International Diploma in Computer Studies


This is an assignment for Networking Assignment that is an elective subject in international diploma in computer studies (IDCS). Network is very important communicate each other. So, this is very important.

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I would like to thank to our teacher U Tin Naing Htwe who teaches us Networking. When he teaches this subjective, we know about networking thoroughly and can implement the tasks understanding. So I would like to thank to teacher U Tin Naing Htwe and my classmate who are Phyo, Zar Yar Shi, Myint Myint Aye and ma Yee Mon. They help me for my assignment because I am a new student. MCC class is separate two kind of student which is senior and junior. I am a junior student.

So, at first I don’t know what is an assignment? I was thought assignment is difficult for me but now I am having my assignment because of my classmate and my teacher. And thanks for my parents because they help me for assignment and they advices me this IDCS course is good for me. I like this subject and I must try to networking subject. I would like to offer acknowledge to Myanmar Company Ltd (MCC) and National Computer Company, Ltd (NCC) education.


My name is LEI LEI MON.I have student from International Diploma in Computer Studies at MCC computer training Center. It is offered by NCC Education center. There are four subjects which are networking, java, system development and business communication. In my course is finish, we must do the assignment.

The purpose of this assignment is the bank for Rural Development is set up as an apex development bank with a mandate for facilitating credit flow for promotion and development of agriculture, small-scale industries, cottage and village industries, handicrafts and other rural crafts.

This assignment is for about the new networking advice the bank on cost effective networking solutions. The bank has mostly windows based network and clients. The bank also wants their agents and branches to connect to the bank’s network securely through VPN.

What is networking?

Networking involves connecting computers and other electronic devices for the purpose of sharing information and reasons and for communication. Even thought the concept of networking is basic, a great deal of technology is required for one device to connect and communicate with another, and many choices for physical connections and related software are possible.

Site to Site Services Access Options:

  1. Frame Relay, Private Line, DSL, Metro Ethernet (2Q06), ATM (limited availability)
  2. IPSec Access via BellSouth IPSec gateway

Optional Services:

  1. eMRS Complementary Managed Router Service(soft-bundle)option
  2. Internet access with firewall feature
  3. Equipment purchase, installation and maintenances services


A firewall provides a strong barrier between your private network and the Internet. You can set firewalls to restrict the number of open ports, what types of packets are passed through and which protocols are allowed through. Some VPN products, such as Cisco’s 1700routers, can be upgraded to include firewall capabilities by running the appropriate Cisco IOS on them. You should already have a good firewall in place before you implement a VPN, but a firewall can also be used to terminate the VPN sessions.

Common type of firewalls

  • Packet Filtering
  • Circuit Gateways
  • Application Level Proxy
  • Stateful Packet Inspection
  • Internet Connection Firewall
  • Hybrid Firewall

Packet Filtering

A packet filtering firewall will examine the information contained in the header of a packet of information, trying to well-known ‘bridge into the castle’. Information on inspections includes the source address, destination, and applications have been sent to. A packet filtering firewall works at the network level Open Systems Interconnection (OSI definition of the next paragraph) protocol stack, therefore, do not hide the private network topology, and spy behind a firewall. It is important to know that this type of firewall only checks the header information. If the data to send a malicious from a reliable source, this type of firewall is not guaranteed. When a packet filtering process of transmission, it is passed to the destination address. If the packet does not pass, it’s just down. This type of firewall is vulnerable to ‘IP fraud’, a practice that hackers will transfer them to private local area network (LAN); it appears as if from a reliable source, to gain a local area network.

OSI’s – every textbook “network infrastructure plus” definitions, OSI is “a seven-layer structure, standardized level of service and type of interactive exchange of information through the network of computers. It is used to describe the physical connection between the data streams to the network and end-user applications. This model is the best-known and most widely used model to describe networking environments.”

Circuit Gateway

Circuit gateway firewalls work in the transport layer protocol stack. They are fast, transparent, but in fact did not provide protection against attack. Circuit gateway firewall does not check the data package. A great help to this type of firewall is that they make the network invisible behind a firewall, as everything seems to come from inside the firewall from the firewall itself. This is the most used type of firewall.

Application Level Proxy

The slowest, most awkward is the application layer proxy firewall. This type of firewall on the work in the application layer protocol stack, which enable it to carry more information than packet filtering or circuit gateway firewall.

Application-level proxy type of firewall is usually used in the corporate firewall, rather than a single family. To determine whether they are connected to a specific application to request permission, such as Internet access or e-mail. This allows the user to determine which applications will be used for the computer. Also known as proxy servers, they not only data packets on the screen and determine which applications to allow access, but also to provide protection from external sources within the computer by hiding from the outside to see. External sources never have access to computers inside, but all communications to be carried out through a proxy server. This approach in most cases more than the use of ordinary home computer users, it is more suitable for small businesses and enterprise solutions. This is mentioned here because of the popularity of home use peer-peer network to share dedicated Internet connection, such as cable modems.

Stateful Packet Inspection

The fourth method, we can use the firewall from the so-called “stateful packet inspection.” This is the so-called “state”, because it checks the contents of the packet to determine which countries of communication. It ensures that the target computer has admitted the established communication from the source computer. In this way, all communications are by the “accept” the source computer and are taking place, only to know or believe that from the previous communication link. In addition, stateful packet inspection firewall and more rigorous in their packet inspection. Stateful packet inspection firewall also closed the port until the connection is requested, authorized and acknowledged by the receiving computer. This allows an additional layer of protection of the threat “port scan” method, hackers used a computer to determine which service or application procedures are available to enter the host.

