In the past 30 years the obesity is increasing due people shifting to more refined foods and energy dense foods, increase inactive lifestyle like watching T.V, playing video games, computer, urban growth, industrial revolution so long hours sitting work, vehicle culture, economic upturn (Sahoo, K., Sahoo, B., Choudhury, Sofi, Kumar, & Bhadoria (2015). According to Rosiek, Maciejewska, Leksowski, Rosiek-Kryszewska & Leksowski(2015), Watching Television is one of causes of obesity in both adult and children, they spend hours watching television decreases the physical activity level. While watching television people trend to do lot of snaking which increases calorie intake. Croezen, Visscher, Ter Bogt, Veling, & Haveman-Nies (2009) supported this and concluded missing on breakfast and occasionally drinking alcohol also is lifestyle factor that leads to overweight.
The energy imbalance is one the major factor contributing to obesity. Energy balance means amount of energy consumed in a day minus amount of energy utilized by person in a day. The imbalance is leading causes of obesity (Bouchard, 2008).
This energy imbalance occurs due to changes in the diet and lifestyle. Over consumption of energy rich diet and increasing in the portion size, over use sugar containing drinks and snacking in turn causes weight gain. (Jebb, 2004)
There is another accept to the energy imbalance that is “energy gap” is known as amount of change in energy balance point required to maintain specific amount of weight loss. The obesity is increasing as person fail to understand that energy balance point is different in normal and overweight person. Obese person requires more energy expenditure for weight loss. (Hill, Peters & Wyatt , 2009)
According to Chaput, Brunet & Tremblay(2006),Other lifestyle factor that contribute to obesity is lack of proper sleep, duration and quality. This finding is supported by Owens, J., & Adolescent Sleep Working Group. (2014) and stated that improper sleep changes the metabolic profile increases hunger and reduces satiety. This People tend to eat more high dense food, exercise less. Gangwisch,Malaspina, Boden-Albala & Heymsfield(2005) also concluded Sleeplessness reduces leptin hormone and increases ghrelin hormone so eat more and gain weight
The other factor leading to over weight is in recent years trend of eating out side have increased. Majority of outside eating place provided food with high energy ,fat and nutritionally unhealthy ( Harnack, Jeffery & Boutelle,2000).
According to Schröder, Fïto & Covas (2007), the frequently eating fast food once a week increase the risk of higher energy intake and lower quality of food. The weight gain and adiposity occurs by eating high glycaemic carbohydrates and trans fat food (S de Ferranti & Mozaffarian,2008).
Drinking soft drinks is also one of leading cause of obesity (Basu, McKee, Galea & Stuckler,2013). Work by Sahoo,K., Sahoo, B., Choudhury, Sofi, Kumar, & Bhadoria, (2015) supported this findings and confirmed that drinking soft drinking lead to overweight .Soft drinks are not stomach filing like food which causes hungry fast end up eating more calories . The study states that drinking soft drinks causes increases in fructose level . Higher fructose causes increase in plasma triglycerides (Bray, 2010). High plasma triglycerides is connected increase in BMI (Makhoul, Kristal, Gulati,, Luick,, Bersamin, O’brien & Boyer, 2011)..
The findings suggest by eating sugar and fat gives a feeling of satiety and pleasure by making neuro chemical changes at brain site (Levine, Kotz & Gosnell,2003). From the other angle eating more calories gives happiness. There are two way by which pathway of over eating works ,one signals from body transmitted blood stream and vagus nerve to hypothalamus and other just by seeing , smell and thought of food stimulate the reward circuit we eat in spite not hungry .This causes over eating lead to obesity (Dagher,2010).
The lack of physical activity is the major causes of obesity. According to World Health Organization every adult should have minimum 30 minute of exercise like running ,walking, swimming, dancing or playing any sport each day and 60 minute of exercise for children(WHO,2000)Obesity is increasing so rapidly is due to the sedentary pattern of life or today adults and children both, they are spending hours watching television and siting on computers . This sedentary pattern causes decrease the amount of time spend on physical exercise. (Sahoo et al,2015). This finding is supported by Sallis & Glanz (2009) and concluded that Sedentary behaviors are those that involve sitting or minimal energy expenditure. Television viewing, computer use, computer games, and driving/riding in cars are some of the largest contributors.
According to Giles-Corti & Donovan (2002), the level of performing physical activity on daily basis is influenced by the surrounding atmosphere , persons personal wish, accessibility to fitness place .Its always seen if the fitness is very near to home or work place is more exactable. Even the surrounding people around u has great influence on physical activity regularity. Also due to urbanization the car culture is increasing so the walking is reduced. According to study spending one hour extra in car increase 6% more chance to be obese. Instead if we walk a mile 4.8% chances to be less obese ( Frank, Andresen & Schmid 2004). The study by Chaput & Tremblay(2009) and Chaput, Brunet & Tremblay (2006) confirmed that due to increase in urbanization and industrialization the level of sedimentary time increased hours of sitting in recent times as there is 24 hour of hectic lifestyle, there are factors like lack of sleep and lack of activity contribute to weight gain.
