Construction Industry World Wide

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Construction industry is regarded as one of the most hazardous industries in UK and world wide. People attached with this industry do get injured or they may die. According to the report of Health and safety Executive 2,800 workers have expired during last 25 years in UK and many more are suffering from long term illness.

Construction has extreme injury statistics of UK and worldwide industries. In 2005 and 2006, there were 59 fatal injuries to construction workers and 41% deaths were due to falls. 28% of all worker deaths were in the construction industry in 2005-6. Nevertheless this rate fell from 3.5 to 3.0 getting the lowest record. The rate of fatal accidents has been decreased over the years in construction industry. 981 or 27% major injuries were noticed resulting from fall. In 2005-6 observed the highest major injuries, 16% were injured in lifting, handling or hitting by falling or moving objects. The rate of major injuries reduced from 326.9 to 310.2 (Strategic Forum for Construction, 2007).

The Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 1994 (CDM 1994) have been reviewed critically for indecision on schedules, ambiguity regarding the individual tasks of the duty holders as well as an inclination for agreement to be seen in terms of paperwork produced rather than effective health and safety management. The various requirements placed on the duty holders (Clients, designers, planning supervisors, principal contractors and contractors) were designed to institute health and safety management into the genetic material of the project from start to end and to form a team work approach to health and safety along with risk management. According to HSE, over 2,800 people have expired from injuries as an outcome of construction work during the last 25 years (Public Sector Review).

Research has been conducted in shape of a questionnaire which includes queries concerning duty holders, recognition of key apparent issues with CDM and achievements and disappointments faced as a result of the modification of CDM along with suggestions and recommendations.

The modified version of CDM regulations up to now have proved unsuccessful in creating the any constructive adjustment in health and safety functioning. In 2009, HSE decided to begin a complete assessment of regulations with a plan to testify in 2010. However, an initial review of the effect of CDM Regulations by Coniac recommended that they mostly are not up to the standards in relation to the enhanced and better performance. HSE inspectorate recommended that much should be accomplished regarding the duties and competence of duty holders (Contract Journal, 2009).



The safety (body as well as mind) of an individual from infection which is an out come of practices and measures taken at workplace.


The security of workers from physical harm.


The specifications of conveniences to retain health as well as comfort of people at workplace. These include heating, seating, eating, first aid facilities, sanitation planning, drinking water, accommodation and rest rooms.


According to HSE definition, "accident is an unexpected occurrence that ends in physical damage or illness of group, or harm to property, workshop, resources, equipments or atmosphere or a failure in business prospects" (Heghes, 2008, pg-3).


Client is a person or an organization for which the building project is done.

CDM Co-ordinator

CDM Co-ordinator is a person to direct and support the client about CDM duties on notifiable projects.

Construction phase plan

It is a file organized by the principal contractor keeping the record of health and safety planning, site rules and other measures for construction task.

Construction work

It can be any building work like construction, renovation, site preparation, alteration, demolition, repair, conversion, investigation, exploration, installations of electrical, gas, telecommunications, computer and other similar services (OPSI, PG 2, 2007).


A competent organization hired to carry out the entire or a piece of the works is contractor.


It is the revelation of adequate experience, knowledge and expertise by a person or an organization to perform duties suitably.


It includes design particulars, drawings, specifications, calculations planned for design.


Any person who plans and alters design and give instructions to his subordinates.

Health and safety file

It is a file including a considerable health and safety information about project, desirable throughout succeeding construction work, repairs and decommissioning.

Notifiable project

A notifiable project is a project which continues more than 30 days comprising holidays and weekends or it engages more than 500 person days of construction work.

Pre-construction information

It is information given to duty holders about unknown hazards, proposed use of finished product, and amount of time assigned to contractor and about the health and safety file.

Principal Contractor

The principal contractor role is to prepare, supervise and manage health and safety during construction work.


It is a potential of the substance, activity or process to cause harm. It acquires many forms like, chemical, electricity and working from ladder.


Risk is the probability of a substance, activity and process to cause harm.


An Approved Code of Practice offers assistance on how to fulfill with definite regulations.


A trade, business or other enterprise.

Construction site

Any location where construction work is done or to which the workers have approach.


The planned destruction or taking away a structure from each other, or a sizeable part of a structure.

Duty holder

Duty holders are persons counting client, co-ordinator, designer, principal contractor, contractor, worker who perform their function according to CDM 2007 Regulations.