Internet Connection Firewall

Windows XP

Windows XP provides Internet security posed by a new Internet Connection Firewall (ICF). ICF use of an active packet filtering, which means that the firewall ports are open, as long as necessary, to enable you to access your services interested in the type of technology prevents hackers from scanning your computer’s ports and resources. If you are an Internet conference organized by the company, ICF allows you to open holes in the firewall, so that traffic specific ports. This is the so-called “port mapping.”

Hybrid Firewall

A firewall is a hybrid combination of the two above-mentioned firewall. The first commercial firewall, 12-month stamp, is a mixed use development of the application gateway and packet filtering firewall. This type of firewall is the universal implementation of packet filtering, application gateway into the fast-opening of the new service access and private networks.

Personal firewall software applications are usually the gateway firewall. The exception is products such as routers, like Linksys router, it contains a packet filtering firewall in them.

The most important thing is to remember is that the firewall should be only part of the security system, private network or computer. Modern firewalls cannot protect the internal network or system from attacks, viruses, and previously unknown attacks, due to firewall technology is generally ‘catch up’ and ‘protection of known threats technologies. In order for your system (s) is absolutely safe continuous updates and other security methods will be implemented.

Wire and Wireless


Wire use to interconnect devices. Network cables carry signals between computers, allowing them to communicate with one another.

  • Type of wire
  • Coaxial cable
  • Twisted-pair cable, in unshielded and shielded varieties
  • Fiber-optic cable


Wireless network is defined as any type of computer network, wireless, and usually associated with telecommunications network interconnection between nodes in the implementation of non-use of wires. Wireless telecommunications networks generally implemented some type of remote information transmission system uses electromagnetic waves, such as radio waves, on the carrier to implement this project, usually occurs in the physical layer or “layer” of network.

Type of wireless

  • Wireless PAN
  • Wireless MAN
  • Wireless WAN
  • Mobile devices network

SUBJECT: Network Security

1.1) Feature of Windows and Linux

Comparison between Microsoft Windows or Linux computer operating system is a common topic of discussion among users. While Linux is the most prominent free software operating system (although some components, such as its own, only the compiled binary drivers, is currently provided by the hardware maker, Windows on the most popular ever installation conditions of their own personal computer desktop operating system () is included in most Linux distributions) is. Both personal computer operating systems market only, not user-based competition, the market rivals in the server and embedded systems.

The following reflects the comparison between three different families based on the Windows operating system, each with a different code base and design. These families are (1)Windows and Windows for Workgroups 3.1(based on DOS),Windows 95 and Windows 98 and ME, the old version is on longer for sale today(2) In the family, including Windows 2000, XP in, Vista, the 7, and Server 2003 and 2008. This run all Microsoft supported desktop and server computers today; (3) in the Windows Embedded family, including the two scaled-down versions of other Windows versions and specialized operating systems, such as the Windows CE-. In such relatively concentrated mainly in the New Territories family.

Linux is available in many types of CPU’s: IA – 32 (i386 and later PC processor) is, x86 – 64 (64-bit PC processor and Intel Mac with most computers), Itanium-and MIPS, PowerPC for, ARM’s include. However, only one of the first three, Windows NT kernel version of the current focus. CPU types for diversity, Linux is today’s routers, set-top box, PDA and mobile phones as well as support for server and desktop applications detected. Is, Windows, POS terminals DOS beginning on the embedded market is a long history. Today is running under Windows CE megabytes of kernel memory, it is just one target no longer held in the computer [1] Microsoft will, Windows CE operating system on the core, AutoPC is, Windows Mobile, surname such as portable media center is based on many embedded platforms, many industrial and embedded systems. Power Windows and Dreamcast games to choose the CE.

Microsoft Windows is a desktop PC market is about 90 percent of desktop market share and dominates in 2007, all servers (while not necessarily use). [About sales accounted for 66 percent required to edit] server revenue share in 2007 Q4 as, Microsoft Windows 36.3% and 12.7 percent in Linux [2] June 2009, Linux has The most powerful supercomputer in the world at 88.6% of the power [3] in December 2008, Linux hosting companies on the Internet’s most reliable power supply is 15, Windows than any of [4].

Linux and Microsoft Windows philosophy, cost, reliability, versatility and ease of use, to improve understanding of each region are different from the weak. Comparisons of the two operating systems tend to reflect their origins, historical user base and distribution model. To Van, MS Windows viruses, the major disadvantages general awareness and sensitivity on a regular basis often weak, “the bulk of the Linux desktop box” usability – the market [citation needed out of the poor people], including the quotation as a huge market share, a malicious code, and can kill the lack of security features. [5]

Advocates of free software, Linux is allowed to argue about the strength of the key users of freedom: “To run the program free to [Linux’s] … to study …, it change … and to enjoy the freedom to redistribute copies … [and] to improve the program and release your improvements ”[6] Windows Embedded devices are often configured without disk storage and as the cause, “” The system does not allow the end may be set to close the extension of the user.

Cisco’s VPN-optimized routers provide scalability, routing, security and QoS (rvice their quality). According to Cisco’s IOS (Internetwork Operating System) software, there is a through the central site VPN aggregation router, applicable in all situations, from the small-office/home-office (SOHO) access to the needs of large enterprises.

1.3) There are many common ways to install and run Ubuntu Linux system. You can run Ubuntu

  • As the only operating system (single boot).
  • In addition to other operating systems (dual boot).
  • In your existing operating system (virtualization). See the installation options in a virtual environment Virtual Machines.
  • From your CD-ROM drive, using the Live CD on.
  • In addition to Windows, the use of the window boot manager, by installing Wubi

Acquiring Ubuntu

There are many ways to get the Ubuntu installation disk, these detailed GettingUbuntu page. If you plan to download and burn your own installation disc, please refer to BurningIsoHowto.

