to their advantage. But to survive in the virtual world, banks have no choice but to establish an on-line presence quickly and decisively. The article “Credit Cards-Plastic Explosives” highlights some valuable insights on how Internet can be used to cut costs and add value to credit card services.
The Banking industry is currently undergoing dramatic global change at a rapid pace. This section gives a picture of the current scenario of the banking sector. Financial stability has always been an integral concern of central banks. The importance of this has been reminded by the events of the recent years. The South-East Asian crisis and the collapse of the high profile Barrings bank calls for an effective risk management system. The New Basle Accord is one such attempt. The New Basle Accord with its three pillar-minimum capital requirement, supervisory review processes and market discipline is aimed at developing risk sensitive standards in the banking industry. But this Accord seems to have run into controversy right from the day one. The new framework if accepted would provide incentives for banks to enhance the risk measurement and management Capabilities. The article “The New Basle Accord- More Questions than Answers” speaks about the New Accord and its feasibility. In recent years, credit derivatives have evolved as major risk management tools. It was the new international rules of the Basle Accord, 1988 that brought credit derivatives into existence. Banks seeking to reduce their exposure and related risk-based capital requirement to corporate credit have found derivatives to be more efficient than securitization. The future of credit derivatives seems to be very rosy. With the improvement in technology, brilliant research work in various financial institutions and the accumulation of significant knowledge on credit experience and analysis, credit derivatives are positioned as powerful product. With the evolution of interconnected financial services, banks are converting themselves into “one stop financial supermarkets”. This has promoted two big classes of financial institutions, banks and insurance companies, to combine and deliver an innovative product-Bancassurance, which is a one-stop financial place, where a customer can avail both banking and insurance services. The article “Bancassurance -Big Forces Together” elucidates how the new concept is going to reshape the entire landscape of financial services. This new phenomenon is steadily increasing joint ventures between the two sectors. But the cultural differences between these two sectors often give rise to many problems. Coming home, the Indian banking industry has come a long way from being a sleepy business institution to a highly proactive and dynamic entity. The liberalization and economic reforms have largely brought about this transformation. The entry of private banks has revamped the services and product portfolio of nationalized banks. With efficiency being the major focus, the private banks are leveraging on their strengths. To compete with the private banks, the public sector banks are now going in for major image changes and customer friendly schemes. “The Banking Sector- Coming Challenges” is a commentary on the Indian banking sector, which is facing tremendous internal and external challenges in this transitory phase. Over the years, the Co-operative Banks have played an important and useful role in the financial and social upliftment of the non-creamy segments of the society. They have expanded by leaps and bounds over the past decade. Co-operative banks are under the dual control of RBI and the respective state’s Registrar of Co-operative Societies. This dual control has been a source of great criticism. An investigation by RBI has brought to light the fact that Madhavpura Mercantile Co-operative Bank (MMCB), abused the system in three ways: diversion of funds, massive exposure to one particular broker and the pay order scam. RBI has unearthed a string of co-operative banks, exposed to the stock market through the pay order route. Unfortunately, RBI has demonstrated its ability better as an investigator than as a ‘policeman’. The multi-crore MMCB scam, which rocked the faith of thousands of trusted investors shows how regulators, negligence can affect the whole system. If not checked and controlled, this weak link between the regulators and banks would bring down the whole system. The paper “Co-operative Banks-Colluding for a Crisis”, highlighting the MMCB episode, narrates the plight of the co-operative banks. This section also has an article on `Universal Banking’, which is changing the way banking business is conducted in India. This process reduces the distinction between the DFIs and the banks, wherein each can take up the role of the other, thus broad-basing the market segments. Banks are aggressively trying to become a one stop financial supermarket providing all types of finance related services to their customers. The article “Universal Banking: The New Imperative” enumerates the utility, feasibility and achievability of “Universal Banking” concept.
Among the stocks of new banks, HDFC Bank, ICICI Bank and UTI Bank appear promising. Of the lot, the stock of HDFC Bank is trading at a premium compared to the other two stocks. The stock of ICICI Bank appears to be the relatively undervalued stock. The valuation of UTI Bank’s stock is also attractive considering the dividend yield of nearly 5 per cent. If ICICI Bank and UTI Bank continue to deliver on their promises then the probability of their stocks relatively outperforming the HDFC Bank stock is high. In terms of volatility, banking sector stocks have generally had a lower volatility relative to that of indices such as Nifty or S&P CNX 500. This scenario is likely to continue in the medium term.
The stock of HDFC Bank has always enjoyed a premium compared to the other banking sector stocks. The premium has been justified because of the quality of financial performance notched by the company over the years. The expansion — organic and inorganic — has come with a negligible increase in the proportion of non-performing assets. The net non-performing assets to the loan assets ratio of 0.3 per cent for HDFC Bank is far lower than the ratio in excess of 2 per cent for all the other banks. Another factor that has contributed to the premium valuation is the rate of growth in earnings over the years. Going forward, the earnings guidance is for a rate of growth of 25 per cent over the next two years. Considering the efforts put in by the company in the past 12 months, its probability of growing at that rate is high. In such a scenario, the stock price performance of HDFC Bank will be better than that of indices such as Nifty and S&P CNX 500 over the next two years. Considering HDFC Bank’s performance record and the valuation of its stock, investors can consider investing in HDFC Bank stock.
