Isaac Newton – Philosopher, Mathematician and Physicist

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English natural philosopher, mathematician, and physicist Isaac Newton was born prematurely on Christmas in 1642 (using the old Julien calendar) in Woolsthorpe, Lincolnshire, England. He passed away in his sleep on March 20th, 1726 in Kensington London, United Kingdom. Newton’s father, Isaac (also named Isaac) had passed away before he was born. Newton was left in the care of his grandmother when his mother remarried. Isaac received an education at the King’s School in Grantham where he was taught Latin and Greek. Newton attended Trinity College in Cambridge. His main influences were Rene Descartes, Nicolaus Copernicus, Johannes Kepler among many others.

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Perhaps the most famous of Newton’s creations are the laws of motion. The first law says that Objects at rest remain at rest and objects in motion remain in motion in a straight line unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. Newton’s second law states that Force equals mass times acceleration (f=ma). His third law reads, For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. These laws of motion have laid the foundation for classical mechanics. Newton speculated white light was a composite of all the colors of the spectrum and that white light was made of particles.

In addition, Isaac Newton wrote several books such as Opticks, Method of Fluxions, Newton’s Philosophy of Nature, Arithmetica Universalis, The Queries, and The Correspondence of Isaac Newton that were influential the fields they encompassed. One of Newton’s most famous books is Principa which details almost all the fundamental principles of physics, except energy. Newton also developed crucial theories of calculus. His earliest significant public scientific accomplishment was designing and building a telescope that was reflective in the year 1668. Isaac proved his conjecture of color and light using his telescope.

The supposed inspiration behind the creation of the theory of gravity was the falling apple. In addition, he is credited with the development of the laws of planetary motion. Newton assisted in leading the rebellion against King James II’s attempts to reintroduce Catholic teaching at Cambridge. Isaac was designated to represent Cambridge in Parliament. He interacted with well-known intellectuals in London including John Locke. In 1696, he achieved the governmental position of warden of the Mint.

Isaac Newton made many important contributes throughout his lifetime to mathematics and science that have formed the basis of these fields. Isaac Newton influenced many great scholars such as Joseph Raphson and Albert Einstein. In conclusion, Newton was a big contributor to modern science and mathematics and played a big role with his discoveries in the Scientific Revolution.

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