To get Ubuntu, you can order a free CD or buy from a typical CD or DVD from a distributor you can also download and burn images to a CD or DVD. You can download a typical Ubuntu install. Download and install a program requires a blank CD or DVD, and CD or DVD burner can burn CD images.

To download Ubuntu:

  1. Using the Web browser, navigate to the internet
  2. Select the desktop version, and then click Ubuntu 9.04.
  3. Select the download location in the vicinity of the menu; choose the location closest to you.
  4. Click to start the download. A pop-up window that prompts you to run or save the file.
  5. In Internet Explorer, click Run, to automatically open a CD burning tool or click the installation file to save the file to disk. In Mozilla Firefox, select Open and open the CD burning tool to install the file or choose to save the file to save the file to disk.

After downloading the Ubuntu installation CD image, you need to burn it to CD or DVD. See above ISO disk image burning a detailed description of BurningIsoHowto.

To burn the installation disc into the CD or DVD:

  • Place a recordable CD or to your CD / DVD drive DVD.
  • Load application, be able to burn. ISO image file to a CD or DVD
  • Use your CD and DVD writer, the disk image copied to a blank CD or DVD.

Ubuntu LAMP server Install the following Versions

Ubuntu 9.10 (Karmic)

Apache 2.2.12

Mysql 5.1.37

PHP 5.2.10

1.4) Cost associated with the performance, security, support, and maintenance of the Ubuntu

What is Ubuntu?

A complete desktop Linux operating system Ubuntu, a free community and professional support available. Communities struggling right enshrined in the Ubuntu Manifesto is built on the idea: software that’s free software tool that people should be able to use their local language and despite any disabilities, and those people need freedom and justice must be able to meet their. I want to see how their software cannot be changed to.

  • Ubuntu’s always free, will be free, “Enterprise Edition” for the additional costs we work best in such conditions, all free to use.
  • Ubuntu, can be used very woobuntuhayeo translations and accessibility infrastructure that the free software community, including providing the best possible people.
  • Stable and regular release cycle for Ubuntu is shipping a new release every 6 months will be shipped. You or the current development release you can use the current stable release. 18 months releases are supported.
  • Ubuntu’s entirely open-source software development, is committed to the principles, we improve people pass it is recommended to use open source software.

Ubuntu is suitable for use on desktops and servers. Current Ubuntu release, AMD64 at (hammer) and power (Apple iBook and Power book, G4 and the G5) architectures (Korea IBM-compatible PC) and is supported on Intel x86.

Wu struggling software, more than 1,000 pieces of the Linux kernel version 2.6 and GNOME 2.16 start, and word processing and spreadsheet applications to access applications, web server software, email software, programming languages and tools and the Internet from any standard desktop Cover the application as well as a few games.

Dell has cut the price of 50 U.S. dollars to personal computers pre-installed Ubuntu Linux operating system instead of Windows Vista. For example, laptop computers Inspiron 1420 (14.1-inch display, 80GB hard drive, 1GB of DDR2 memory) loaded with Ubuntu Linux now priced at 774, while the same laptop with Vista Home Basic Edition cost $ 824. A computer with Ubuntu pre-installed is only applicable to the United States. Prior to this, constant complaints, the user’s Idea Storm Web site, Ubuntu computer prices tend to the same Windows Vista-based computer. However, to save 50 U.S. dollars an Ubuntu computer is not enough to satisfy some Linux enthusiasts, who said, Dell can still do more. “I think this is just Dell’s air. I fully agree with the first, but now the situation is clear, I would like to see it fall flat, Mike Dell’s face,” complained surimi. “I did not expect a price drop 200 U.S. dollars. I look forward to something, though along the line of 50 ~ 75.” Dell decided to start providing pre-installed Linux PC, after earlier this year launched Idea Storm Web site’s recommendations. Just 11 days of the launch of IdeaStorm Web site, more than 83,000 users had requested that Dell offers Linux pre-installed on personal computers.

DUX is ideal for data acquisition unit for real-time monitoring and control. Motherboard uses real-time speed and power USB port and is designed to work perfectly under Linux. This means that it is easy to program and works on embedded systems and desk top computers. The driver is part of the framework COMEDY, so it will work directly with Labview. Driver and firmware under the GPL.

Encounter problems with data collection in Windows Vista? USBDUX and Ubuntu using the CD to collect data on the speed and reliability of Linux, and then return to Windows to use your favorite analysis software package – all on your computer.


  • Currently the update 4
  • Linux 2.6.18 kernel based
  • Optimized multicourse
  • Maximum flexibility to continue to hardware support
  • The development and performance tools, including System Tap
  • SRIOV such as I / O performance and virtualization technologies, advanced
  • Both physical and virtual system that support large SMP
  • IPv4/IPv6 pieces offload and buffer management
  • Dynamic per-conversion – I queue / O, scheduler
  • Kernel buffer to improve the adhesive power, I / O operations on the buffer


During installation, the encryption of the user’s home directory can be set up. During installation, Ubuntu 9.10 encrypted home directory, now offers the option to set up. Skills are required – eCryptfs, the home directory is located at the top of the stack, the encrypted file system – as part came a few hours woobuntureului. However, the distribution of the desktop version of the users themselves previously had set up on the command line, and now, during the installation, all you need is a simple mouse click. From an existing installation, however, encrypted home directory from the command line to add new users in system management tool that also failed to provide relevant options can be enabled.

Although still a standard Ubuntu 9.10 install a firewall – a firewall is installed, start the UFS is incomplete, but during installation – Developer version 9.10 does not include other security screw enhance: cups print server and the number of such applications, the log stated document viewers and various network tools, as well as the guest session (upper right corner of the menu) for a guest user preferences, temporary work is protected now by default AppArmor profile.