The singular attractive feature in ICICI Bank’s case is its valuation. The stock is trading at less than half its book value. However, the valuation is depressed and not without reason. The net non-performing assets of ICICI Bank are at 4.73 per cent of the advances. In addition, restructured assets are a sizeable 8 per cent of the advances. On the other hand, the investment portfolio of ICICI Bank contains undervalued assets. For example, the sale of the 40 per cent stake in ICICI Bank held by the erstwhile ICICI could boost book value and profitability significantly. The investments in IT and IT-related businesses are also undervalued. In terms of expected growth in earnings, the rate of growth will not be as high as that of HDFC Bank over the medium term. This is primarily because of the ICICI Bank’s size. The growth in the year ended March 2003 could, however, be significant given that it is the first year after the merger and the merger’s synergistic benefits flow to the company. Overall, the potential for significantly large return from an investment in ICICI Bank remains. This will be especially so if the efforts at recovering non-performing assets (given a fillip through a new ordinance) succeed. The risks too are higher. The aggressive expansion strategy followed by the Bank could lead to a higher incidence of non-performing assets, which would in turn constrain growth and profitability. On balance, investments can be made now in ICICI Bank stock.
Small exposures can be considered in UTI Bank stock. UTI Bank’s financial performance has been impressive in the last few quarters. The Bank has consistently been able to reduce the proportion of non-performing assets. Its performance in the area of increased relationship based lending in 2001-02 is impressive. This is also reflected in the higher fee income generated in the first quarter of 2002-03. Its retail foray is also meeting with success. That can lead to lower costs and improved profitability. In addition, the dividend yield of 5 per cent is also attractive. Importantly, if UTI Bank manages to scale up operations faster, then its share price performance could prove superior to that of HDFC Bank. On the other hand, the ability of the bank to deal with competition when the going gets tough is lower. The risks involved can also be considered to be higher. Overall, the valuation is attractive, although HDFC Bank and ICICI Bank appear more compelling.
When they were set up, the agenda for the new private sector banks was to capture as much market share as possible. They have achieved it in most respects. New banks accounted for 6.5 per cent of the demand deposits and nearly 3 per cent of the savings deposits in the banking system in March 2001. It is likely to be higher at the end of March 2002. In March 1996, the proportions were 1.6 and 0.3 per cent respectively. The inflows into the savings accounts of new banks grew at 122 per cent annually between March 1996 and 2001. The rate of growth in demand deposits was more modest at 53 per cent. Clearly, the retail foray has spelt success for new banks. Continued success in their attempts to increase the inflow of demand and savings deposits is important to rein in costs. That new banks continue to account for a smaller share of the total pie suggests that the prospect for growth in the next two-three years continues to be bright. On the asset side, the share of new banks in loans and advances (including investments) has increased from around 1.7 per cent at the end of March 1996 to 6.7 per cent March-end 2001. On an average, the rate of growth has been 55 per cent each year. Investments in government securities have increased at a higher rate of 71 per cent. On a relative basis, new banks have been less successful in capturing share on the asset side than on the liability side. Interestingly, new banks have had greater success in lending against bills purchased or discounted than in areas such as cash credit or working capital advances. This suggests that the going for the banks in terms of building relationships (which will get reflected in cash credit or working capital advances growth) has been difficult. On the contrary, banks are likely to downplay their achievements thus far. Predictably, the profitability of new banks has been superior to the industry average. Shareholder funds have risen on an average at around 34 per cent for new banks compared to the industry’s 11 per cent. The steady and significant increase in shareholder funds place the new banks at an advantage. This is the one of the pillars of the foundation on which the strategy to capture market share from established public sector majors is being built.
IN 1996-2001, the growth rate of private sector banks was significantly higher than that of the banking industry. In every aspect, the private sector stole a march over the others. This was only to be expected given their small size and the ills plaguing the public sector banks. Notwithstanding the rapid growth in the last five years, the new banks continue to remain small on a relative basis.
A COMMON refrain among the heads of most new private banks has been that `the market is large enough for all’. To a large extent, this view may have been influenced by the consistent success of these banks in capturing sizeable market shares in the past six years. In addition, the consistently large growth in the industry (as measured by the growth in demand and savings deposits) over the past six years has made the task easier for the new banks than had the rate of growth in inflows been lower. The new banks have been able to build a low-cost base with which they have been able to capture market share in lending activities. If the rate of growth in inflows into demand and savings deposits remains high, then the new banks are likely to expand their share of the market still further. However, if the rate of growth declines then competition is likely to intensify and the strengths of the various players would be put to the test. Even then, the new private banks may emerge victorious. However, it will have an impact on profitability and spreads. At present, the easy liquidity scenario favors the new banks. It does appear that the scenario will not change in the next two-three years. That should continue to place the new banks in an advantageous position.
From segmentation in the form of private sector banks and public sector banks, the industry is getting polarized based on their sizes. Large banks such as the State Bank of India, Bank of Baroda and ICICI Bank are crafting strategies that will leverage their balance-sheet size. Medium-sized banks such as HDFC Bank, Corporation Bank, Bank of India, Punjab National Bank are attempting to ramp up operations faster as size will become the arbiter of fortunes sooner or later. Swift moves by slightly smaller banks such as IDBI Bank, UTI Bank and Vysya Bank only make competition that much more intense. When IDBI’s entry as a universal bank occurs, it can only queer the pitch even more. The relatively smaller banks will not find the going easy two-three years hence when the spotlight shifts to the sharp increase in lending. Then, the competition for low cost funds would increase. Thus, strong brands and extensive reach will become crucial factors. Reach is something that has exclusively been the privilege of the public sector banks. Indeed, new banks are steadily expanding their reach. The network of branches set up by the banks are on the rise. However, it is imperative that these branches start breaking-even before competition intensifies. Most new banks have proven strategies when it comes to ramping up operations at new branches. Still, when industry factors change, strategies that worked in the past may falter. So, smaller size banks have to strengthen themselves before the increase in demand for credit from the industry happens. Of course, if the Reserve Bank of India continues to maintain a regime of easy liquidity, even when demand for credit expands, then it may still prove advantageous for new banks.
