Recidivism Rates of Women after Completing a Substance Abuse

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Recidivism Rates of Women after Completing a Substance Abuse Program during Incarceration


Women with substratum reproach issuance are more credible to be complex with crimes arise in penitentiary imprisonment. As female attain the penitentiary system, it is commanding for our society for them to reinstate from this reproach in direction to reenter their participation as an operating member and in some cases as an involved mother. This proposal will allude to study to highlight the most critical substance abuse programs that the Christian Melton Crain Unit in Texas has to offer and why these programs should be required for each woman who is or will enter the prison by comply with attending.

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The female population in Texas is on the rise and will rise much more than men. The number of women involved in the US criminal justice system doubled during the 1990s (Beck, 2000). Women now represent about 7% of the overall state and federal prison population and 24% of people on community supervision (Glaze and Bonczar, 2009). Using the information collected from the Texas area, the actual current study faces the really central question of whether women inmates who are released from prison with substance abuse program recidivated defiantly less than those who really do not join a program.


There are many concerns when considering problems with substance abuse among women who have contact with the criminal justice system. The concerning issues are the defendant relapsing, relapsing that would results into the rearrests or the death. The intention of this study is to examine the effects of substance misuse broadcast provided while a female offender is incarcerated. This study will evaluate the women incarcerated in the Christina Melton Crain Unit who have entered into the programs that are available by the Department of Criminal Justice and compare to those who offenders that did not enter the programs. The subjects for this work will be first time offenders, they will be looking at time within six months or more and they are all females. The other qualities that will be included in this study will be race, age of offender, the level of education and how long the offender was given to serve during incarceration. This study will measure the effectiveness of the programs and give input on the curriculum to help avoid any recidivism. Lastly this study will display that the cost of the programs available to better each offenders who is reentering the society.

Literature Review

Some have argued that increased attention to substance users during the late 1980s and 1990s during the war on drugs had particular adverse consequences for women (e.g., Chesney-Lind and Pasko, 2004; Covington and Bloom, 2003). The majority of women offenders have a long history of drug use or drug-related offenses. These programs will show weather the women that are taking advantage of the curriculum will result in being a onetime offender or if they will become a repeat offender. Although a rise in growth overall, the increased rate of incarceration has been predominantly intense for women. The quantity of female prisoners in the United States has steadily increased, soaring from 12,300 in 1980 to approximately 17 times that amount in 2008 (207,700; Ashley, Marsden, and Brady, 2003; Beck, 2000; West and Sabol, 2009). In large part, these higher rates of female incarceration are the result of policies that criminalize drug abuse, with almost 30% of female offenders arrested for drug crimes and approximately 33% reporting they were on drugs or obtaining drugs when arrested (Hall, Prendergast, Wellisch, Patten, and Cao, 2004; Messina, Burdon, and Prendergast, 2006).

The population of incarcerated offenders grew from approximately 200,000 offenders in 1973 to more than 2.2 million at the beginning of 2007 (Pew Center on the States, 2008; Travis, 2005). The quantity of female prisoners in the United States has steadily increased, soaring from 12,300 in 1980 to approximately 17 times that amount in 2008 (207,700; Ashley, Marsden, and Brady, 2003; Beck, 2000; West and Sabol, 2009). All through history there have been numerus investigations to add to the components including the motivations behind why female guilty party rate has risen so quickly. The point of this examination, being on females with substance mishandle issues, additionally have numerous investigations, research’s, and test papers to add to the Criminal Justice Centers and science.

Psychopathy including females who have been detained and have substance issues here and there go hand and hand for a person. In spite of the face that this investigation does not include the psychopathy or mental express the females are in it is an imperative factor that has been considered and analyzed previously. This study examines the validity of the psychopathy concept and Hare checklist assessments for incarcerated women by evaluating the relationship of psychopathy with treatment compliance and treatment response in female offenders who participated in the first systematic empirical evaluation of several types of drug abuse treatment for female inmates (Richards, et al, 2003). The examination is additionally noteworthy to the racial or ethnic generalizability of psychopathy and hare agendas, in that the dominant part of members in this investigation was African American. Detainees were then enrolled for medication treatment program by methods for dynamic selecting at introductory jail introduction gatherings, through institutional caseworkers, publications, flyers and informal. The last examinations taken by the specialists give solid proof to the three tried speculation that psychopathy, and especially in female wrongdoers after treatment and discharge to the group.

According to Robbins, Martin, and Surratt (2007) women who completed the treatment program in their study were more likely to remain arrest-free during the first 18 months following prison, and they used drugs less frequently. There article reports analyses of recidivism and relapse experiences of substance-abusing women inmates as they reenter the community. Outcomes are compared for women who completed a work-release therapeutic community program, women who entered but did not complete the program, and those who did not receive work-release therapeutic community treatment (Robbins, Martin, Surratt, 2007).