Check the permissions of the process for AppArmor Profile: or where the process and can read and write files, whether the network has access to what, and so forth. For example, they have malicious code embedded in PDF files created specifically for immunization. While Firefox 3.5 includes a profile, it is not enabled by default.

AppArmor also have some time, but only as part version 9.10 woobuntuneunui to leverage the security of large-scale expansion. In addition, the application profiles apparmor – profiles can be added with the package.


In order to ensure that order is important that users are exposed to any frequency distribution, have access to the latest and greatest system and application software. However, it is all business for Interested in reducing the cost of power and flexibility of Linux, the period until the release. Update, maintain and even more important. Many hundreds of companies, there are thousands of systems or computer. Before, there are updates or new releases have to spend a lot of time testing a substantial business infrastructure can be deployed on the system to think about rolling them all into the computer system. After the test one time, a lot of time updating the physical act of deploying the system, in terms of money literally MIS, IT personnel converts. By default, each new release of Ubuntu security updates after the date of the release of 18 after being issued a month. On that day, but the existing security updates available, it is not guaranteed, new updates for it Release will be provided. Ubuntu commercial users long address, long-term requirements of the mark. Shuttle worth and Canonical, Ltd., and founder of Ubuntu Linux, which sponsored and funded the formation. Ubuntu Foundation in mid – 2005. Ubuntu Foundation, part of the core Ubuntu community workers. Member, and successful, Ubuntu in order to guarantee the continuity of development and release process. Ubuntu is one of the Foundation’s commitments to further aspect of maintenance and updates. Ubuntu version 6.06, when this, Ubuntu Foundation is, Ubuntu version 6.06 is on the desktop for three years, five years on the server, the standard 18, the backbone support for last month commitment is two-fold support to benefit from then announced the first release of Ubuntu Linux is Ubuntu. Acronyms LTS, release numbers for long-term support has been added to highlight the fact. Development of hardware and open source, Ubuntu and given the pace of commitment and long-term maintenance of the regular release schedule, Ubuntu users are always safe, they can help to ensure that the maximum stability and The latest version of the software depends. Also, Ubuntu has promised a corporate update and support is essential for the successful commercial adopt.

Software and Hardware-Choices for VPN

In the selection of software and hardware, there are many things to enter. VPN software for general-purpose configuration file server should be very cheap. In addition, the server must be a complete knowledge-based network. Security and vigilance should be used to check the unauthorized access. What is the choice of VPN software and VPN hardware and what things can be entered? More

Articles cover

  • choice of VPN software
  • Client-server
  • VPN server
  • Hardware and VPN client software

VPN and the choice depend on the type of VPN users. You need to select the VPN software requirements for many of the problems

  • Whether the VPN software configuration a common file server cheaper?
  • May be the correct protocol and application configuration, in my current system, to connect to the VPN?
  • I should rely on routers and other dedicated hardware?

To reduce costs is a plus; you already have an operating system, support for VPN. Most operating systems running on Windows software, the necessary capacity, configuration, and run a VPN.

Each network is a unique and its own users and permissions set to make a VPN with your product evaluation of the infrastructure needs to make a choice. There are two types of network architecture, point-pairs, etc., or client-server.

Peer-peer network to provide resources on the network and computing capacity of computers. As a network capacity needs, personal computers into the network between the nodes increases. This increases the robustness of the system and prevents failures.


Client-server network architecture is one of the computers is to ask the supply of machines and the server machine. This two computers over a network connection or LAN or WAN. The client can deal with some or all of the application process. Server to maintain a database and processing client requests from the database to extract or update his database. To provide additional processing if the server is an application server. Server can be an ordinary personal computer host. In the LAN server performs various tasks. Of their file servers, printers, servers, mail servers, X computing servers, dedicated servers, database-specific server, the system starts and general purpose server computing

  • File Server Management Working Group on the applications and data files, this may be the group shares. File server requires a network connection, and many slot large-capacities, fast hard disk subsystem.
  • Calculation of the server application logic does not handle. It requires a lot of memory, high-performance features.
  • Database server technology, the most typical use of client-server. In this mode, the server accepts requests for data from its search data in the database and the results passed back. Server requires depends on the size of the database, the number of users, network type, and with the speed of the database must be updated.
  • Communication Server available to other LAN gateways, networks and computers. It can be used as an e-mail servers and Internet servers. It requires multiple slots, as well as a high-speed processors, network protocol translation

The client-server system is mainly used in commercial applications, such as

  • Financial and administrative procedures
  • World Wide Web servers
  • Video and document servers
  • Online transaction processing
  • Batch processing

In the client-server applications to do most of the relationship between the client and the model is a master-slave configuration. The Internet has evolved in large part on the client server model. The user is still the client who is running the browser and server using the multi-tier architecture of the interconnected network of servers and database servers; we provide information in the form of HTML pages.

VPN Server

VPN server software and the VPN do not require Windows-based workstation or server operating system software, to add VPN functionality. As for other operating systems software to meet specific VPN function. Morton Bay PoPToP software can be converted into common PC based on any computer on the server. Many companies recognize that in building their own networks and other privileges and tasks of the architecture, the weakest link in security is a human who is not a complete knowledge of system security.

  • Full knowledge of Web-based server (Intranet and Extranet) is needed.
  • Use of existing user and group tasks and permissions. This simplifies management.
  • Safety should be the worms, and other servers on the network attack system has many of the major factors
  • The continuing need for vigilance because it is in the network and the access point at any time of attack a lot of compromises, almost the entire network. The routine checks the log file, you need to know your system from unauthorized access
  • If you have a large number of customers, then a dedicated single-system VPN service is good or the company’s other services on the network will slow down.
  • Scalability is limited as compared to the extra hardware solutions. Windows NT Server 4.0 can only support 256 concurrent VPN tunnels
  • See the purchase of additional software, if the VPN solution is a web-based server supports the operating system.