Today Standard Chartered is the world’s leading emerging markets bank employing 30,000 people in over 500 offices in more than 50 countries primarily in countries in the Asia Pacific Region, South Asia, the Middle East, Africa and the Americas. The new millennium has brought with it two of the largest acquisitions in the history of the bank with the purchase of Grind lays Bank from the ANZ Group and the acquisition of the Chase Consumer Banking operations in Hong Kong in 2000. These acquisitions demonstrate Standard Chartered firm committed to the emerging markets, where we have a strong and established presence and where we see our future growth. Standard Chartered introduces aXcessPlus – a revolutionary savings account that provides you with unparalleled aXcess to your money. With the aXcessPlus account you can now aXcess cash at over 1800 ATMs in India for FREE* and at over 650,000 ATMs worldwide through the Visa network. Besides, you can use your account to shop for goods and services at over 25,000 outlets in India and at 10 million outlets worldwide, without ever having to carry cash! The aXcessPlus account provides you with a globally valid debit card that provides you these and a host of other exciting benefits:
There are several unique features about the Standard Chartered Bank’s aXcessPlus account, each designed to provide you the most convenient banking experience you can ever get!
** Personal accident insurance is available for aXcessPlus savings accounts with average quarterly balance above Rs. 50,000/- in the previous quarter.
One-stop solution for your entire family’s banking needs A unique Wealth Management Solution that offers your family flexibility and tools for wealth accumulation and preservation. Unique Features
You can carry out virtually every kind of regular transaction with Standard Chartered’s savings and current accounts. Open your account to discover how easy and convenient it is.
An account that affirms to every need of a businessperson. Standard Chartered brings you a value packed current account offering you convenience and value. A tailor made product to take care of your business needs as it equips you with a range of conveniences unheard of in a current account.
A unique account that offers you double advantage, letting you earn the High interest rate of a fixed deposit while you enjoy the flexibility of a savings & current account.
Rate of Interest(% p.a.)
|15 days – 29 days||3.75%|
|30 days – Less than 46 days||4.00%|
|46 days – Less than 2 months||4.00%|
|2 months – Less than 3 months||4.00%|
|3 months – Less than 6 months||4.00%|
|6 months – Less than 9 months||4.25%|
|9 months – Less than 12 months||4.25%|
|12 months – Less than 18 months||4.25%|
|18 months – Less than 24 months||4.25%|
|24 months – Less than 36 months||4.25%|
|36 months – Less than 48 months||4.50%|
|48 months – Less than 60 months||4.50%|
On opening a 2-in-1 account, two accounts (linked to each other) are opened – an FD and a transaction account (Savings and Current account). The FD earns the high interest rate and the transaction account is used as a normal savings or current account. In case you need to withdraw amounts in excess of what is available in your transaction account, we will break your deposit for the exact amount you require. The rest of the deposit continues earning the original high interest. On the amount withdrawn you will lose only 1% of the interest rate you are eligible for.
Earn On Your Idle Money Accounts for just about everyone to earn a higher rate of interest. Individuals, proprietors, partnership and limited companies, societies, clubs, associations and HUFs can open term deposit accounts.
Rate of Interest(% p.a.)
|15 days – 29 days||3.75%|
|30 days – Less than 46 days||4.00%|
|46 days – Less than 2 months||4.00%|
|2 months – Less than 3 months||4.00%|
|3 months – Less than 6 months||4.00%|
|6 months – Less than 9 months||4.25%|
|9 months – Less than 12 months||4.25%|
|12 months – Less than 18 months||4.25%|
|18 months – Less than 24 months||4.25%|
|24 months – Less than 36 months||4.25%|
|36 months – Less than 48 months||4.50%|
|48 months – Less than 60 months||4.50%|
1. Free and convenient services. 2. More value. 3. Personal accidental policy. The
plus savings account provides the best access of your money along with the followings:- 1. Globally valid ATM cum debit card. 2. Free access to cash withdrawals. 3. Unique free insurance benefits. 4. Access to ATMs running under VISA electron network for free. 5. Maximum cash withdrawal limit of Rs.25000 per day. 6. Discounts on domestic and international air tickets. 7. Special offers at more than 125 fine restaurants across the country.
1. Cash withdrawal charges of Rs. 40 that is lowest among all the banks. 2. Balance ensuring at all visa electron ATMS in India & abroad at the charge of Rs. 15 per transaction. 3. Nominal fee of Rs. 100 p.a. is charged.
A powerful and user-friendly saving account for executives is an innovative service to suit your all financial needs, created specially for a busy and time conscious executives. This account is having three powerful tools that give you the facility of the best banking. These tools are :- 1. Flexibility 2. Free services 3. Convenient
HSBC Bank’s savings a/c that does not have any hidden cost – maintain quarterly balance Rs 10,000. Its like Stan chart’s value added savings a/c. Stan chart gives more facilities than this bank. HSBC’s Smart money account: it’s like Current/savings a/c. HSBC’s power advantage: it’s tough to get through the customer’s satisfaction – at the entry level as it as it is not providing more facilities than other bank’ services. You get fixed deposit – you can withdraw up to 90% & continue to earn interest on 100% of your fixed deposit.
Citibank suvidha savings a/c: it helps you banking anywhere & anytime over the phone via internet, even from any of the ATMs, conveniently located in your city – the beginning of a lifetime relationship. Ø Unmatched shopping value Ø 24 hour Citiphone Ø Check access Ø Citialert – keeps tabs on your money Ø India’s first ‘FAMILY’ ATM/Debit card Ø Free demat services Ø Multi deposit – the flexible Fixed Deposit Ø Suraksha – extensive insurance coverage Ø Investment services Citibank junior package – for child’s savings a/c, for their education and wedding.
Flexibility of a savings & high interest rate of Fixed Deposit. 1. Maximum returns. 2. Maximum liquidity. Automatic renewal of fixed deposit, also this has Stan chart & HSBC Bank. Quantum Optima – three unique facilities 1.
excess of Rs 10,000 automatically transferred to Fixed Deposit in multiple of Rs 5,000.
short falls in savings a/c, your F.D will be broken into to meet the crisis.
when F.D. falls due, this will automatically renew principal and interest.
