Climate change is the biggest discussion taking place in all forms of media. The discussion includes the topic with the related questions of resource limitations and the manners by which humans being are using limited resources of planet Earth. Here we discuss some backgrounds of the climate change and we also here discuss some of its future risk, impacts and processes and the world wide efforts .That are made by different organizations and platforms to minimize these risks. Here we will discuss climate change, process, reasons and future impacts. We also discuss some of past observations of impacts and research conducted by different scientists and research about this topic. There are many scientists around the world that are continuously working on the impacts of climate change that may include extreme climate increase losses due to floods and storms, clean water shortage issue, food scarcity, rising sea levels, constraints on energy use and devaluation of assets etc. In this paper the introduction is followed by the impacts of climate change on different sectors of life and then there is literature review in which discussed the past work on the climate change and its impacts by different scientists and researchers and then in the end there is conclusion for the climate change and its impacts The discussion about how weather change over decades or longer.
Climate change may occur due to both natural or human influences, since industrial revolution (1750) human activities influences the climate change through the emission of GHGs and aerosols, through change in the use of land that results in rise of global temperatures .increase in temperature have different impacts such as increase in storms, floods, droughts and sea level rise and decline glaciers and sea ice. Earth gain energy through radiations emitted from sun .GHGs plays vital role in trapping excessive heat released by sun that is necessary for maintaining temperature on earth that is reliable for the sustain life on earth. This phenomenon is known as greenhouse effect and is natural and necessary for sustain life on planet earth. In recent centuries, by the burning of fossil fuel and deforestation human have contributed to increase in atmospheric GHGs and it is primary cause of global warming the main reason for increase in global warming is CO2. The use of CO2 through different activities increasing global warming there are also some other aspects increasing global warming such as energy from the sun, volcanic eruption and concentrations of GHGs and aerosols in the atmosphere. If climate changes keeps occurring as forecasted last few years it has following impact on human life. · Increased death risk and disability due to extreme weather event. · Extreme heat episodes have direct impact on human health. · Current illness in the areas with fragile health care system. · Under nutrition and mental illness cause by low food production due to unfavorable weather conditions. · Increase food insecurity and relocation resulting from climate extreme. Both physical impact of climate change and adaptations measures will have consequences on basically all sectors across the economy some of them are following. · Extreme weather events effects the insurance industry, causing greater damage to property casualty, and health. It makes difficulty for insurance system to provide coverage at reasonable cost due to loss. · Impact on human health causes stress to health care system. · Weather sensitive sectors are also affected such as agriculture, forest, fisheries, tourism, hydroelectricity, transportation, mining etc. · Productivity and economic development may affected or declined. · May effect the proper functioning of electricity grids or transport infrastructure. · This climate changes have impact including agricultural productivity, food , health and it will results a loss of above 5% GDP globally. Extreme heat episodes of weather are mainly reasonable for floods. Floods occurs more than half of the earth surface. Some regions due to less rainfall have less or nor flood condition. On the other hand drought are due to less rainfall and agricultural drought due to dry soil and excessive evaporation in some regions like in British Colombia several droughts put extra pressure on water supply system in dry regions. Renewable water supply is expected to decline in certain areas and expand in others due to fluctuations in stream flow. Clean water resource may also decrease due to warmer environment.
Such declined clean water resources will put competition for water among different sectors such as agriculture, ecosystems, settlement industry and energy production regional water, energy and food security. Rising sea levels will have negative impact on the regions near the coast such as flooding, erosion of coast and submergence of that low lying regions putting population at risk, infrastructure, vegetation and animal destruction. Low level regions like Bangladesh and Maldives are at risk of destruction in short term from these oceans level rising and floods. Around the world 15 of the 20 biggest urban regions in which 14 of Asia with 200 million people are living fewer than 30 miles from the ocean.
Based upon Reuters analysis about 1.4 million worth of real estate is on risk of US only. In past millions of years, climate changes occurs naturally at slow rates so it is easy and adaptable by ecosystem. However in 20th century climate changes occurs at extreme rate species extinction rate increased by 100 times than normal pace. Massive extinction is due to urbanization, increased population etc. the increase in average temperature is the main reason for migration of species from the place of severe condition towards favorable conditions. Obvious climate change directly affect the food production in different regions accordingly such as due to flood and drought destruction of major food crops, wheat, rice etc. forecasted ocean level rise threatened the major food producing areas such as Bangladesh and India. The risk due to climate change have caught attention worldwide. Many organizations and industry bodies are working or analyzing the risks due to these climatic changes. In the following section we will discuss some important work and efforts done by different bodies. In past few years CIA worked with other three organizations (AAA, THE CAS, and SOA) to provide the data about climate change issues.
This research is done by environment consulting firm in VICTORIA, BC. In 2012 this organization published a report that determining the impact of climate change on insurance risk and global community. The organization later releases to indices ACI and ACRI. ACI is the tool that is specially designed to help and inform the general public on changes in extreme weather conditions time to time. It shows the frequency of warm and cold temperature, high winds, extreme precipitation, and dry days. The other component is sea level that is key measure of the climate change. The International Social Security Association (ISSA) is also working and researching on climate change impacts. They worked for how climate change impact on social security programs. In September 2015 Budapest meeting, organization worked on investment returns and effect of environment changes on interest rates. In 1973 the General Association is established and they also worked for seeing the impact of climate change on different sectors. In (1896) Arrhenius is the first person to discuss and raise the issue of green house and anthropogenic carbon emission and its impact on the global community. Pals (1956 a) estimated the carbon dioxide concentration would increase 30% over 20th century and 1.1 C would increase in the global temperature.
Keeling (1973) estimated that emission of CO2 from use of fossil fuel rose from 93 million tone to 3726 million tone from year (1860 to 1869). Houghton (2003) estimated the emission of co2 through the change in land use from (1850 to 2000). Stern (2006) has projected that temperature would rise 2 to 3 C on earth due to continuously changing the climate. Toll (2005) concluded that due to extreme weather there will be increase in the global savings. Parry et al (2007) analyze that decline in water supply such as melting of glaciers and ice sheets due to high temperature would result in water scarcity if temperature exceeds from 1.5 to 2.5 C in coming time then 20 to 30 % plant and animal species would face the danger of extinction. Agrawal (2003) analyzed that by rising sea level and high temperature would result in cyclones intensity.
Cooper (2000) proposed that with climate change there is great effect on crop production system such as by increased rainfalls or by extreme hot conditions have direct effect on growing patterns of crops. AK ram (2012) suggested that extreme climate changes is dangerous for food security. The following paper shows us the climate change and its impact on human life and on planet earth. We can see there are many impacts of the climate change that is seriously effecting our environment, biodiversity, and health. If we still not take any serious action to control the human activities that are increasing climate changes, then the earth is going towards extinction. Furthermore, with the excessive deforestation we are harming our climate excessively. Climate change will also leads to human physiological problems such as mental disorder, stress, anxiety, and violence among different communities. So we have to protect our environment and inhibit those activities that are giving rise to environmental pollution and climate changes such as decrease use of CO2, stop deforestation, save energy, save water, less use of chemical, educate the others with its importance and necessity. Therefore let us love our home planet Earth and keep it safe as long as we can.
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