Political Participation and its Types

According to this act many researchers research on political participation but they don’t found any significantly change. According to Macedo et al. (2005) considered that political participation and civic participation are interlinked concepts, that allows to expand the civic activities.

Commonly we said that the political participation are the set of activities which perform from people for some purposes like political structure, policies and officials. Which directly influence to the political policies and implementation and indirectly influence to the actor of the political participants which make those Policies (yamamato, 2014: 883 in Verba et al., 1995). They can elect the political representative who make policies that how much they have to pay taxes and other social programs these people are also a part of organization which is directly influence to the policies and they can also express their needs and interests (Paletz et al., 2015: 171).

A common participation of citizen is voting which are unique political act that allows to the majority of people represented their views (Paletz et al., 2015: 171). Hence, the political participation was beyond act of voting and implementation in different political activities like attending the political events, working for support to the people, donating money and also convinces others how to vote (Kenski and Stroud, 2006: 175).

There are two types of political participation: online and offline. In online participation people was gathered information about politics from articles, visiting websites of politicians, donating money to a candidate online. In offline participation people were not participate due to cost barriers. But in online participation people were donating money and sending emails through internet to public officials without any cost barrier. (jung et al., 2011:414).

In some studies discuss that digitally networked political acts, like posting some kind of political update. Sharing the political updates and commenting on them are a new form pof political participation or not. Some scholars studied that online political participation shows the equality in all the citizens. And in offline participation have no equality (Theocharis, 2014: 3).

This approach considers these digital networked act that might increase political participation (online & offline). For researchers the main key elements of representing the political participation is political communication, understanding what facilitates citizens. Within communication informational media use for the theoretical development of political participation (Gil de Zuniga, 2002 in jung et al 2011: 408).

In traditional media reading newspaper is positive association with political participation. Mc Leod (1999) consider that reading newspaper have a strong relation with voting and contecting officials (chang 2007: 367). Eveland and Sheufele (2000) shows that the newspaper has also the more types of voting behaviours of political participation, displaying a campaign button, sign or sticker, attending candidates, donationg money to candidates or political parties (Chang 2007: 367).

More use of Internet captured the attention of researchers. The conclusive results are shows in introductory section. This paper shows that use of social media sites intend more influence on political participation.

Hypothesis: relationship between use of social networking sites with political participation.

Hypothesis: influence of social networking sites on political participation.

The other factors of Political participation, political discussions, political knowledge, and socio-demographic factors will be discussed in the following sections.

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