Get the power e-age saving account. HDFC brings you a comprehensive range of product and services design to minimize your effort – a world class banking for you. Nothing is special here accept international debit card which is also provided by Stan chart bank. Standard Chartered Bank’s savings a/c is the best. It is offering more than any of these banks. Its aXcess Plus account is the best to operate in businessmen as well as individuals. This account covers free insurance benefits.
Take a closer look; current account works best for your business needs. 1. Regular current account – A.Q.B-10000 – 50 checks leaves are free. Free ATMs card free. 2. Premium current a/c – A.Q.B- 25000 – all checks leaves are free. 3. H.D.F.C Bank trade – A.Q.B- 40000 – At par payable Checks. 4. H.D.F.C Bank plus- A.Q.B- 1 lacks- competitive rate for trade finance – freedom flexibility at par checks facility.
1. Flex account – For busy people. 2. FleXaccount – extra access, convenience, earnings. 3. Treasure – for your child. 4. Shakti – for working women.
– the single window for financial needs as insurance bill payment, mobile alert Special ROI on personal and car loans – ADB – 10000.
– credit cards, insurance products, special deals on loans, at extra access, extra convenience, extra earnings, ADB Rs 10,000.
– savings a/c with better financial controls, for workingwoman. It deals on personal & car loans & insurance products. ACD Rs 5,000.
– A savings a/c that helps you builds wealth for your child & secures his/her future.
for child’s education & wedding. Mutual Fund, GOI Relief Funds or fixed bonds.
ADB Rs 2,500.Some other products in ABN AMRO Bank. Check up – a savings A/c with financial management for doctors. Incentive
A savings A/c with flexi banking for busy executives. Value + —- Current A/c Value+ helps you save money: save upto Rs 90,0000. Value+ helps you make money – royalties, India’s best banking, Rewards program, maximize returns, with transferring C.A. to F.D. a/c. Value + protects your money – it comes with value insure. Value + Gold 100 – ADB – Rs 1,00,000. Nominal charge. Value + Gold 300 & Value + Gold 500 with free burglary insurance for one year. Value + Gold 300 — ADB Rs 3 lacs. Value + Gold 500 ADB Rs 5 lacs.
Standard 10 Classic 25 Premium 50 Gold 100 Platinum 500
Up country check collection
Pay orders/Demand Drafts
Phone banking facility
Doorstep banking facility
Pay utility bills online
Request for F.D.
Burglary/personal accident insurance by registering on corporate Internet banking.
In today’s competitive business environment, it is important to have a bank account that partners your business. It’s a profitable current a/c as it transfers amount to Fixed Deposit at an attractive interest rate.
Multi-city check facility
Anywhere banking facility
Collection of checks at upcountry locations
Pay orders and Demand Drafts
Doorstep banking facility
Internet banking facility
ATM CardsBut business a/c – that is current a/c. Quarterly Average Balance Rs 1 lac only. Facilities between these two Current A/c do not vary a lot. Only in platinum 500000 & Gold 100000 that is multiplier current account. Only in platinum current account you will get extra free burglary / personal accident insurance.
The following free services are providing by its savings and current account.
Cash delivery upto Rs 1,00,000
Investment advisory services
Personalized check book
Statement of accounts
Demand Drafts/Pay Orders
No commission on travelers checks
Foreign Inward Remittance Certificates
Payable at par checks
Special offer on loans
24 hour banking
Any branch banking
Bulk cash servicesStandard Chartered Bank facilitates the best banking facilities. It’s offering a bunch of services which other banks are not able to provide, also totally free.
1. Insurance and travel privileges 2. Detailed billing of your expenditure 3. Joining fee is waived for business banking customers 4. Internationally valid credit card
1. Kink up to three a/c on one debit cards 2. Free cash withdrawals in India and overseas 3. Purchase capability in India and overseas 4. Zero lost and liability insurance
1. 0% for 90 days 2. Fast value discount of upto 25% 3. Minimum 10000 on the silver cards 4. Cash advance upto to 35% of your credit limit 5. Comprehensive interest rates 6. Diminishing interest rates
1. Annual fees is 100 2. You are protected from losing your debit cards 3. No change at a HDFC banks ATM
1. Global cash access 2. Mega deal 3. Global acceptance 4. Car rental – 15% discount every time you rent a car from Hart Z 5. Las card protection – Zero liability 6. Flexi limit in your credit cards limit 7. Smart reward
1. Personal accident insurance 2. Purchase protection for 90 days 3. Credit shield 4. Lost/stolen card protection 5. Personal liability 6. No-stress repayment – pay as per your convenience
Global gold and classic credit cards 1. Powerful rewards programmed 2. Exclusive movie premises 3. Participate in Star TV shows 4. Spend in currencies 5. Enhanced personal accident insurance and zero lost card liability
1. Wide acceptance 2. Purchasing power 3. Cash access
1. Insurance benefits 2. Lost card liability 3. Purchase protection insurance 4. Personal accident insurance
1. Shopping 2. Travel 3. Stay in control of your expenses
City Bank present India’s first family ATM/Debit Card 1. It’s a joint a/c holder 2. Preset the monthly limit 3. It is free
1. Direct on line debit to your S.B. a/c 2. International cards 3. Attractive reward points 4. Zero lost card liability 5. Annual fees is Rs 99
1. No surcharge on the fuel purchases 2. Speed ‘0′ miles 3. Discounts 4. Global acceptance 5. Cash advances facility 6. ‘Infinity’ web based access “Infinity” access to ICICI bank – HPCL credit card related information, through the Internet. 1. Credit shield 2. Purchase protection 3. Travel benefits
HSBC Bank charges annual fees Rs 150, CITI Bank – Rs 250, ICICI Bank Rs 99, HDFC Bank-100, and ABN Amro Bank-595. ABN Amro Bank charges more than any banks. Standard Chartered Bank charges zero. This bank will get more customers than any banks. Withdrawal Charges: Standard Chartered Bank charges free. Its provides to all customers, HDFC bank charges Rs 55. ICLY Bank charges 2.4% of your bill. HSBC also charges nil When to pay: HSBC – 3 Days before due date Citibank – payment period 2 days before due date ICICI Bank – payment period 3 days before due date HDFC Bank – payment period any time until due date ABN AMRO Bank – payment period until due date Stan chart – payment period any time until due date HSBC and ICICI stipulated time is 3 days before due date that is the most customers headache to pay other wise interest will be imposed to the utility service provider. Citibank stipulated period is 2 days – the same strategy. Whereas HDFC, ABN Amro and Stan chart any time until due date this is the most and vital carried out method where customer will get free in their mind set up for specially busy executive people. All the way, Stan chart works as the guider to the customers. This is the most attractive thing to customer as well as beneficiary activities too.
