Rare and Deadly Disease of Ebola

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EBOLA VIRUS

INTRODUCTION:

            There are many infectious disease that can lead to the death of people without knowing the cause of the occurrence of that disease. Among them Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is one which is very rare and deadly disease not only seen in human beings but also to the non- human beings too. This disease is mostly seen in African country mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. This disease is considered an infected disease because we can get it through direct contact with an infected animal (bat or nonhuman primate like monkeys, gorillas, and chimpanzees) and also can be transmitted from a sick person or dead person who was infected with Ebola virus. As we all know that bacterial disease or infections can be treated with antibiotics and we can prevent some infections with immunization or vaccine before getting it but all of them don’t have vaccines to prevent. Likewise, EDV also don’t have any kind of known vaccine till now. Research on EVD focuses on finding the virus’ natural host, developing vaccines to protect at-risk populations, and discovering therapies to improve treatment of the disease.

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            The main cause of this infection is known, scientists do not know where this disease came from but we can believe that this infection is animal borne. According to CDC, Ebola virus disease is caused by Reston Virus but only in non -human primates. This infection spreads through direct contact and can get through sexual contact as well.

CAUSES:

           Ebola is caused by viruses in the Ebolavirus and Filoviridae family. Ebola is considered a zoonosis, meaning that the virus is present in animals and is transmitted to humans. How this transmission occurs at the onset of an outbreak in humans is unknown. In Africa, people have developed Ebola after handling infected animals found ill or dead, including chimpanzees, gorillas, fruit bats, monkeys, forest antelope, and porcupines.

        Person-to-person transmission occurs after someone infected with Ebolavirus becomes symptomatic. As it can take between 2 and 21 days for symptoms to develop, a person with Ebola may have been in contact with hundreds of people, which is why an outbreak can be hard to control and may spread rapidly.

MODE OF TRANSMISSION:

            Scientists think people are initially infected with Ebola virus through contact with an infected animal, such as a fruit bat or nonhuman primate. This is called a spillover event. After that, the virus spreads from person to person, potentially affecting a large number of people.

       The virus spreads through direct contact (such as through broken skin or mucous membranes in the eyes, nose, or mouth) with:

  • Blood or body fluids (urine, saliva, sweat, feces, vomit, breast milk, and semen) of a person who is sick with or has died from EVD
  • Objects (such as needles and syringes) contaminated with body fluids from a person sick with EVD or the body of a person who died from EVD
  • Infected fruit bats or nonhuman primates (such as apes and monkeys)
  • Semen from a man who recovered from EVD (through oral, vaginal, or anal sex).

The Ebola virus CANNOT spread to others when a person shows no signs or symptoms of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD). Additionally, Ebola virus is not usually transmitted by food. However, in certain parts of the world, Ebola virus may spread through the handling and consumption of bushmeat (wild animals hunted for food). There is also no evidence that mosquitoes or other insects can transmit Ebola virus.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS:

          Symptoms of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) include:

  • Fever
  • Severe headache
  • Muscle pain
  • Weakness and fatigue
  • Diarrhea and vomiting
  • Abdominal (stomach) pain
  • Unexplained hemorrhage (bleeding or bruising)

Symptoms may appear anywhere from 2 to 21 days after contact with the virus, with an average of 8 to 10 days. Many common illnesses can have these same symptoms, including influenza (flu) or malaria.

EVD is a rare but severe and often deadly disease. Recovery from EVD depends on good supportive clinical care and the patient’s immune response.

DIAGNOSTIC TESTS:                                 

           Diagnosing Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) shortly after infection can be difficult. Early symptoms of EVD such as fever, headache, and weakness are not specific to Ebola virus infection and often are seen in patients with other more common diseases, like malaria and typhoid fever.

To determine whether Ebola virus infection is a possible diagnosis, there must be a combination of symptoms suggestive of EVD AND a possible exposure to EVD within 21 days before the onset of symptoms.

TREATMENT:

Symptoms of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) are treated as they appear. When used early, basic interventions can significantly improve the chances of survival. These include:

  • Providing fluids and electrolytes (body salts) through infusion into the vein (intravenously).
  • Offering oxygen therapy to maintain oxygen status.
  • Using medication to support blood pressure, reduce vomiting and diarrhea and to manage fever and pain.
  • Treating other infections, if they occur.

COMPLICATION:

Ebola hemorrhagic fever often has many complications; organ failures, severe bleeding, jaundice, delirium, shock, seizures, coma, and death (about 50%-100% of infected patients). Those patients fortunate enough to survive Ebola hemorrhagic fever still may have complications that may take many months to resolve.

PREVENTION:

We can prevent Ebola virus by taking precautions when we travel to the region where Ebola virus is present. There is currently no vaccine licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to protect people from Ebola virus. An experimental vaccine called rVSV-ZEBOV was found to be highly protective against the virus in a trial conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO) and other international partners in Guinea in 2015.

CONCLUSION:

        There are many viral infectious disease seen among the people. Ebola is one of them but this disease is not common like other. I have heard about this disease but never seen a person suffering from this infection but from this term project I learned many things about this infection. This infection is mainly seen in the African people and this disease is a viral infection so, there is no any known antiviral medication. We can prevent this infection by taking the precautions above and we have to be careful when we travel to the area infected with this kind of infection. There is no any vaccine to prevent this disease and complications are very dangerous too.

REFERENCES:

  1. (2018, September 18). Ebola Virus Infection. Retrieved November 14, 2018, from https://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/about.html
  2. (2018, February 12). Ebola Virus causes and treatment. Retrieved November 14, 2018, from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/ebola-virus-disease
  3. (2017, November 07). Ebola virus. Retrieved November 14, 2018, from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/ebola-virus/symptoms-causes/syc-20356258
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Rare and Deadly Disease Of Ebola. (2019, Dec 11). Retrieved January 29, 2023 , from
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