The quantum of solid waste is ever increasing due to increase in population, developmental activities, changes in life style, and socio-economic conditions, Plastics waste is a significant portion of the total municipal solid waste (MSW). It is estimated that approximately 10 thousand tons per day (TPD) of plastics waste is generated i. e. 9% of 1. 20 lacs TPD of MSW in the country. The plastics waste constitutes two major category of plastics; (i)Thermoplastics and (ii) Thermoset plastics. Thermoplastics, constitutes 80% and thermoset constitutes approximately 20% of total post-consumer plastics waste generated in India. The Thermoplastics are recyclable plastics which include; Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET), Low Density Poly Ethylene (LDPE), Poly Vinyl Chloride(PVC), High Density Poly Ethylene (HDPE), Polypropylene(PP), Polystyrene (PS) etc. Thermoset plastics contains alkyd, epoxy, ester, melamine formaldehyde, phenolic formaldehyde, silicon, urea formaldehyde, polyurethane, metalised and multilayer plastics etc.
The environmental hazards due to mismanagement of plastics waste include the following aspects:
Main Features of the Plastics Manufacture and Usage (Amendment) Rules, 2003 Regulation of plastics waste, particularly manufacture and use of recycled plastics carry bags and containers is being regulated in the country as per Recycled Plastics Manufacture and Usage Rules, 1999 and as amended in 2003.
According to these Rules:
1Recycling of plastics through environmentally sound manner: Recycling of plastics should be carried in such a manner to minimize the pollution during the process and as a result to enhance the efficiency of the process and conserve the energy. Plastics recycling technologies have been historically divided into four general types -primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary. Primary recycling involves processing of a waste/scrap into a product with characteristics similar to those of original product. Secondary recycling involves processing of waste/scrap plastics into materials that have characteristics different from those of original plastics product. Tertiary recycling involves the production of basic chemicals and fuels from plastics waste/scrap as part of the municipal waste stream or as a segregated waste. Quaternary recycling retrieves the energy content of waste/scrap plastics by burning / incineration. This process is not in use in India.
The post consumer waste (used plastic waste) shall be washed, shredded, agglomerated, extruded and granulated.
Polymer Coated Bitumen Road The CPCB has undertaken a project in collaboration with Thiagarajar College of Engineering Madurai to evaluate the performance of polymer coated built roads laid during 2002-2006 in different cities.
The observations are as below:
Foam plastics have better binding values. 6. Plastics waste disposal through Plasma Pyrolysis Technology (PPT) Plasma Pyrolysis is a state of the art technology, which integrates the thermochemical properties of plasma with the pyrolysis process. The intense and versatile heat generation capabilities of PPT enable it to dispose off all types of plastic wastes including polymeric, biomedical and hazardous waste in a safe and reliable manner.
In plasma pyrolysis, firstly the plastics waste is fed into the primary chamber at 8500C through a feeder. The waste material dissociates into carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane, higher hydrocarbons etc. Induced draft fan drains the pyrolysis gases as well as plastics waste into the secondary chamber, where these gases are combusted in the presence of excess air. The inflammable gases are ignited with high voltage spark. The secondary chamber temperature is maintained at around 10500 0C. The hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide and hydrogen are combusted into safe carbon dioxide and water. The process conditions are maintained so that it eliminates the possibility of formation of toxic dioxins and furans molecules (in case of chlorinated waste). The conversion of organic waste into non toxic gases (CO2, H2O) is more than 99% . The extreme conditions of Plasma kill stable bacteria such as Bacillus stereothermophilus and Bacillus subtilis immediately.
Segregation of the waste is not necessary, as very high temperatures ensure treatment of all types of waste without discrimination. The CPCB has initiated the study in association with Facilitation Centre for Industrial Plasma Technologies (FCIPT), Institute of Plasma Research (IPR). The objectives of the study are to conduct performance study of the PPT on 15 kg/hr prototype demonstration system developed by FCIPT/ IPR for proper disposal of plastics waste and also monitor air quality parameters e. g. suspended particulate matter (SPM), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), benzene, dioxins, furans etc. ith regards to gaseous emissions. CPCB also proposes to undertake study on safe disposal of plastics waste using higher capacity (approx. 50 kg/hr) plasma pyrolysis system as in future and may set up prototype plasma pyrolysis plant on demonstration basis (15 kg/hr waste disposal capacity) at specific locations (hilly and pilgrimage) in consultation with State Government.
A research-cum-demonstration plant was set up at Nagpur, Maharashtra for conversion of waste plastics into liquid fuel. The process adopted is based on random de-polymerization of waste plastics into liquid fuel in presence of a catalyst. The entire process is undertaken in closed reactor vessel followed by condensation, if required. Waste plastics while heating upto 2700 0C to 30000 C convert into liquid-vapour state, which is collected in condensation chamber in the form of liquid fuel while the tarry liquid waste is topped-down from the heating reactor vessel. The organic gas is generated which is vented due to lack of storage facility. However, the gas can be used in dual fuel diesel-generator set for generation of electricity.