Stan chart’s ROI on F.D. is very much attractive. 1. Higher interest in the long run. 2. Attractive & competitive interest rates 3. Deposit term raising from 15 days to 5 years 4. Useful in emergence – my money term deposit 5. Automatic renewal 6. Breakage of the term
Minimum deposit required to easy draw fixed deposit is Rs 50000 2 regular fixed deposit minimum. Deposit required is 10000 Extra service provided 1. Maximum returns 2. Higher Liquidity Nothing is special except choice of period choice of interest. Payment, automatic renewal easy draw fixed deposit – linked savings/current.
1. Easy operation 2. High yield 3. Better return than a S.B account 4. O/d on CA against your F.D. 5. Super saver A/C @ 10% earned interest 6. Saving A/C @ 4% earned interest 7. The more you have in the super save A/C the more you set as return
Attractive investment opportunities from the second largest bank in India. The following are the characteristics Flexibility 1. Investment plans 2. Duration of investment 3. Safe custody 4. Automatic renewal
1. Pre mature withdrawal 2. Loan against F.D. 3. Nomination facility
Minimum balance – minimum deposit up to 10000 and therefore in the multiples of just on 10000.
1. No dare deduction at source 2. Minimum period 3. Nomination facility
HSBC’s Smart money account is just like a fixed deposit. It gives you the flexibility of a savings a/c and interest rate of a fixed deposit. You get high returns and a free savings or current a/c unlike other fixed deposits. You can withdraw up to 90% and continue to earn interest on 100% of your F.D. It also gives you the best interest rate that is 7.75%. Standard Chartered also providing attractive ROI on F.D. Standard Chartered Bank also renewed your F.D. automatically at no cost. 1. Minimum deposit unto 10000 for 15 days to 5 years 2. Attractive interest rates 3. Free auto sweep to transfer excess cash to fixed deposit at no cost ICICI Bank is also paying interest rate (5-8.75) %. HSBC is also offering 7.75% interest arte. HDFC Bank is offering in Savings A/C – 4% the lowest one. Nut HDFC’s super saver a/c you can earn is upto 10%. ABN Amro Bank’s ROI is applicable time to time
ICICI Bank’s duration in F.D. is 7 days – 10 yrs. But interest rate is 5%. The longer period is likely to be reduced risks in bank. But return should be more to the customers. Bank will get also more benefits. HDFC Bank’s duration of F.D. is 6 months – 05 yrs, but in its super saver a/c is offering 10% & S.B. A/C is offering 4%. Other banks have the same duration.
HDFC is offering only loan against F.D. that is 85%. All bank’s have 90% loan against F.D.
Stan Chart’s F.D. is broken into terms. Falls in amount due does not affect in interest rate. HSBC’s F.D. amount will be reduced. ABN Amro Bank F.D. breaks portion will earn interest. ICICI loan against F.D. is allowed. Citibank is charging commercial rate of interest.
Standard Chartered Bank’s F.D. will get automatically renewed. HSBC’s has no renewal processing. ABN Amro Bank’s F.D. gets automatically renewed.
Standard Chartered Bank’s service charges are free. HSBC, ICICI Bank is also offering free. But ABN Amro, HDFC & CITI Banks are charging.
Stan Chart is not applicable; HSBC is charging 2% or PLR above Rs 2 lacks. On the same way, it is a great depress to the customers.
Standard Chartered Bank’s min BAL is Rs 25,000. ABN Amro Bank’s the highest min bal Rs 50,000. HDFC’s Sweep in Account & Super saver A/c Min BAL is 50,000. CITI Bank’s Min BAL is Rs 1,000 & its multi units.
Standard Chartered Bank’s annual fees in F.D. are free. HSBC Bank’s annual fees is included in interest rate ABN Amro Bank’s annual fees is min Rs 50. ICICI Bank’s annual fees are charged in interest rate. CITI Bank’s annual fees are Rs 350. In the above circumstances, Standard Chartered Bank can be treated as the best bank. In all of its contents in Fixed Deposit schemes,
Standard Chartered Bank calculates loan against shares on the portfolio value. Bank reduces customer’s risk by putting value in the HSBC, HDFC, ABN Amro, Citibank, calculates loan amount – 60% of market value of shares, but ICICI Bank calculates on appro scrips basis.
Stan Chart:it charges processing fees only at one time. HSBC Bank: processing fees is only 1.8% of loan amount CITI Bank: processing fees is 2% ICICI Bank: processing fees is 0%
Stan Chart: it allows prepayment facility HSBC Bank: prepayment facility is 2% for 25% of loan amount ICICI Bank: prepayment facility is 2%
Stan Chart: its tenure is up to 1 to 7 years HSBC and ICICI Bank have the tenure of 20 yrs CITI Bank: it allows 5 to 15 yrs In case of ICICI and HSBC customers will get benefit from bank. HSBC follows ROI on monthly basis. Additional/withdrawal of pledge shares
Stan Chart calculates 6 days a week in the depository a/c. HSBC Bank overdraft facility on loan against shares is 60%. ICICI Bank calculates on shares 73% of the value & bond valuation is in 95%. HDFC Bank is charged interest. ABN Amro Bank calculates on single window for setting up new lines.