As per Martínez-González, Martinez, Hu, Gibney & Kearney (1999), people are following the physical activity guidelines to a wide extent but then also obesity increases because we are not counting hours person having sedentary period in a day, that has very huge impact on energy balance. So not only physical activity but sedentary time play major role in obesity epidemic.
In the past 20 years childhood obesity has increased , environmental factor play a major role. Maternal health, Diet imbalance , lack of physical activity, sedentary lifestyle are the major contributors (Ebbeling, Pawlak & Ludwig 2002). Maternal factors has great influence on childhood obesity. According to Strauss & Knight (1999) obese mother is more likely to have obese child. Oken & Gillman (2008) said that mother smoke during pregnancy have more chances of having obese children. This finding is supported by Gao, Holloway, Zeng, Lim, Petrik, Foster & Lee (2005) and stated that when mother smokes foetus is exposed to nicotine which causes over weight and increases of visceral fat. Eating High sugar and fat food during pregnancy increases more chance of obesity in the child (Samuelsson, Matthews, Jansen, Taylo & Poston,2013). The thing that also add on to it is, television advertisements has major impact on child mind, they tend to make more unhealthy food choice as majority of food product advertise on television are energy dense food (AKTA? ARNAS 2006).
There is vast increase in the food production due to Green revolution from 1960 to 2000 (Evenson & Gollin 2003). Green revolution means there in increases in production of crop yield, has large decreases the nutritional value of crop and in turn cause deficiency of may mineral and vitamins required for normal body functioning (Welch,2002). And due to that there was increase accessibility to the food, more food choices, cost of food reduced . There was increasing in advertising and marketing strategy stimulated to over eat and the energy imbalance occurred which increases the storage of fat in body due to ever eating. Physiological system of body failed against the verity and novelties of food availability forget the signal from the satiety system. That lead to the epidemic obesity (Cohen,2009).
Environmental factors has major role in this obesity epidemic (Hill & Peters ,1998). In the past few years air pollution is increasing due to industrialization people are more exposed to chemicals (EDCs) which in damages the body weight control mechanism(Baillie-Hamilton, 2002). This conclusion is supported by Kelishadi, Poursafa, & Jamshidi (2013) , they stated that endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDCs) alters the function of endocrine system, specially the weight control hormone system and changing sensitivity to neurotransmitters. Causes increases in adipose tissue and weight gain . Work by Turnbaugh, P. J., Ley, R. E., Mahowald, M. A., Magrini, V., Mardis, E. R., & Gordon, J. I. (2006) and supported this and concluded that other environmental factor that contribute to obesity is gut microbiome, obese people gut microbiome has more capacity to store more energy from food. This in turn increases fat percentage.
The other environmental factor that contribute to excess availability of fast food restaurant, increased outside social dining , size of packaging in stores, limited nutritional information (calorie contact) lead to over eating and obesity (Wansink, 2004).
As per Morland, Roux & Wing (2006) other environmental factor lead to obesity Is availability of food has a great impact. Study says that people have less excess to supermarket and more excess to local stores with limited healthy food resources are more obese.
Metabolic factor is one of the indirect causes of obesity ( Weinsier, Hunter, Heini, Goran & Sell,1998).According to Allison & Myers (2014), Leptin is hormone which regulates energy intake from the hypothalamus .Its main function is generate satiety signals . Leptin resistance is the cause of increasing adiposity in the body . This finding is supported by Enriori, Evans, Sinnayah & Cowley (2006) and stated that there is hyperleptinemia in leptin resistance people but brain is not able get signal of satiety so leptin resistance people tend to over eat. Obesity induced insulin resistance leads to higher demand of insulin to meet up this demand ?-cells of pancreases increases insulin production, but in the case of prolong insulin resistance ?-cells no longer meet the demand . This leads to increase glucose in blood which causes type 2 diabetes(Van Greevenbroek, Schalkwijk, & Stehouwer.,2013).
As per study carried out by Loos & Bouchard (2003) hereditary factor responsible for Obesity is genetic . Gene and environment can lead over weight. This is supported by Herrera & Lindgren found that Monogenic obesity is the one of commonly caused gene related obesity. In this the mutations binds the leptin/melanocortin pathway of central nervous system and causes overeating and decreases the satiety signals(2010)
Hill, J. O., & Peters, J. C. indicated that lifestyle factor is the family environment it plays major role in obesity ,particularly childhood obesity .Their eating pattern, level of inactivity and genetic factor(1998).
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