Political Structure in Indonesia

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Before we go further we must know what the legislative body is and its tasks. In Indonesia the legislature or representatives bodies are a political structure that represents the Indonesian people in drafting laws and also supervises the implementation of laws by the executive body where members are elected through a general election (election). Political structures that also participate in in this category are the People's Consultative Assembly (MPR), the Level I and II House of Representatives, the House of Representatives, and the Regional Representative Council. In addition to the legislative body, there are also two other political trias bodies in Indonesia, namely the executive body and the judicial body.

Meanwhile in Indonesia, there are three representative institutions recognized by the constitution, namely the MPR, the DPR (including DPRD I and II at the regional level), and the DPD. The tasks and authorities of the MPR are outlined in Article 2 of the 1945 Constitution which includes three things: The Constitution, Inaugurates the President and Vice President, and Dismisses the President and Vice President within the term of office according to the Constitution. MPR members are not chosen per se because MPR members are collectivists from all members of the DPR-RI plus all DPD members. Only members of the DPR-RI and DPD are directly elected by the people. The MPR is a legislative structure that is only located at the central level. The MPR convenes at least 5 (five) years and each decision is taken with the most votes. The Indonesian MPR is actually designed to the level of the two rooms (DPR and DPD).

However, through the last amendment to the 1945 Constitution, the MPR became a separate body regulated by the constitution. After we know the duties that the legislature has with responsibilities that must be borne with a sense of responsibility by the legislature it means that only the best choices can occupy positions in the legislative body, but return to the statement of the principle of proportional representation based on the theory of justice rawls. Proportional ethnic representation means 'that under the ethnic groups represented (eg papuan, China, etc.) there must be more seats in the legislature (thereby increasing their political power).' Here I underline the word 'MUST' the word must itself has a mandatory meaning or something must be done without any exception (may not be) and leads to a command. if we interpret that rawls theory requires or proposes certain ethnic groups to get a greater opportunity to be able to occupy positions in the legislative body which can be said to be included in minorities, why do I say minorities? For example, ethnic minorities in Indonesia are papua or black people, from the population of Indonesia which reached 265 million in 2018 according to data released by the government, the population of Papua does not reach half of that number. and also based on observations that I sell If the people of Papua who occupy important positions in Indonesia do not reach half of the total number of important positions in this country.

But this example is not only seen in Indonesia, say America which is a superpower in which there are various kinds of religions, customs, races, and cultures but who would have thought that after years of standing as a new country there would be one black person who had succeeded as a state official, Barack Hussein Obama, who is usually called Barack Obama became the 44th American President and was the first African-American or black president to serve as President of the United States. He served as the leader of the superpower since January 20, 2009 after George Walker Bush and he succeeded in becoming a leader of a state that was leading leading a large country like America and completing his term very well in 2016 from this thing which looks very visible and finally the question arises as to why black people find it difficult to get structural positions and also why it is very difficult to get encouragement in the general community? We can also see the incongruity or it can be said to be strange in our country as an example of this strange act in Papua people from non tribes Papua, such as Java, Sumatra, Sulawesi, NNT, NTB, Maluku can serve as governor, regent, regional secretary, or other important structural positions and have a lot of jobs and often we meet easily, for example non-Papuan officials are Zainal Abidin Shah is Governor West Irian (now Papua) pert ama who served in 1956–1961 he was a native of tidore and also a tidore sultan of his time.

here we can see the oddity that why someone who is not from Papua was appointed as governor when he himself did not settle in Papua. is there no native Papua or people who live and live in Papua who can occupy that position, even though Papua is one a large province with 28 districts and 1 city which means that there must be people who have good quality work and professionals, but why can't they occupy that position? For example, another oddity that we can see here is that non-native Papuans can get a high position in the executive and judicial bodies, but why can't the Papuans occupy such positions if how many outside of Papua are Java, Kalimantan, Sumatra and surrounding areas based on the experience that I saw and felt in Papua that anyone may occupy positions without exception. I started asking what h the people of Papua are considered unable to lead?

