Down syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects many in our world today. But what exactly is Down syndrome and what causes it? I always thought Down syndrome is a disorder that runs in the family and is inherited. According to Global Down Syndrome Foundation, Down syndrome is a disorder that results when a person has an extra chromosome 21. A normal person has 46 chromosomes, but a person with Down syndrome will have 47 chromosomes. That one extra is chromosome 21. Down syndrome is also called Trisomy 21. The main cause for the extra chromosome 21 is nondisjunction. Nondisjunction is when the chromosomes fail to separate during meiosis. When the chromosomes fail to separate this causes wrong numbers or errors in either the males sperm cells or the females egg cells.
People with Down syndrome have different physical features and traits. For example, According to National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, people with Down syndrome usually have weak and poor muscle tone. Their necks are much shorter than a normal persons, they have extra skin behind their necks, the shape of their heads are smaller, and their eyes are slanting. Not all people with Down syndrome are the same but they do have some physical similarities. Most people with Down syndrome will need different kinds of therapy and help because they are delayed mentally and physically. Getting therapy at a young age can help those with Down syndrome live an easier life.
Down syndrome has three different types. It surprised me to know that there was more than one type of Down syndrome. The different types of Down syndrome will be discussed in the upcoming articles. Sections will also discuss the history of Down syndrome, the symptoms, and if any treatments. Down syndrome is a disorder that does not have a cure just yet. But with proper care and therapy those who have the disorder can live longer and healthier. Down syndrome can be diagnosed by using different diagnostics procedures during pregnancy, more will be explained in the upcoming articles and sections. With new technology in our world today, anything is possible for treatments and help those affected with genetic disorders.
This website https://reverehealth.com/live-better/understanding-genetic-conditions-syndrome/ provides information regarding the history of Down syndrome. At the time of 1800’s Down syndrome was an unknown disorder. It was named after John Landon Down. Around that time everyone started noticing different facial features on those who have Down syndrome. A French doctor named Jerome Lejeune was the one who actually studied and discovered more about Down syndrome. Back then in the 1950’s researchers and physicians realized that those who have Down syndrome have 47 chromosomes, which is different from the normal humans 46 chromosomes. This website also speaks about different kinds of Down syndrome. They are Trisomy 21, Mosaicism, and Translocation. All three types have chromosome 21 cell. They are different by the way the chromosome either attaches or doesn’t separate during meiosis. The Down syndrome that is commonly known and affects the majority is Trisomy 21. People with Down syndrome are at risk for more serious health issues. It does not matter of a person’s race, culture, or ethnicity, Down syndrome can affect anyone.
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