Standard Chartered allows special rate of interest. HSBC allows low rate of interest. Citibank Charges 14% interest rate. ICICI Bank allows current account interest rate.
Standard Chartered Bank provides overdraft facility on dematerialized shares. HSBC Bank allows overdraft facility from Rs 11 lacks to 20 lacks. CITI Bank & ABN Amro Bank allows overdraft facility up to Rs 20 lacks.
Standard Chartered Bank charges on utilized amount. Citibank charges as overdraft charges that are included on interest rate. ABN Amro Bank charges on overdraft are 2% interest rate additionally per annum.
Standard Chartered Bank provides Concessional ROI on car finance & credit cards. Citibank’s Concessional Rate of Interest is not applicable in loan against shares. ABN Amro Bank provides Concessional ROI on loan against securities. Under the above circumstances, I have seen that Standard Chartered Bank is investing in portfolio investment schemes. Also, it offers in special ROI. In finances against securities that one can finance his balance on car finance.
Stan Chart: the purpose of loan can be used by borrowers as per their convenient means as that personal or business needs. The same is in the case of HSBC Bank. Citibank: it is sanctioned only on property that borrower’s have ICICI Bank: select properties. It availed loan only ABN Amro Bank: does not sanction loan
It charges interest on daily balances HSBC Bank: follows monthly reduced balances CITI Bank: it charges 12.75% ICICI Bank: changes on home loan 11% p.a.
Stan Chart: it lends only 3 to 50 lakhs. HSBC and CITI BANK : lends only up to Rs 1 crore ICICI Bank: allows customers on the basis of repayment capacity
– Citibank only in properties whereas icici Bank verify purposes only on select properties. HSBC Bank verifies on business and personal needs – the same strategy for Stan Chart.
– HSBC charges processing fees 1.8% of loan amount, Citibank 2%, icici 0%, Stan Chart charges only one time.
-Stan Chart doesn’t charge, HSBC is 2% for 25% of the loan amount. Citibank doesn’t charge, ICICI 2%.
-Stan Chart tenure is too less. Whereas other banks are comparatively more. HSBC and City Bank 20 Years.
Part Payment Fees are the highest in ABN AMRO BANK. Other bank’s part payment fees are averagely equal. ICICI Bank’s 180 days availing loan, bank will not observe borrower’s response. Normally, bank will not change any part payment fees, if borrower’s response is very good.
HSBC’s processing charges is higher than
ABN AMRO’s charges are not refundable. Nominal fees taken from customers.
There are no hidden charges in Stan Chart & ABN AMRO Bank as foreclosure charges. Other four banks take these hidden charges.
CITIBANK , ICICI, HDFC & ABN AMRO Banks are granting big amount. Stan Chart is granted fewer amounts in maximum range. Its aim is to provide loans to also less in income group people in average. Stan Chart is not taking more risks as R.B.I. changes its interest rate in monetary policy. It is their past experience. NPAs are also comparatively smaller than other competitor banks.
Stan Chart, Citi, Icily banks are not allowing part payment, other banks are allowing part payment. If this banks part payment allows there had been observed that a least amount is collected from borrowers. Borrowers are to be cautious about their actual installment due.
Citi Bank’s interest rate is high. HSBC’s interest rate whether customers will prefer floating or fixed rate. But CITI Bank’s maturity period upto 4 yrs. If above Rs 8 lacs, then there will be the extension of time. Borrowers will get huge pressure. Above all, this bank is allowing high income earning people. Specially, executives, but Stan Chart, ABN AMRO, Icily, these banks have attractive rate of interest in adjusting with market rate. Moreover, HDFC Bank is allowing (1-4) yrs maturity. Their tendency to collect their amount due in shortest time period. HDFC & CITI Bank has to increase their time period.
Personal loans can be used in any purpose in ICILY Bank & ABN AMRO BANK. ICILY is the most liberal bank in sanctioning personal loan. There is stipulation in ABN AMRO to get afresh its fund.
no banks have any requirement to take guarantor or security except ABN AMRO Bank is verifying Net Adjustment Income (NAI). ABN AMRO’s personal loan policies are very attractive & justifiable. They are studying actual basis of calculating net worth of customers. Also, Stan Chart & HSBC Bank, they want to strong base in customer’s financial health.
Standard chartered bank charges low rate of interest . HSBC, ICICI, HDFC charges attractive rate of interest. ABN Amro bank charges ROI applicable from time to time. CITIBANK charges 12% ROI.
Standard Chartered Bank, HSBC, HDFC, ABN Amro Bank offers only (1-5) yrs. ICICI Bank offers for existing cars (1-5) yrs & for new cars (1-7) yrs. Citi Bank offers (1-7) yrs.
Standard Chartered Bank, Citi, ICICI, ABN Amro Bank offers for upto 90% of value computed.
HDFC Bank offers the biggest amount that is 30 lacs. Citi Bank evaluates upto 90% of market values. ICICI Bank offers the least amount that is 5 lacs.
ABN Amro Bank offers monthly reducing balances. All banks are taking through Equated Monthly Installments.
Standard Chartered Bank, Citi, ABN Amro Bank is giving facility above 25%, 2% levied on outstanding balances. ICICI Bank is giving facilities 180 days availing of loans. Standard Chartered Bank & ABN Amro Bank is charging no hidden charges as foreclosure charges.
Standard Chartered Bank, Citi Bank, ICICI Bank, ABN Amro Bank are offering discount – 1%.
Standard Chartered Bank, Citibank, ICICI Bank, ABN Amro Bank are offering discount – 1%
Standard Chartered Bank, Citibank allowed customers who are having credit cards. But ABN Amro Bank is offering upto 1% of its value.
