Health Belief Model

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Theories are formulated to explain, predict, and understand phenomena and, in many cases, to challenge and extend existing knowledge within the limits of critical bounding assumptions. A model on the other hand is a representation of a system and is use for examination of the properties of the system and, in some cases, prediction of future outcomes.

The Health Belief Model (HBM) is a psychological model that tries to explain and foresee health behaviors. It was first developed in the 1950s by social psychologist Hochbaum, Rosenstock and Kegels who work in the U.S. Public Health Services. Since then, the HBM has been adapted to explore a variety of long- and short-term health behaviors, including sexual risk behaviors and the transmission of HIV/AIDS (Eisen,1992).

The four constructs of the HBM representing net benefits and perceived threat are perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers. These concepts were proposed as accounting for people's 'readiness to act.' An added concept, cues to action, would activate that readiness and stimulate overt behavior. Recently the concept of self-efficacy is added to HBM. Self efficacy is someone’s ability to perform an action successfully. This concept was added to help the HBM to change the unhealthy behaviors such as being inactive, smoking, or overeating (Rosenstock et al., 1988).

Social Support

Patterns of social relationship was first defined by Barnes in 1954 which is not explained by families or workgroups. Cassel (1976) found that it is associated with health. Social support served as a “protector” to people’s weaknesses on the outcomes of stress on health. Social networks are closely associated to social support, yet there is no theory to explain the connection. Social relationships are defining base on the notions of social support and social networks foundation, system and functions. Social networks can be seen as the grounds of social relationships that enclose human being.

Social support is linked with how people interact to manage the stressful actions. Furthermore, it can boost mental well-being. Social support characterizes into four types (1981). First is emotional support which is correlated with sharing life happenings. It encompasses the condition of compassion, love, trust and caring. Instrumental support includes the provision of physical help and services that is offered to a person who needs it. It is given by close friends, colleagues and neighbors. Informational support is the third social support type, it comprises the provision of counseling, recommendation and information given to the person to use in addressing problems. Lastly, appraisal support involves provision information that is useful for self-evaluation, assertion and social assessment.

Social relationships have a great impact on physical health and behavior but it is still not proven yet. Social integration, social network and social support are the three factors that are closely linked into social relationships (Berkman et. al., 2000). Social integration has been used to denote the being of social bonds.

Social network refers to the net of social relationships around individuals. Social support is one of the important functions of social relationships. Social networks are the ties between the individuals that may give social support and that may serve as purpose than providing support (Glanz et al, 2002).

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Health Belief Model. (2022, Apr 12). Retrieved July 12, 2024 , from

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