If the answer is that Papuans are not yet worthy to lead, then why does the State or government not provide incentives such as education, health, welfare, and prosperity because poverty is one of the difficulties or inferior, namely the level of education in Papua that is still less attention. But if we discuss the rights for minorities to get a place in our legislative body, it means talking about special rights, namely autonomy or special autonomy that the management and utilization of natural resources of the Papua Province has not been used optimally to improve the standard of living of indigenous people, so that it has resulted in a gap between Papua Province and other regions, and is a neglect of the basic rights of indigenous Papuans, that in order to reduce the gap between Papua and other provinces, and increase the standard of living of the people in Papua Province, as well as providing opportunities for indigenous Papuans, special policies are needed within the framework of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia.

That the implementation of specific policies is based on basic values which include protection and respect for ethics and morals, rights basic rights of indigenous people, human rights, rule of law, democracy, as well as equality, rights, and obligations as citizens, that there has been a new awareness among the Papuan people to fight for peace and constitutional recognition of basic rights and there is a demand for resolution of problems relating to the violation and protection of the human rights of indigenous Papuans, that the development of the situation and conditions in the area of Irian Jaya, especially concerning the aspirations of the people wanting the name Irian Jaya to be Papua as stated in the Irian Jaya Provincial Parliament Decree Number 7 / DPRD / 2000 dated August 16, 2000 concerning Returning the Name of Irian Jaya to Papua that based on these matters, it is deemed necessary to provide Special Autonomy for the Papua Province stipulated by Law.

But I think it should also be necessary in the Special Autonomy regulation. In the explanation above I underline the words equality and rights because it explains that the people of Papua are also entitled to equality as in political matters because they have the right to be the color of the State of Indonesia. or listening to the word 'otsus' must be in our minds and thoughts that are funded even though the progress of a region is not only supported by funds but also supported by justice in duties and responsibilities. If we look at the law on special autonomy for Papua province chapter I in article 1 paragraph here says that Special Autonomy is a special authority recognized and given to the Papua Province to regulate and manage the interests of local people according to their own initiatives based on the aspirations and basic rights of the Papuan people, here it is clear that special autonomy gives authority to I regulate and manage the interests of the people based on the aspirations and rights of the people of Papua, but why the people of Papua still have difficulties in terms of economics and education, I think one of the reasons here is that there is no equality in Indonesia. and clothing that has skyrocketed even though Java is not as high in Papua and many times it can be seen, this is an extraordinary oddity because of the very far comparisons especially in land and air transportation as seen from ticket prices the plane from Jakarta trip to Jayapura which can reach a price of 6 million rupiah even though Papua is part of Indonesia while the Jakarta ticket to Sydney, Australia has a price range of 2-4 million even though Sydney is a different country.

This is what is called equality? , through the statement, I conclude that I agree with Rawls' theory that requires the government so that minorities such as the people of Papua to get more seats in the legislature, why do I agree? Because in my opinion someone who serves as a legislative member or other structural position it does not originate from its place of origin (this applies to every district of the region) he certainly does not know the needs of the place and he does not know the situation and condition of the place well and does not rule out that after his tenure he will return to his place of origin and leave a place that has given him a position and a career, without having to share knowledge or experience of working for people who live and live in that place. So based on this, more if someone occupies a legislative seat from that area then surely he will serve with n full of love for the place he has lived in from birth to adulthood and automatically he has mastered the area both in terms of norms, economics, education, health, etc.so because he grew up in that place he knows the difficulties experienced by the community.

I think that indeed the state must provide guarantees of equality for the people of Papua in terms of accessing the ability to lead not only to continue to use workers from outside Papua, even though in Papua there are many people who have the same competitiveness or ability to work with people in outside of Papua with working experience and high levels of education, it can even exceed the ability to work outside Papua, this all leads to justice in the political field. and added value that can be had if the legislature or more and more Papuans become leaders or workers government then Indonesia has people of trust who can convince the people of Papua to be considered as part of Indonesia and prevent movements that can divide Indonesian unity.

Blibiography :

  • https://www.voa.com/a/obama-we-are-on-the-side-history-correct / 3091808.html
  • http://www.cahayapapua.com/tag/dana-otsus/
  • http://www.understandingconflict.org/en/conflict/read/23/Papua-Update-The-Latest-on-Otsus-Plus
  • https://asiaviews.net/not-happy-otsus-day/
  • https://www.bps.go.id/sdgs/1
  • https://databoks.katadata.co.id/datapublish/2018/05/18/2018-jumlah-penduduk-indonesia-mencapai-265-juta-jiwa


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Political Structure in Indonesia. (2022, Feb 02). Retrieved May 29, 2024 , from

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