This is harming finding since an ever increasing number of females are being captured and charged for medicate related violations. First time offenders can be condemned up to ten years in jail for having a dime of cocaine in their ownership or plan to offer. Research has demonstrated that there is a strong relationship between substance abuse and various forms of criminal activity and that drug treatment is effective in reducing crime among substance abusers (Mosher and Philips, 2006). Indications are that women offenders are even more underserviced with respect to drug treatment than are male offenders (Mosher et al, 2006). With a jail sentence of ten years, a medication client or some other detainee can possibly reemerge society without treatment or some frame with the thought of continuing with a profitable way of life. They are more harmed after a long jail sentence, with minimal shot of restoration.

The criminal and court justice system both give the prospect to the captured offender to take an outpatient recovery sentence rather than imprisonment. This allows the guilty party to remain out of endless supply of a substance mishandle program. Guilty parties who are presented to forced treatment openings might have a superior more successful outcome. John Hepburn presented Recidivism among Drug Offenders following exposure to treatment and accepted legitimate compulsion might be solid inspiration to treatment, yet it isn’t sufficient to guarantee achievement. Hepburn found that without a readiness to look for treatment, huge numbers of those legitimately pressured to treatment neglect to enter treatment, neglect to finish treatment, and backslide amid treatment. On the off chance that the criminal equity framework have no alternative to a guilty party to partake in a substance mishandle program it could give the offender a chance to be restored as opposed to being set up for disappointment and sent to imprison as the results.

Subjects of Study

The subjects of this examination comprise just with ladies who are first time guilty parties with tranquilize addictions and imprisoned in consequences of their own wrongdoing. Each subject will be a prisoner detained in the Christina Melton Crain Unit, a Texas Department of Criminal Justice Prison for females situated in Gatesville, Texas. The length of imprisonment might be particular while coordinating a trial guilty party to a controlled offered. In this examination the test and control gathering will comprise of thirty-six detainees who have entered and finished the Substance Abuse Felony Punishment program that the prison offers. The groups speak to the subjects who are presented to a trail boost and for this situation the projects go about as the jolt. Subjects in the test aggregate are ordinarily contrasted with subjects in a control gathering to test the impacts of the trial boots. IN this examination, the gathering of offenders who did not enter the program speaks to control gathering. The control gather is comprised of the subjects to whom no trial boost is managed and who ought to take after the exploratory gathering in every single other regard. The correlation of the control gathering and test amass toward the finish of the investigation demonstrates the impact of the test jolt.

Measurements / Data Collection Method

To lead the examination in deciding if the offenders who joined the substance program were less inclined to wind up becoming repeat offenders, each subject was handpicked to fit into either the trial or the control gathering. Meetings, given by the graduate test collaborator, were given to one hundred prisoners who were detained in the Christina Melton Crain united situated in Gatesville, Texas. Out of the one hundred prisoners who fit the necessities, thirty-six were deliberately picked to speak to each gathering. The most ideal approach to accomplish equivalence is through a coordinating procedure in which subjects in the exploratory gathering are coordinated with subjects in a correlation gathering. A correlation bunch serves an indistinguishable capacity from a control gathering. In this specific investigation, the ladies in the control aggregate are those detainees who did not have to the substance program. Along the lines, the ladies in the exploratory gathering comprise of those detainees who attended a substance programs. Each offender, substance abuse subject who will go into the program is then coordinated with an examination subject of a similar race, age level of instruction and the length of one incarcerated. At that point of each trial subject is matched with an examination subject, five days preceding their discharge date between May 1, 2015 and July 30, 2015, and all people will be given a pretest. The pretest will assess the individual who were in participation of the substance abuse program and the individuals who were not and will each answer the correct arrangement of inquiries relating to; Drug use, medicate abuse, recovery, current conditions and future endeavors. Around three years after every subject discharge date, between May 1, 2018 and July 30, 2018, each subject will be reached via mail with investment letter and a posttest to be rounded out and restore no later than ten days after postdate. This posttest will assess whether the previous prisoner progressed toward becoming rehash quality with to without going to the substance abuse program by giving all subjects he correct arrangement of inquiries. The posttest will likewise decide whether the subjects went ahead to turning a persevering national who preceded or ceased sedate drug abuse. A duplicate of both pretest and posttest polls will be incorporated beneath in Index 1 and 2.