VPN Client

VPN client software is for small branch offices and home users. Many VPN clients available in the market. These depend on the machine configuration and the protocols they use.

VPN client software is already part of many operating systems can also be made use of as a service pack. So that the network connection protocol can use VPN authentication and encryption to provide all you need to do. In the Point to Point Protocol (PPP) Point certification on the use of PPTP and L2TP. Point to Point Encryption Protocol (Microsoft Point to Point Encryption) is used for IPSec encryption for PPTP and L2TP use. Usually the client remote access VPN’s. High-density and dial-up with the RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial in User Service Integration), is by some software. A number of other software vendors to provide client-side

  • Safe Net’s VPN Client Software
  • Electoral Affairs Commission (Extranet Access Client) Captivity
  • Cisco’s VPN client software for Linux, Win 95/98/98SE/NT/2K/ME/XP.
  • The VPN – 1 Check Point Secure Client
  • Aurorean Client from Enterasys
  • MovianVPN – Software
  • The Apple system software Net lock and OS / 2 systems, the basic firewall products for these In Joy.

VPN hardware

VPN hardware is dependent on the connection and installation sites. Low-cost VPN hardware at the client. Persistent organic pollutants (point-of-presence) is a high scalability, performance and integration, are expensive, usually more than 200 thousand U.S. dollars, and. Multi-port routers usually have a custom ASIC (application specific integrated circuit) and techniques to deal with enterprise business needs. These ASIC that can handle a large number of client-side loads, redundancy and load balancing. In this part of the equipment incorporates a higher safety standard (3DES) encryption and additional network protocols. Cisco VPN concentrator is a good example. And you may ask what the VPN concentrator is? Cisco VPN is based on wide-area network hardware is basically the company needs a large number of multiple connections. The VPN concentrator is on all over the Intranet or Internet connection and firewall routers work.

The terminal (client devices) is sure to use the equipment and software is compatible with POP. These are more diversified and other Internet applications, enhanced and specialized gateway VPN router. Some terminals are complicated, and can be used as persistent organic pollutants equipment. Cisco, 3Com, Symantec, Linksys and other suppliers of equipment a combination of firewall, network address translation and VPN capabilities. Many of the hardware support and a web browser interface of the software, easy to use and hardware VPN client configuration.POP based equipment vendors and their product is described

The commitment is to the VPN service provider for Internet business opportunities. They provide VPN services, remote access client types. The ISP basically is to provide you with a connection to let you different throughput. Several companies are providing facilities to set up and VPN connections VPN is to become a professional services and enterprise options, which is not earlier than to provide them.

Database server

Database server supply the server side of client server applications, and often the data That goes along with them to network clients. A database server, for instance, not only supplies query-processing and data-analysis functions, but also acts as a repository for the huge amounts of data often stored in a database. Application server differ from basic file and print servers by providing processing services as well as handling requests for file or print services. In file and print services, the client does its own file handling and print processing. Generally, clients must run specialized client-side applications (or plug-ins to other applications) to communicate with an application server. For these applications, typically the client side formulates requests and ships them to the application server, which handles the entire request’s background recessing and those delivers the results back to the client side. The client side then formats and displays these results to the user. Microsoft SQL Server delivers complex client/server application support that run-on Windows Server 2000/2003, Net Ware, and many flavors of UNIX, including Linux. A popular public-license database server called MySQL is available for most versions of Windows, Linux, and NetWare, among other operating systems.


A firewall provides a strong barrier between your private network and the Internet. You can set firewalls to restrict the number of open ports, what types of packets are passed through and which protocols are allowed through. Some VPN products, such as Cisco’s 1700routers, can be upgraded to include firewall capabilities by running the appropriate Cisco IOS on them. You should already have a good firewall in place before you implement a VPN, but a firewall can also be used to terminate the VPN sessions.

VPN Tunnel

VPN Tunneling is a network technology that encapsulates packets at the same level or below. One type of packet is encapsulated within the datagram (packet in TCP/IP or UDP containing source and destination address) of a different protocol. Since multiple protocols are pushed through a given network it is said to tunnel. Multiple Protocols that support encryption and authentication make up a Virtual Private Network. Tunneling is used to transport a network protocol through a network; which it normally does not support.

A VPN tunnel software has a management protocol that creates maintains and terminates a tunnel. After the VPN tunnel is established data can be sent. How does tunneling work? A client or server uses the data transfer protocol to prepare the data transfer. Data is transferred through the VPN tunnel using a datagram based protocol. When a tunnel session is created both end points must agree to various parameters such as address assignment, encryption or compression parameters. PPTP-Point to point tunneling protocol/L2TP-Layer 2 Tunneling protocol encapsulates private network traffic in packets to be transmitted over public networks (TCP/IP). The tunnel thus does three things

  1.      It creates and maintains a virtual link.
  2.      Encrypts and decrypts data to reduce snooping by others
  3.      It guarantees the authenticity of the sender and receiver


An ISP (Internet Service Provider) is a personal and other company’s access to the Internet and other related services, including web site construction, the virtual host. Internet service providers have access to equipment and communication lines must have is that on the Internet there are the geographical regional services.

The larger Internet service providers have their own high-speed, so they are less dependent on the telecommunication providers that can provide better services to their customers. One of the biggest national and regional Internet service provider AT & T World Net, IBM’s global network, microwave communication Netcom, UUNET companies, and PSINet.

Internet service providers also include regional providers such as New England and San Francisco Bay Area NEARNet Barnet. They also include thousands of local suppliers. In addition, Internet users can access through online service providers (OSP), such as America Online and CompuServe.