The process includes the steps shown ahead:
The environmentally degradable polyolefin films are defined as those materials that contain degradation process of polyolefin article (bag/film/sheet) under conditions of composting. Often queries are raised regarding biodegradability of plastics but clear-cut answer is not available about the biodegradability of plastics. In view of above, CPCB has initiated a study in collaboration with Central Institute of Plastics Engineering and Technology (CIPET) to establish the biodegradability and compostability (e. g. fragmentation rate, degradation rate and safety) of polymeric material available in India and abroad.
The study will include:
Write about short introduction of Delhi: Delhi lags way behind in waste disposal “Capital generates about 6,000 tonnes of solid waste daily, reveals study”
While Delhi steals a march over all other metropolitan cities across the country in generating municipal waste, it lags far behind in waste disposal and recycling, according to a new study on “Solid waste management and its disposal” conducted by the Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India (ASSOCHAM). The study reveals that Delhi is able to dispose of and recycle only 62 per cent of its solid waste as against Mumbai, Bangalore and Chennai, where the figure stands at 86 per cent, 85 per cent and 80 per cent, respectively. Kolkata has been cited as an exception in removing its municipal waste to the extent of 90 per cent, making it a city of people with a “much better civic sense”, reveals the ASSOCHAM study. According to the study, Delhi generates about 6,000 tonnes of solid waste daily as against 5,800 tonnes by Mumbai, 2,800 by Bangalore, 2,675 tonnes by Chennai and 4,000 tonnes by Kolkata.
The study refers to Kerala that has created a special purpose vehicle (SPV) to dispose of its solid waste for power generation by closely integrating its 60 municipalities with three intermediate depots to collect its garbage and waste to dispose it of in large containers. “Similar models should be emulated by other cities to collect their solid waste which should be recycled for commercial use,” says ASSOCHAM president Venugopal N. Dhoot, emphasising the need for a national waste policy. Acknowledging the role of rag pickers in clearing solid waste, the study notes that in Delhi alone there are 85,000 of them and the total quantum of waste collected by the pickers is 900 tonnes a day, which is about 19 per cent of the total waste generated every day. “The MCD spent about 2. 4 billion rupees to manage garbage generated during the year. Thus rag pickers saved the municipal authorities more than 250 million rupees,” the study says. 9. 3Hazardous It points out that urban residents generate 350 gm to 1,000 gm of solid waste every day and with the increase in population and rising income, urban India is becoming a “throwaway society”. “The waste in bigger cities is generally paper, plastics, metal and hazardous materials apart from vegetables wastes.
Bio-degradable households waste has far less impact than the waste generated by activities like manufacturing of goods,” the study notes. “The present annual solid waste generated in Indian cities has increased from 48 million tones in 1997 to 95 million tonnes, which might exceed 150 million tonnes over the next seven years,” says Mr. Dhoot. NEW DELHI, FEBRUARY 23: India’s booming economy is producing mountains of toxic electronic waste like discarded computers and televisions, but there are no laws to regulate its disposal, a local environment group said on Friday. Toxics Link said while the Asian giant’s economy has been growing at eight per cent annually over the last three years, it has also resulted in the generation of 150,000 tonnes of electronic waste each year. An eight-month study by the group found that India’s bustling financial hub of Mumbai was the biggest source of electronic or e-waste, generating 19,000 tonnes every year. Being the hub of India’s commercial activities, the banks and financial institutions in Mumbai generate huge amounts of e-waste,” Ravi Agarwal, Director of Toxics Link, told a news conference. “But like the rest of India, there are no laws for its safe handling and this will lead to serious health and environmental impacts. “
Agarwal said the government had to regulate the management of e-waste by setting up a central authority to collect all discarded electronic goods and put in place laws to deal with disposal and recycling. India’s economic liberalisation that began in the early 1990s has seen hundreds of banks, financial institutions, electronics industries, information technology firms and call centres setting up operations across the country. The booming economy has also led to a growing middle class-estimated around 300 million-which has more disposable income and an insatiable appetite for electronic products. “When electronics like televisions, PCs and efrigerators are discarded, it is the informal sector made up of tens of thousands of people who collect it and then break it down and recycle parts of it which can be sold,” said Agarwal. They extract toxic-heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium and chromium which are sold for other uses. ” These metals harm the development of the brain, kidneys and some are carcinogens which enter the food chain through the air, water and soil. 10.
Write about short introduction of sikkim: Urban Environment Improvement on Solid Waste Management
An Attempt by Government of Sikkim
STATUS ON SOLID WASTE BEFORE THE ENACTMENT OF THE SIKKIM NON-BIODEGRADABLE GARBAGE (CONTROL) ACT, 1997:
When burnt it emitted toxic fume in to the atmosphere but were not burnt out totally as the slag still remained. Plastics reportedly do not degrade for over 200 years, and unless it is burnt, the volume does not reduce.
The State Government enacted the Sikkim Non-Biodegradable Garbage (Control) Act, 1997, on 30th April, 1997. Salient features of the Act are:
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