Different writer was given different aspects about the bank. Now-a-days the modern bank has been performing number of functions; it has become very challenging to give an exact definition of a bank. There is some common and important used definitions of a bank are given below:-
“A commercial banker is a seller in money and substitutes for money, such as bill or checks of exchange. It also provides a variety of financial service.”
These finance companies have established to role in various areas such as hire purchase, housing, finance and leasing. These companies have also allowed doing the capital market transaction such as share buying and selling, portfolio management, custodial services and market making.
when this bank was registered as a joint venture companies operation. Today the Bank is leading in a part of standard charted group and also this company has 75% of ownership with 25% shared purchased by the Nepalese public. The bank is having own enjoyment of having the largest share in their hand and status of big international bank currently operation in Nepal.
financial company in the country. They opened 16 points of representation branch and 17 ATMs all over the country and they have 350 local staff in Standard Chartered Bank Nepal Ltd. They are providing good service for customer through a domestic network. In addition, through the global network of standard charted group, this gives the bank to do transaction in international banking in a Nepal country. This company makes the public to easy to do transaction domestic or internationally
Nepal Investment Bank Limited (NIBL), previous NIBL was the name of Nepal Indosuez Bank Ltd. this bank was established in 1986 as a joint venture between French and Nepalese partners. The French partner was holding 50% capital of NIBL and was credit Agricole Indosuez., a subsidiary of one of the large banking group in the world.
On April 2002 Agricole Indosuez was divest the mind the sell the shares and group of bankers, professional and some of the industrials and business man acquire the 50% of his share. Then after the name of bank has been changed Nepal Indosuez Bank Ltd to Nepal Investment Bank Ltd. From the general board meeting, Nepal Rastra Bank and Company Registered office with the following shareholding structure.
The company group is holding 50% of the capital
Rastriya Banijya Bank holding 15% of the Capital
Rastriya Beema Sansthan is holding 15% of the capital.
The remaining 20% of capital owned by general public
Risk and uncertainty are an important part of an investment decision. General scenario, higher risk mean higher return.
“Risk is defined as Webster’s as “a hazard; exposure to loss or injury.” Thus, risk refers to the chance that some negative event will occur. It anybody engage in skydiving, such people are taking chance with his life skydiving is risky.”
“In the most basic sense, risk is the chance of having a big financial loss or having big financial profit. Assets having greater chance of loss are representing a more risky than those with lesser chances of loss. More formally, the term risk is used interchangeably with uncertainty to refer to the variability of returns associated with a given asset.”
“Risk in holding securities is generally related with the possibility that realized returns will be less than the returns that were expected. The source of such disappointment is the failure of dividends (interest) and / or the security’s price to materialize as expected.”
The market risk is known as the systematic risk. It related to the market as a whole and arises from the tendency of stock returns to fluctuate with the market returns. Systematic risk is that portion of total changeability in return affected by market factors that simultaneously affected the prices of all securities. It cannot be diversifiable away. Thus
“Beta measure non-diversifiable risk. Beta shows how the price of a security moves to the moves of market forces. In effect, higher beta means the market is high sensitive and low beta means the market is less sensitive. Beta is calculating by the help of relating the returns on security with the returns for the market. Beta can be positive or negative. But nearly all bets are positive.
The word Research is composed of two syllables, re and search. The dictionary defines the former as a prefix meaning again, a new or over again and the later as a verb meaning to examine closely and carefully, to test and try, or to probe. Together they form a noun describing a careful, systematic, patient study and investigation in some field of knowledge, undertaken to establish facts or principles. (Grinnell 1993; 4)
According to Grinnell: aAsA AA“research is a structured inquiry that utilizes acceptable scientific methodology to solve problems and creates new knowledge that is generally applicable. aAsA AzA(1993) and Lundberg (1942) draw a parallel between the social research process, which is considered scientific, and the process that we use in our daily lives.
Research is one of the ways of collecting accurate, sound and reliable information about the effectiveness of your interventions, thereby providing you with evidence of its effectiveness. As service providers and professionals, we use techniques and procedures developed by research methodologists to consolidate, improve, develop, refine and advance clinical aspects of our practice to serve our clients better.
Return on two perfectly correlated stocks, these two stocks would be moving up and down together and a portfolio consisting of two such stocks would be exactly the same as risky as the individual stocks.
Most of the stocks are correlated with the risk, but not perfectly. On average the returns on two stocks would lie on the range of +0.4 and+0.75 under this condition combining stocks into portfolios reduce risk but does not eliminated.
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