The larger Internet service providers to connect with each other through business associations, etc. (ISP exchange of MCI Communications Corporation Operations Center) or a similar center.

That to make arrangements for the exchange of traffic is known as right and other agreements. There are several very comprehensive lists of suppliers world-wide on the web.

Internet service providers are sometimes referred to as an IAP (Internet access provider). ISP is sometimes used as independent service providers differentiate service providers abbreviation is an independent, separate company from the telephone company.


Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) a digital telecommunication technology that uses different speeds for downloading and uploading data. ADSL is ideal for home internet users because the bulk of traffic in this connection travels in the download direction.

VPN- Virtual private Networking

Virtual Network (VPN) of the private networks are used more and more since 1997, allows businesses to connect a separate local area network (LAN), and the establishment of wide area network (WAN), created with suppliers, or to provide secure remote access to extranet.

A VPN is secure, with ‘two or more private communications equipment in the tunnel over public networks (such as the Internet). These VPN devices can be VPN software running on the computer or special equipment, such as a VPN-capable router. It makes your home computer to connect to your office network or allow in different places, two home computers connected to each via the Internet.

Even if the VPN, the data on the Internet as a public network transmission, it is safe, because the strong encryption. If someone ‘listening’ to the VPN communications, they will not understand, because all data is encrypted. In addition, virtual private network is very complicated method of monitoring to ensure that will never change, while data transmitted through the public network packet traffic. Data encryption and authentication are very CPU-intensive.

Clients and Servers

VPN server is a hardware or software, can act as a gateway for the whole network or a computer. It is generally ‘forever’ and VPN client to connect to listen to it.

VPN client is the most common form of software, but can also be hardware. The client to start a ‘please’ to the server and logs. Then, the client computer can communicate with the server’s network. They are in the same virtual network. Many broadband routers from your LAN can ‘pass’ in one or more of the VPN session to Internet. Each router to deal with this difference.

VPN Software

Virtual Private Network server software is rare. This level of Windows Server operating system Windows 2000 Server’s ‘there’ VPN server built in, I know that if there is no software products for the home or small business, so you can create a VPN server price.

VPN’s’ client-side software more common. When your computer loads, the software allows you to create a secure VPN tunnel across the Internet and in accordance with VPN server in front of another network.

VPN Languages

There are two ‘languages’ or agreement, VPN statement. Microsoft to use PPTP or Point to Point Tunneling Protocol ** and most other people use IPSec – Internet Protocol Security. Most broadband routers can forward the PPTP port 1723 IPSec traffic, but more complex. If you do not explicitly support the IPSec router through, then even if you will be in the demilitarized zone of the computer may not work correctly.

PPTP has a ‘good’ encryption and also has a ‘certification’, in order to verify the user name and password. IPSec encryption is a simple model is more secure, but does not include the verification process. The third standard, L2TP, and IPSec authentication and built-in.

VPN Hardware (Routers with VPN Servers)

Until recently, VPN server’s hardware is very expensive. As home networks become more complex, the family-level VPN increases in demand. As of the end of 2001, home networking industry in response to adding some broadband routers, VPN servers. These products are often priced less than 300 dollars (us), some 170 U.S. dollars as cheap.

VPN functionality is very processor-intensive and in most broadband routers is a bit slow, their processors. Broadband Router VPN server is often limited because they are the throughput of the microprocessor. Most of around 0.6 Mbps or 600Kbps maximum VPN throughput.

SUBJECT: Network Security

What is an ISP (Internet Service Provider)?

An ISP (Internet Service Provider) is a personal and other company’s access to the Internet and other related services, including web site construction, the virtual host. Internet service providers have access to equipment and communication lines must have is that on the Internet there is the geographical regional service.

The larger Internet service providers have their own high-speed, so they are less dependent on the telecommunication providers that can provide better services to their customers. One of the biggest national and regional Internet service provider AT & T World Net, IBM’s global network, microwave communication Netcom, UUNET companies, and PSINet.

Internet service providers also include regional providers such as New England and San Francisco Bay Area NEARNet Barnet. They also include thousands of local suppliers. In addition, Internet users can access through online service providers (OSP), such as America Online and CompuServe.

The larger Internet service providers to connect with each other through business associations, etc. (ISP exchange of MCI Communications Corporation Operations Center) or a similar center. That to make arrangements for the exchange of traffic is known as right and other agreements. There are several very comprehensive lists of suppliers world-wide on the web.

Internet service providers are sometimes referred to as an IAP (Internet access provider). ISP is sometimes used as independent service providers differentiate service providers abbreviation is an independent, separate company from the telephone company.

The easiest way to find and determine whether you’re ISP offers free service.

Provide a list of all of the following services / are supported by this agreement. Other services and support, which implied that what is outlined in this document, or will be available outside.

  1. Hardware configuration of four (4) in / out of the Institutional Revolutionary Party’s bimodal high density polyethylene device tree.
  2. 3000 DID Number 4 (4) provided through the trunk
  3. In the elevator 50 – 3 911 – location of phone service and blue light
  4. Update PS / Ali University Police Department (UPD’s) 53 (53) for the 911 emergency number
  5. 100 megabit Internet service provider (ISP) network of tunnels, residential buildings and related businesses. Burst speed, 200 megabits.
  6. Campus Connection from home village, but remain behind the firewall university campus in the village of optical fiber is placed in a dedicated run from ISP

Description of services

Hardware one (4) equipment telephone campus between is carrier (SBC) inbound village with / outbound PRI is circuit four providing possible configurations one. This apparatus west Joe 1.2 providing connections to villages campuses only Hall.

