Planning Strategic Human Resource (SHR) is a part of Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM) and planning SHR policies is an important aspect to be considered in every organization. Effective planning of human resource (HR) policies will lead an organization to work effectively and also improves productivity. Apart from this human resource strategies play an important role in achieving organizational objectives and goals. Apart from achieving organizational objectives, a good HR strategy also supports specific strategic objectives of operational, financial, marketing and technology departments. In the following sections we will discuss in detail the HR strategies and how they affect the school districts structure and changes, importance of SHR planning, SHRM approaches and how education councils formulate or plan SHR decisions and choices and the challenges of SHR planning process in detail.
For school districts to improve in the market place or to gain competitive advantage, changes in the HR strategy is a must and it is believed that changes in the HR policies and practices show a wider impact on the school’s environment and some of which could be Changes in the overall employment marketplace such as pay levels, demographics etc. Cultural changes – These changes could affect the future processes of recruitment or employment Changes in employee relations environment Changes in the work practices – These changes could be due to the HR practices followed in other organizations or develop new work practices. Effective planning and designing HR policies and practices will maximize the company’s likelihood of success considering this HR strategy should aim at effective people management through which organization is aiming at achieving long and short term . Based on this contradiction HR should ensure that It has the right people in the right place – right job assigned to the right or eligible person. It has the right mix of skills – eligible persons should have the necessary skills and knowledge to perform the work properly Employees show good attitudes and behavior – Organizations should ensure that employees behavior is right and have a good attitude towards work and organization. Employees developed in a right way – school districts HR should ensure that proper training, coaching etc are provided to the employees so as to improve their skill in the related job.
Before discussing the strategic HR policies and practices first let us see the importance of strategic HR planning. Strategic planning help school districts to work more effectively and efficiently by Setting the strategic direction – Formulating effective strategies show positive outcomes which the school seeks to achieve and includes school’s vision, mission, goals and values. Strategies are prepared based on the external environment. Strategies focus on supporting HR policies so as to accomplish organizations mission, vision and goals. Designing HRM system – Effective HRM system is important in any school districts wherein the HR focuses on selecting, designing and alignment of human resource policies, plans and practices. Planning the complete workforce – Planning school districts and work design or work structure is as important as designing workforce. Effective workforce planning helps in bringing out the expected results. Creating or producing the necessary human resources – Organizations need to effectively plan strategies for recruiting, selecting, appointments etc. Investing in HRD and performance – Planning strategies for promotions, rewards, compensations, career planning, performance management etc. will help in better organizational and employee outcomes. Assessing and sustaining organizational performance and competence – Effective strategies will lead to succession planning, good organizational culture and evaluating effectiveness of HR strategies. The overall purpose of SHR planning is to ensure enough human resources so as to meet the strategic and operational goals of the organization upgrade the social, economic, technological trends that effect human resource in the organization and finally to be flexible so that organizational change could be anticipated. Therefore, SHRM approaches play an important role in the process of effectively planning and implementing strategic human resources policies and practices.
In an organization, HR strategy will add value when it is carefully considers the existing and developing plans so that it could identify and focus on common themes and implications that could probably happen or would never happen. According to major, HR practices fall into four major categories explained as following Flow of people – It includes promotions, transfers, outplacements, training and development. Flow of performance Management – This includes measuring job performance, appraisals, rewards and regular follow ups. Flow of information – Organizations should keep in touch with the important external realities, manage internal communication and perfectly and/ or properly design information technology infrastructure. Flow of work – This includes organization structure, work process design and other physical arrangements.
Formulating and developing strategic HR policies is a part of strategic HR planning. Strategic formulation includes evaluating the interaction between the strategic factors and making strategic choices organizations should ensure that developing HR policies to support organizational strategies should include five major strategies so as to meet the organizations needs in future Restructuring strategies – This strategy mainly includes reducing workforce either by termination or attrition, restructuring group tasks so as to create well designed jobs and recognize work units to be more efficient.
Recruitment strategies – This includes hiring new employees with the necessary skills and abilities that match the organizational needs (current needs and future needs). Considering the requirements and options organizations need to promote job openings and encourage suitable individuals to apply. This strategy helps organizations to choose the right candidate who can align with future changes planned for future. Training and development strategies – This strategy includes providing training and other related processes to employees to take new roles (job responsibilities) and present staff with career developing opportunities (this also helps the organization to promote the same employees in future other than hiring new staff). Collaboration strategies – It could also be called as merging strategies where in the organization could collaborate with other organizations which help the organization to be successful and also can overcome the shortage of certain skills. Outsourcing strategies – This strategy looks for external sources (individuals or organizations) to do some of the organizational tasks (for example consultants and so on). Here organizations should also focus on the implications of such process and take necessary actions to assess the strategy before implementing. According to Purcell (2001) strategic choices could be upstream or downstream type of strategic decisions. Where in upstream look for long term decisions and down stream look for short term or new decisions on the structure of the firm.
Organizations before planning should identify and focus on which plan or strategy are fundamental so as to achieve organizational goals and objectives. It is important for organizations to look in for the following Planning issues concerned to workforce (workforce requirements, recruiting)) Planning sequence (prioritizing work process) Planning for improving skills in workforce (trainings, coaching, conduct workshops etc.) Employment equity plans (compensations, benefits, promotions, rewards etc.) Issues related to motivation and fair treatment (appraisals, rewards, respect, attitude of management towards employees) Designing pay levels (recruiting new employees, retain, motivate people etc.) Developing a framework for performance management so as to meet the needs of all levels and sectors of organization Career development frameworks to develop employee skills and knowledge Apart from all the above, organizations must also focus on the various implication of implementing the proposed policies or practices. Improper planning and implementation of HR strategies could lead to many other issues in the organization such as employee job dissatisfaction, work load due to change in work processes, lack of effective skills, lack of good leadership and so on. So, it is also important for organizations to look for the organizational needs, available resources (operational and financial) and based on the needs and available resources formulate HR policies and communicate properly (use proper communication channels) and evaluate the policies and/ or strategies before implementing the strategies.
Strategic human resource management is an important aspect that needs to be considered in all the organizations. SHRM approaches help the organizations to effectively develop HR strategies and thereby planning and effectively implementing them. Good HR planning, practices and policies are very crucial and organizations could achieve competitive advantage, improve its market place, develop its employees which will in turn help the organization to perform better get more output both externally (income) and internally (through better employee performance). Effective planning and implementation of HR strategies therefore help the organization to achieve its goals and objectives.
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