Standard Chartered Bank, Citibank, ABN Amro Bank is offering .5% of its loan amount. In the above discussion, Standard Chartered Bank, ICICI, Citibank, ABN Amro Bank have almost same facilities, but Standard Chartered Bank’s repayment capacity is 1.5 yrs., also its tenure is too much less that is 1-5 yrs than any other banks. ICICI is giving pre-payment facility 180 days availing of loans, which will create burden to the customers. Whereas Standard Chartered Bank & ABN Amro Bank is leving interest on outstanding balances, more over, Standard Chartered Bank & ABN Amro Bank has no hidden charges. Standard Chartered Bank allowed credit card holders. But ABN Amro Bank is only offering discount 1%.
l Interest earn – 4% l Withdraw upto Rs 25,000 l Tax advisory services l Special relationship discounts – Asset link l Concessional rates on home loan
Open a Savings Account, Current Account, Fixed Deposit you will be abled to open NRI Services Account. This fund gives you the enjoyment of a comparable ROI. l Get power of attorney to a Resident Indians l No tax payable in India on interest earned on these accounts l Investment advisory services l 365 days locker facility l No tax deduction at source on interest income l Dividend, interest, pension, rent & other income credited to this account repatriable.
l It’s a Rupee checking account l Interest earned at 4% l Transferring money to India l Issue Rupee draft directly to the beneficiary l Convenience for your family Charges is us $ 10 per month. Also charge is waived if Average Monthly Balance is above us $ 1,000.
l Minimum Tenor – 6 months l Portfolio investment scheme l Tax advisory services l Dependable financial solutions
l NRE A/C – Savings, Current, Fixed Deposits Account maintaining balance $ 10,000. l NRO Account l FCNR ,, l NRNR ,, l NRSR ,,
l You have to have savings account l Commission free international travelers cheques l Emergency cheque encashing l Outward foreign currency remittances l Inward foreign currency remittances
Standard Chartered Bank : you can open any time of your convenience; there are no restrictions in opening or closing accounts.
Only minimum tenor is 30 days
Only minimum tenor is 30 days ICICI, HDFC Bank have minimum balance tenor is 6 months. Standard Chartered Bank is the best in NRI Services. Locker Facility.
Standard Chartered Bank – It is not to be maintained. HSBC – No minimum balance is required. City Bank, ICICI Bank & ABN AMRO Bank follows zero balance.
Standard Chartered Bank, Citi Bank, ICICI, HDFC should have minimum 10 employees. Only ABN AMRO Bank requires 10 employees and more. HSBC Bank requirement is only 20 and more employees. HSBC Bank should reduce the restriction from its bar that is 20 or more staff. Citi Bank is offering pension, health and insurance schemes. HDFC bank is offering preference interest on personal loans. ICICI Bank & ABN AMRO offers Govt. relief bonds, mutual funds. Only ABN AMRO Bank is offering fixed deposit. HSBC Bank stipulates 20 or more staff, ABN AMRO Bank stipulates 10 and more staff. The main thing is that the company which is having 20 or more staff, they will get this facility from HSBC Bank, also these companies which are having less than 20 staff they will not get this facility whereas services provided by all banks are above all equal other four bank’s requirement is 10. Standard Chartered, HDFC, HSBC are offering loan on concessional rate of interest. ABN AMRO and Citi bank doesn’t pass out any concesional rates on loan whereas Standard Chartered is giving car finance, home finance and more on your personal needs.
Cash delivery for corporate salary holders are not paid by HDFC and ABN AMRO Bank, ICICI is giving upto 25000 but Standard Chartered and HSBC is giving in specific days. All banks are offering other factor such as ATM Cards, drop box facility, cash delivery and other facilities. Under the above circumstances Stan Chart posses a good mark in giving services to the corporate salary holders. As monthly payment that is salary dividend the interest is fixed in a particular date, hence its specific days feature to pay corporate salary is very much attractive in corporate level hence Stan Chart pays a vital role in this service.
|STAN CHART||ABN AMRO||CITIBANK||ICICI||HDFC|
|ATM/ DEBIT CARD||
ATM CUM DEB CRD
|DEBIT CARD CHARGE||
Rs 200 p.a
Rs 100 p.a
|ATM ACESS TO OTHER BANK||
UTI BANK FREE
|DEB.CRD ACESS TO OTHER BNK||
|CHARGE PER TRANSAC.||
4 TRANS FREE
2 TRANS FREE
|LOCKER FACILITY||YES (2000 p.a)||NO||NO||YES (750)||YES|
|CHQ DEPOSIT BOXES||YES||YES||YES||YES ALL BRNCH+ ATM||YES|
|GLOBAL CREDIT CARD||YES||YES||YES||YES||YES|
|GLOBAL DEBIT CARD||YES||YES||YES||YES||YES|
|AVG. BANKING HOURS||10AM-7PM||10M-7PM||10A.M-2P.M||9AM-4PM||10AM-4PM|
|MIN.BAL- SAVING A/C||
|VALUE ADDED||Rs.1 LAC- 10 LACS||Rs.40,000 – 5 LACS||Rs.1 LAC- 10 LAC||Rs.1LAC- 10 LACS||Rs.1 LAC- 10 LACS|
|CHARGE FOR NOT MAINTAIN AQB||750/QUARTER||200—1800 pm||250 pm||300/ QTR||150—500 pm|
|CASH WITHDRAWL /DAY/ATM||Rs.25000||Rs.25000— 1 LAC||Rs.50000||Rs.15000||Rs.15000|
|CASH TRANS. FROM NON BRANCH||YES||YES||YES||YES||NO|
|STATMENT CHARGES SAV A/C||FREE QTRLY||FREE QTRLY||FREE QTRLY||FREE MNTHLY||FREE QTRLY|