University Computing and Communications (UCAT) Private Switch / Automatic Location Identification (the PS / ALI) of the 50 UPD (53) in an emergency to a permanent position is in an elevator, “blue light” emergency position Install the update information to maintain a record of three. These locations, emergency housing, permanent change, except that the UPD is not specified in the indicated location. Update, update on a quarterly basis, special UPD have been determined to be an emergency and to move the location of existing / additional / must be changed. UCAT 2, the bank is delivered through four PRI trunks; Joe West for 1.2 to provide a number of distributions in the hole, the user MPOE, and 3000 DID exit the housing delivery staff.

ISP service provides a maximum of 200MB. IP address space 130.65.210 – 130.65.218 (existing 9 networks) 130.65.240 – 130.65.251 (12 total new network) will be assigned. 130.65.252 will be reserved for the expansion of the network. Network 24 range /24 will be retained to provide continuity of existing housing in the range of business services.

The end of the campus core router to connect universities outside the firewall housing. Free access to the ISP, to provide a new Internet. Kyanpasufaiauoru connection at both ends within the housing management.

ISP, the university does not guarantee a connection to secure a place on the network connection. Including the placement of a separate document of guidelines to met end user needs to be done by the university to provide access to housing.

Differentiated levels of service are;

  • Improved profitability: EUnet service differentiation, which is expected to gain new customers. Expanding on the same network, and was hoping to be able to support subscribers yet Call center, processing, without adding additional staff to the customer, infrastructure, service requests.
  • In order to improve the overall customer experience: Experience can be optimized for each user. Also includes the online network, allowing users to easily service requirements, the necessary.
  • Take advantage of the configuration file to change the tariffs and services, the time limit for road Promotional offers, providing feedback to marketing and support team.
  • To provide testing services for customers in the future: Customers can EUnet core competitor; the company is expected to test a broadband connection to attract new users.
  • In the integration of existing back-office systems: It also requires management costs. Location information and billing system integration solutions.

Cost of Repair Service

Fee for all non-covered mobile / Add / Change / Maintenance Services $ 72.00 per hour.


Diplomatic Conference on the rights and the ISP are not responsible for copyright, a clear layout, the user can access or use. The Council shall be seven, if you want to delete to delete the language to create a great ambiguity of the mechanism of the above, the supplier of the author’s rights have been violated to use.

Providers have agreed to communicate, “To provide communications facilities, an important victory in the amount of understanding of ourselves.” Berne Protocol and the liabilities of the actual situation of the access provider, we recommend that if you have a limited understanding of the best ISP can be to give priority to the rights of authors of the historical limitations.

The many emerging complexities of the National Assembly and the courts to re-appear in the session. Can easily be subject to legal restrictions, and no one way transmitted over the Internet. ISP to be able to access a Web page to provide, post, email, chat rooms and use, to provide users with an interactive environment for the evolution of the host. Internet service provider’s user equipment supply network, providing a wide range of applications. In order to promote the role of ISP in a variety of applications depends on the application, user and ISP. All forms can be copied to the authors, vendors do not have to establish a limited liability, fundamental rights, expand the blanket could change the Internet. Some in Hollywood in the 21st Century Theater to the ISP, you can view all of charging an entrance fee. But it is to understand us; this is death and Internet experience. Compromise, the U.S. House of Representatives in May, was established in 1996, it is intolerable for the ISP does not cause the debt, and you can prove that the right words in order to protect the copyright owner.

In the ISP, balanced international agreements, contribute to the formation of the ISP space legislation process rights and responsibilities of the National Assembly. Now, ISP is time to start working at the national level, legislation like that.

Trojan horse

A program or utility, it seems to be false, such as the screen saver or a useful tool. However, once installed, it is in the background, such as allowing other users access to your computer or from your computer send information to another computer’s functionality.

What’s a Trojan horse virus?

A is a Trojan horse virus; e-mail attachments are usually released. If the user opens, will scour any personal and financial information on your hard drive, such as your social security, account and password. Once you have the information collection, sent to a thief’s database. There are several different types of Trojan horses. These include: Remote Access Trojans (RAT), backdoor Trojans (backdoors), IRC Trojan (IRCbots) Trojan horses and key loggers. Many Trojan horses, including many types. For example, a Trojan can be to install key loggers and backdoors. Stadium will be combined with a backdoor Trojan horse and RAT is usually created by zombie networks are a collection of infected computers.

Protection from Trojan Horses

Most Trojans are transmitted through the Internet services, including e-mail, web site online, file-sharing systems, and instant messages. Therefore, any computer connected to the Internet is running the risk of a Trojan horse virus. Avoid open to all executable (. Exe) file will be a definite fire way to avoid being a Trojan horse virus. Unfortunately, the executable file is essential to run the program and the majority of computer users can not simply avoid all. Exe file.

For from the Trojans and other malicious software, there are potentially dangerous executable files protection should scan anti-virus software. As its name implies, a Trojan horse can be sneaky, users usually, unknowingly download a malicious Trojan horse. When this happens, anti-virus software can detect and remove these Trojans attempt to launch an unsuspecting user’s computer viruses, worms and other malicious software. Top anti-virus solutions include: McAfee software, Norton Software, Computer Associates and AVG.

Recovering from a Trojan horse or Virus

Michael Durkota and Will Dormann it can happen to anyone. Taking into account viruses and Trojan horses on the Internet at any time traversing the huge number, but surprisingly this will not happen to everyone. May decide later you can do to better protect them, but this does not help your current predicament you. Once you know your computer to install a Trojan horse or virus infection (or if your machine to show unexpected behavior, you suspect something is wrong), how do you do? If you have any specific malicious programs from infecting your computer, you can visit a number of anti-virus Web sites, download removal tool. Opportunities, but you cannot determine the specific procedures. Unfortunately, your other choice is limited, but the following steps can help save your computer and documents.

