Research on Ebola Virus

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The Ebola virus is a deadly virus with a 70% death rate discovered in the Ebola river basin the Ebola virus has 7 known variants (species Zaire ebolavirus) Sudan virus (species Sudan ebolavirus) Forest virus (species Tai Forest ebolavirus, formerly  d'Ivoire ebolavirus) Bundibugyo virus (species Bundibugyo ebolavirus) Reston virus (species Reston ebolavirus) Bombali virus (species Bombali ebolavirus) Of these, only four (Ebola, Sudan, Tai Forest, and Bundibugyo viruses) are known to cause disease in people (Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease)). Scientists do not know where Ebola virus comes from. However, based on the nature of similar viruses, they believe the virus is animal-borne, with bats being the most likely source. The bats carrying the virus can transmit it to other animals, like apes, monkeys, duikers and humans symptoms include Fever Severe headache Muscle pain Weakness Fatigue Diarrhea Vomiting Abdominal (stomach) pain Unexplained hemorrhage (bleeding or bruising).

Infected persons may develop fever, severe headaches and muscle aches, and loss of appetite. Within a few days the virus causes a condition known as disseminated intravascular coagulation, which is marked by both blood clots and hemorrhaging. In the case of Ebola, clots are concentrated in the liver, spleen, brain, and other internal organs, forcing capillaries to bleed into surrounding tissue. Nausea, vomiting and diarrhea with blood and mucus, conjunctivitis, and sore throat soon follow (Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease)) From 2013 to 2016 the largest pandemic happened in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and surrounding countries Although the UN was was late to supply aid (5 months) and downplayed the danger of the outbreak once they did intervene they successfully stopped the Ebola outbreak in June 2016. When the ebola outbreak happened in the DRC the U.N and WHO delayed their response.

Although patient 0 is unknown the first cases were reported in small villages in and around the equator in late 2013. Which were reported by WHO doctors and quickly spiraled out of control leading to the small number of doctors and nurses to become overwhelmed. The UN downplay the danger of the outbreak and waited until August to declare an emergency, because of this the virus spread to neighboring countries thru unquarantined patients causing a jump in reported cases. By the end of the outbreak in 2016 over 28,600 people had died so how did it get this out of control so fast (Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease)) This shows that the UN downplayed the outbreak because they did not respond to the outbreak quick enough to limit the spread of Ebola. The U.N and WHO new things were getting out of control in March but took until August for them to send help this lack of action led to the virus spreading to neighboring countries like the DRC who knows how many deaths could have been prevented the 2014 outbreak was the largest ever WHO officials downplayed the numbers to stop panic but most likely let the virus spread even faster and caused mass panic (Experts Say the WHO's Response to the Ebola Crisis Has Been a 'Failure')

This quote shows that the UN response was delayed leading to more deaths because the UN did not want to cause mass panic. Although the UN was late to respond they did their best to save as many people and stop the outbreak. Following notification of WHO, officials with Guinea's Ministry of Health and aid workers for Doctors Without Borders set up isolation units in Gu©ck©dou and Macenta prefectures. WHO deployed health experts to the region to assist with disease surveillance and control Despite the implementation of control measures by the end of May the situation had escalated noticeably. In Sierra Leone, health officials reported the country's first laboratory-confirmed cases; the vast majority were from the Kailahun district, which bordered Gu©ck©dou. Liberia also began to experience a rise in cases, with spread to Montserrado, Margibi, and Nimba counties. In response, WHO and partner agencies deployed additional experts and equipment to the region. As the outbreak progressed, however, community resistance began to emerge

In October 2014 WHO declared Senegal and Nigeria to be free of Ebola, marking the end of the outbreak in those countries. Senegal had experienced only a single case, while 2008 of which ended in death had been reported in Nigeria. A small number of cases were also reported in Mali in October and November. Also in October, the number of cases confirmed weekly in Liberia began to decline rapidly. By mid-February 2015, dozens of schools in the country were reopened (Outbreaks) the United Kingdom, and Germany were the top donors to the international Ebola response, donating more than $3.611 billion (USD) by December 2015.The U.S. government allocated approximately $2.369 billion for Ebola response of Ebola on the Healthcare System Healthcare workers caring for patients with Ebola were among those at highest risk for contracting the disease.From the start of the outbreak through November 2015, a total of 881 confirmed health worker infections and 513 deaths were reported in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.Liberia lost 8% of its doctors, nurses, and midwives to Ebola Sierra Leone and Guinea lost 7% and 1% of their healthcare workers, respectively the Ebola epidemic also had a pronounced socio-economic impact in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. According to 2014 projections from the World Bank, an estimated $2.2 billion was lost in 2015 in the gross domestic product (GDP) of the three countries.

The outbreak resulted in lower investment and a substantial loss in Private sector growth Agricultural production leading to concerns about food security Cross-border trade as restrictions on movement, goods, and services increased (source CDC) Aside from the devastating health effects, the Ebola epidemic also had a pronounced socio-economic impact in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. According to 2014 projections from the World Bank, an estimated $2.2 billion was lost in 2015 in the gross domestic product (GDP) of the three countries. The outbreak resulted in lower investment and a substantial loss in Private sector growth Agricultural production leading to concerns about food security Cross-border trade as restrictions on movement, goods, and services increased(CDC) As the outbreak slowed in early 2015, the extent to which it had unraveled people's' lives and devastated local and national economies was becoming apparent. A loss of manual labour had threatened crop harvests and planting, raising concerns about food insecurity, while the closure of borders, restrictions on travel, and declines in manufacturing, mining, and foreign investment devastated economic growth. For people who had survived Ebola infection, the transition back to their normal lives was made difficult by social and economic challenges(CDC)

Indirect Impact of Ebola on Health Care In addition to the devastating effects on the healthcare workforce in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, the Ebola epidemic severely impacted the provision of healthcare services and caused setbacks in the treatment and control of other serious diseases, including: HIV Tuberculosis Malaria Assuming healthcare services were reduced by 50% in the three most affected countries, an estimated additional 10, 600 lives were lost to HIV, tuberculosis and malaria during the epidemic.(CDC) Impact of Ebola on Children Children were greatly affected by the Ebola epidemic.Nearly 20% of all Ebola cases occurred in children under 15 years old. Recovery plans from Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone estimate that more than 17,300 children have been orphaned because of Ebola In June 2014, all schools in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone closed because of the epidemic.By the time the schools reopened in 2015, students had lost approximately 1,848 hours of education due to school closures Ranging from around 33 weeks in Guinea to 39 weeks in Sierra Leone Children also experienced a gap in vaccination schedules as routine immunizations decreased by 30%. Vaccination campaigns were either postponed to avoid public gatherings or funding and logistics previously dedicated to these campaigns were redirected to fight the epidemic (CDC)

At the beginning of August, an experimental antibody therapy known as ZMapp was administered to two American missionary workers in Liberia. Both patients were transported back to the United States following treatment, and both recovered, though it was unclear whether their recovery was a result of ZMapp. Nevertheless, ZMapp raised the possibility of using untested treatments in Ebola patients, which WHO officials subsequently endorsed(vox)

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