There are imperative constraints that should be connected to this examination. The primary restriction is that there will be one hundred females’ prisoners to meet and out of that aggregate; no less than seventy-two must take an interest. The reviews and inclusion are international and will be mysterious inside the last venture discharged to the general population. In spite of the face that a member may consent to all terms, they will most likely be unable to be situated following a three year time frame. There is additionally plausibility that after finding the subject, they don’t mail back the posttest poll. Any deficient, unreturned poll or refusal to partake will be neglected from this investigation. This can bring about the second impediment, each trail subject is coordinated to a controlled subject and consequently in the event that one individual out of a couple identifies with the primary confinement a substitution is then advertised. As expressed previously six from each gathering will exchanges supplanting a subject if traded off. Thusly, the aggregate in the last item will incorporate thirty aggregate subjects in each gathering with six going about as substitutions. The third and last constraint will be whether people are detained amid the posttest time allotment. For this situation we should invest additional energy recovering authorization to offer posttest to the subject while serving their detainment period. Extra inclination would be if in reality a subject is using substance yet have not yet been gotten and charged. The respectability and trustworthiness of substance abusers can likewise counterbalance the last outcome. Finally, if the subject has since been expired amid the time period of posttest inquire about, the outcome will be traded off.

Design/ Analysis

The post-hoc semi exploratory outline will be utilized as part of this examination to contrast recidivism rate of detainees unmistakable with the substance manhandle program given at this specific jail with tantamount prisoners without such experience. This outline is “post-hoc” as in information is caught after the jail discharge instead of following detainees as they enter the jail framework and distinguishing prisoners who were included with substance manhandle preceding detainment and entered a restoration program or a prisoner who had not joined the substance mishandle program at that point following their post-jail recidivism results. The plan of this examination will likewise be pretest and posttest assemble outline. This plan is to decide if the individuals who entered the substance mishandle program after their first time offense could keep from being a rehash guilty party alongside temperance. The subjects will be returned to following three years from the time they were discharged to be given the posttest that will be inspected and decide their procedure at that point contrasted with each other’s allotted accomplice. Utilizing this outline, the delivered discoveries will help the Criminal Equity Office to choose whether influencing these substances to manhandle programs compulsory regardless of the cost. The delivered discoveries will likewise help those one time wrongdoers needing the capacity to battle their addictions to enhance their ways of life. The examination of the discoveries will be processed and figured into an information graph. Rates of every factor will be computed to decide the general finish of how successful and useful these projects are in the restoration procedure of female hoodlums.


  • August 1, 2014-December 31, 2014 Interview process of inmates
  • January 1, 2015-March 15, 2015 Individual picks process
  • March 16, 2015-March 31, 2015 Processing of paperwork on all individuals and grouping is established along with compatibility of individuals in each group to pair inmates.
  • April 1, 2015-June 30, 2015 Subjects are given pretest 5 days prior to individuals release dates. Subjects are released from incarceration on their individual release dates.
  • January 1, 2018-Febuary 28, 2018 Subjects are located March 1, 2018-March 20, 2018 Preparation for mail to be released to individual subjects.
  • March 21, 2018-June 25, 2018 Start of envelope mail dates three years after incarceration reflective toward each individual. All returned posttests should be sent no later than 10 days after being received.


The planned sum demand will be altogether of $28,519.92. Most of the assets will be utilized for work force costs, the IBM SPSS programming to ascertain the pretest and posttest and for two graduate research colleagues. This examination will require the primary research aide to meet the subjects required for the testing. The spending will incorporate educational cost required for the two semesters while included with this examination, time given for the meetings and the exploration regarding each matter, and the time given setting up the posttests in 2018. The investigation will require the second research right hand to finish the last segment for the aftereffects of this examination. The associate will aid the examination of the subjects’ whereabouts. They will assist convey the posttest to the fitting subjects and they will help with coding the information and examination bolster when the posttests are recovered. The staff costs will aggregate to $21,050. The immediate costs will be required for various assets that will help with the finish of this examination. Paper will be required for the overviews and letter support, which will be printed at $.10 per duplicate including two study shapes, investment understanding structure and posttest letter. Stamped envelopes will be expected to send to the subjects including a moment stamped envelope with the arrival address put upon it. A rental auto will be required for the span of the examination for interviews directed by the main graduate research aide. The immediate costs will likewise incorporate office supplies, identifications, endless supply of posttests each subject will get a $25.00 gift voucher. The immediate costs will aggregate to $4,910.04. Likewise added to assets will be a 10% overhead for the support’s rate of $2,597.00. Giving a sum of $28,557.04 expected to support this basic examination.

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Recidivism Rates of Women after Completing a Substance Abuse. (2019, Aug 16). Retrieved October 6, 2022 , from

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