  • Call IT support if you have an IT support department at your disposal, immediately notify them and in accordance with their instructions.
  • Disconnected depending on the Trojan or virus on your computer you enter the Internet, intruders can access your personal information and could even use your computer to attack other computers. You can turn off your Internet connection to stop this activity. The best way to do this is to physically disconnect your cable or telephone lines, but you can also simply “disable” your network connection.
  • Backup at this point is a good idea to take the time to back up files of important documents. If possible, compile your photos, documents, Internet Favorites, and all other, and burn them to CD or DVD, or save them to the other external storage devices. This is very important to note that these files cannot be trusted because they are still likely to be infected. (In fact, this is a good practice on a regular basis the backup files, so that if they are infected, you might have a non-infected setting can be resumed.)
  • Scan your machine because your computer (including the operating system) may be infected with malicious programs, it is the most secure scanning live CD (or “rescue” of the CD, rather than the previously installed anti-virus program) machine. Many anti-virus products offer this functionality. Another method is to use Web-based virus removal services, a number of anti-virus software vendors (and try to “online virus scan search”). Or you could just try to Microsoft’s Web-based microprocessor-based protection scan. The next best course of action is the installation of an uncontaminated source, such as the CD – ROM on the anti-virus program. If you do not have one, there are many to choose from, but they should provide the necessary tools. After you install the software, complete scan of your computer. The initial scan is expected to identify malicious one (group). Ideally, anti-virus program, even willing to remove from the computer of malicious files, according to your suggestions or instructions. If the success of anti-virus software to locate and delete the malicious file be sure to follow the steps 7, preventive measures to prevent re-infection. If, unfortunately, anti-virus software cannot find or remove malicious programs, you must follow the steps 5 and 6.
  • If the previous steps to re-install fail to clean your computer, the most effective option is to eliminate the operating system or format the hard disk and reinstall the operating system. Although this corrective action will also lead to all programs and documents the loss, it is the only way to ensure that your computer is free from backdoors and intruder changes. Many computer makers offer a rescue partition or disk (twist), will make plant recovery system. Check your computer’s user manual to determine whether one of them is how to provide and run it. Prior to re-install, so that all programs and settings of your statement, so that you can return your computer to its original state. It is vital that you re-install anti-virus software and applying any patches may be available.

  • Consultation “, and then connect a new computer for further assistance, the Internet.”
  • Restore your files if you have a backup in step 3, you can now restore your files. Pre-placed in the files in the directory on your computer, you should scan their anti-virus software checks for known viruses.

  • Protect your computer. In order to prevent future infections, you should take the following measures: Do not open unsolicited e-mail attachments. • Do not follow unsolicited links. • Maintain updated anti-virus software. • Use Internet firewalls. • Secure web browser. • Keep your system patched.


  • First developed by Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, John Shock and Jon Hepp in 1978, the worm is a destructive software program containing the code to a computer or network access to a computer or network capacity, and once the root causes of a computer or network hazards, delete, modify, distribute, or otherwise manipulate the data.
  • To write more than a short time, the worm is a disc type, can be written, and then read the time. See CD-ROM ? for more information.
  • Who recently installed an updated version of a program, or re-install a procedure that requires Internet access may experience with Symantec’s Norton antivirus software, the user’s problems, constantly opening up, asked whether the Internet should be allowed or blocked. This issue occurs because Norton increase the competence in the same program multiple instances. To resolve this problem, follow these steps.

Right-Norton in the task bar, then click on the icon click Norton Anti-virus option

  • Option-click the Norton Antivirus Internet Worm Protection.
  • Next, click Program Control
  • Find the control program in the program, leading to your problem, highlighting the program, and remove from the list, click OK to any other copies.
  • When you are prompted to re-allow the program to allow or deny the program, you should not be prompted.


A software program, first written in 1982, who was 15-year-old high school student Rich Skrenta, Known as the elk cloned spread of this virus to monitor the floppy disk drive and copies itself to any floppy disk is inserted into the computer in the other computers. Once they are infected can infect all floppy disks inserted into each infected per infected floppy disk and then inserted into the computer on other computers. One is infected will also be displayed in the first 50 to start the computer for each poem.

Fred Cohen in 1983, created in 1984 after the research paper of the term virus as “a computer program, you can influence by modifying the way, but other computer programs, to include a (possibly evolved) copy of itself.” Today, the computer virus is a software program, script or macro is designed to be infected, destroy, modify, or cause the computer or software programs other issues. Users can protect themselves and remove any viruses on your computer by installing anti-virus protection program, which aims to detect, protect and remove any computer viruses.

List of Virus

Antivirus, Boot sector virus, CMOS virus, Companion virus, Executable virus, Hoax, Intruder, Logic bomb, Macro virus, MBR virus, Multipart virus, Nonresident virus, Overwrite virus, Polymorphic virus, Resident virus, Stealth virus, Trojan horse, Vaccine, Security definitions, Worm.

3.2) Network security policy for companies

  • Data protection framework, backup programs, virus protection, policy, and disaster recovery.
  • Auditing policies, explained the safety requirements, or violations, verification, consequences of the act way.
  • Access policy, specifying how and when to allow users to access network resources. Policy should be that there are two on-site and remote accesses the network.
  • Internet use policies, explain what right or inappropriate Internet resources is.
  • Certification policy, describes how to identify their users to access network resources. Login name, password and authentication methods should be described in the Convention.
  • acceptable use policy, to explain what is the purpose of network resources can be used
  • Privacy Policy describes the employees, customers and business partners can be expected that the monitoring and reporting network.


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International diploma in computer studies. (2017, Jun 26). Retrieved January 31, 2023 , from

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