|CURRENT A/C||FREE MNTHLY||FREE MNTHLY||FREE MNTHLY||FREE MNTHLY||FREE MNTHLY|
|24 HOUR BRANCH||YES||NO||NO||NO||NO|
|365 DAYS BRANCH||YES||YES||NO||NO||NO|
|AUTOMATIC CHQ BOOK REORDER||YES||NO||NO||NO||NO|
|NATIONAL CLEARING||YES||YES (3-5) DAYS||YES (7-14) DAYS||YES||YES|
|PRIORITY BANKING||YES (10 LACS)||YES||YES (30 LACS)||YES (10 LACS)||YES (10 LACS)|
|FLEXIBILITY OF INT RATE||YES||NO||NO||YES||YES|
|DOOR STEP BANKING||YES||YES||YES||YES||NO|
|CASH DELIVERY||YES(CHARGED)||UPTO 1 LAC FREE ABV CHRG||YES (CHARGED)||YES (CHARGE)||NO|
|CHQ PICKUP||YES||YES||YES||FREE ONCE A DAY||NO|
|ATM(DEL/ IND)||21 (D) 103(I)||20(D) 250(I)||507(I)||43(D) 350(I)|
|ATM/ DEBIT CARD||ATM CUM DEBIT CARD||ATM / DEBIT CARD||ATM / DEBIT CARD||ATM / DEBIT CARD|
|DEBIT CARD CHARGE||150 P.A||150 P.A||150 P.A||100 P.A|
|ATM ACESS TO OTHER BANK||NO||NO||NO||NO|
|DEB.CRD ACESS TO OTHER BNK||YES||YES||YES||YES|
|CHARGE PER TRANSAC.||Rs.55 / TRANS||Rs.50 / TRANS||Rs.50 /TRANS||Rs.50 / TRANS|
|LOCKER FACILITY||YES||YES||YES||YES 1000— 5000|
|CHQ DEPOSIT BOXES||YES||YES||YES||YES|
|GLOBAL CREDIT CARD||YES||NO||NO||NO|
|GLOBAL DEBIT CARD||YES||NO||NO||NO|
|AVG. BANKING HOURS||9 A.M-4 P.M||9 A.M- 5 P.M||10 A.M- 4 P.M||10 A.M- 4 P.M|
|MIN.BAL- SAVING A/C||10,000/||5,000/||5,000/||5,000/|
|VALUE ADDED||1 LAC—5 LAC||50,000— 3 LAC||50,000—5 LAC||50,000—-1 LAC|
|CHARGE FOR NOT MAINTAIN AQB||Rs.300/ QTR||Rs.150/QTR||Rs.200/QTR||Rs.100/QTR|
|CASH WITHDRAWL /DAY/ATM||25,000||15,000-20,000||20,000||25,000|
|CASH TRANS. FROM NON BRANCH||YES||NO||YES (UPTO 1,50,000)||YES (UPTO 50,000)|
|STATMENT CHARGES SAV A/C||FREE QTRLY||FREE QTRLY||FREE QTRLY||FREE QTRLY|
|CURRENT A/C||FREE MONTHLY||FREE MONTHLY||FREE MONTHLY||FREE MONTHLY|
|24 HOUR BRANCH||NO||NO||NO||NO|
|365 DAYS BRANCH||NO||NO||NO||NO|
|AUTOMATIC CHQ BOOK REORDER||NO||NO||NO||NO|
|MULTICITY BANKING||YES||YES(SELECT CITIES)||YES(SELECT CITIES)||YES|
|FLEXIBILITY OF INT RATE||YES||YES||YES||YES|
|DOOR STEP BANKING||YES||NO||NO||YES|
|CASH DELIVERY||YES (CHARGED)||NO||NO||YES (CHARGED)|
|CASH PICKUP||YES (CHARGED)||NO||NO||YES (CHARGED)|
|CHQ PICKUP||YES||NO||YES (CHARGED)||YES|
It was found that the ignorance level among the people was very high, especially housewives. Mainly concentrate on the residential colonies and tell then in different manner so that they take interest and try to understand the facility given by the bank. try to maximize involvement from the ladies and must educate then with supplement free gifts. Try to categories the customers in bank and gave them time-to-time any sort of discount or gifts at some of the occasions. Give the old customers some sort of incentives if they introduce a new customer to the bank The numbers of branch are very less and not covers a large grout of area The number of ATM must be located to such places so that maximum no of peoples use them and easily approach able Less numbers of branches located in different part of the city The bank has high number of dissatisfied they should be dealt with high sincerity and efforts should be made to solve their problems as soon as possible, otherwise it spoils the brand image. The customers must provide parking space so they easily park their vehicles. When some one have a query then at list that query must be sold my any person in the bank at that moment either wise told them to do phone banking or net banking.
People were not willing to disclose the information about there income slab, their existing bank accounts and few were not all ready to tell their pan number at the time or opening of their saving account. And the old peoples believe in their nationalize bank account rather then the MNC bank they dont have trust on them. Less number of branches r also a big problem to open anew account of the client because he ask tell me where is your branch near by , why I open account in such bank to whom I go several kilometer and do banking if I found the same facility next to my door.
In the morning the respondents were busy getting ready for office. Afternoon is the siesta time and after returning from they did not feel like to entertain a stranger and they have their own programs so difficult to tap person.
Lot of responds assumed to be another sales man and showed disinterest in anything said to them and if u said your are from bank they directly said sorry we dont required credit card.
Banking is still considered to be the male domain. The power to decide to open an account or not still lies with the senior male member of the family. it was quite difficult to contact the right person at the right time. Because most of the time the person is not available so difficult to talk to him about the concept.
The respondents were found very reluctant to talk to the stranger and often did not even allowed me to enter the gate and they directly said at this moment my husband or sahib is not present at this moment so came later or dont want to listen the concept they said we have and we dont required.
We will send an essay sample to you in 2 Hours. If you need help faster you can always use our custom writing service.Get help with my paper