HSE Health and Safety Executive

ACoP Approved Code of Practice

CIAC Construction Industry Advisory Committee

HSC Health Safety Commission

CIOB Chartered Institute of Building


CDM Regulations came into force in March1995, executing the short-term Construction Sites Directive (1992/57/EEC). The objectives of these Regulations includes improvement in management, synchronization of health and safety during construction phase project, forcing latest responsibilities on employers, designers with contractors to assume health and safety starting from outset to safeguarding as well as renovation on destruction.

The concept of CDM is to force all the duty holders to work in collaboration with each other and perform their duties to reduce accidents and promote safety. It is observed that prior to planning and design stage, accidents can be reduced if properly recognized (Report on MOM Mission on CDM Regulations Implementation in UK, 2008).

The major facets of the recent duties enforced were

  • It was the duty of client to assign a planning supervisor competent enough to organize health and safety features of initial design and the project preparation.
  • The CDM Co-ordinator must guarantee a pre-tender health and safety plan
  • The CDM Co-ordinator was responsible for the preparation and maintenance of health and safety file and for its delivery to client at the end of the project.

It is factual to state that the regulations had a constructive impact on safety, after the regulations were initially adapted within the construction industry. But, a range of deficiencies and ambiguities were revealed which led to the preparation of improved and modified regulations (Health and Safety Consultants, 2010).

The Regulations were improved in 2002, to offer better explanation to duty holders concerning their obligations as well as responsibilities and a new ACoP was released.

Consequently, due to industry discontent, the Health and Safety Commission (HSC) went into an industry wide discussion practice and CDM 2007 is the result.

CDM 2007, a new set of Regulations came into force on 6 April 2007 which includes a few noteworthy alterations from CDM 1994. CDM 2007 was associated with a new Approved Code of Practice which assists in enlightening CDM 2007.

Key aims of CDM2007

These are described in the introduction to the ACOP and set out to integrate health and safety into project management by encouraging teamwork that will: -

  • enhance planning as well as project management from the beginning;
  • recognize risks before time to remove or reduce them at the design stage of the project, in order that the remaining risks can be handled suitably;
  • aggressively disapprove needless bureaucracy (Federation of Piling Specialists, 2009).

The Major Changes in CDM

The major alterations can be reviewed like this:

The main changes can be summarised like this:

  • CDM 2007 enforces new and heavy duties on clients, who are restricted now to hire a “client's agent”;
  • the job of “planning supervisor” under CDM 1994 has been improved. This task will now be performed by the “CDM co-ordinator”
  • all duty holders on a project (i.e., clients, designers, CDM co-ordinator and contractors) will be forced to comprehensive functions of “competence”, “co-operation” and “co-ordination”
  • the “health and safety plan” formed under CDM 1994 will at present be recognized as the "construction phase plan"; and
  • there is better scope for civil accountability (besides criminal accountability) for violation of CDM 2007 (PROJEN).

Project Notifiable

Specific projects are notified to the Health and Safety Executive under CDM 2007. The HSE is the government organization which implements health and safety regulations in the construction business. A project is notifiable to the HSE when it involves more than 30 days or 500 person-days of construction work. These projects need the selection of a CDM co-ordinator along with a principal contractor. Despite the fact that, under CDM 2007, even if a project is not notifiable, the further all-purpose obligations of CDM 2007 will nonetheless employ (McCormack Benson Health and Safety Consultants).


Every Law in relation to Health and Safety has as its key advantage of the safety of citizens particularly involving the staff and affected workforce. Nevertheless, once coped properly the blend of law and care, health and safety provides additional solid advantages for business, for instance:

  • efficiency amplifies, as consumed phase from calamities and occurrences is lessened
  • repute is improved exclusive of the requirement to utilize pricey PR mentors
  • self-esteem and reliability enhances as workforce observes that their safety make a difference
  • crucial Skills are maintained as well as shielded
  • fines threat from implementation organizations are done with.
  • Insurance Rewards can be discussed on the source of excellent industrial accident reports (EDP, 2007).

According to the HSE, the benefits of the new regulations are to recover health and safety in construction industry, assign competent people; risk management and effective planning.


The most recent HSE campaigns about risk awareness and risk management embrace:

Hidden Killer campaign increases understanding amid individuals working in the construction industry that they are at threat from disclosure to asbestos.

Shattered Lives

This campaign aims at those workers who are mostly at the risk of a fall, stumble or slip at work along with those best sited to hold an action. It targets to educate people concerning risk management and assist them to take measures to reduce slips and falls.

The European Campaign for Safety and Health at Work for 2008-09

It is a two-year campaign. This campaign focuses on a variety of employers, workers and safety agents and is meant to encourage the advantages of the execution of risk evaluation. It hunts for exposing risk appraisal process to reveal that this process is not complex or bureaucratic. It has raised awareness and understanding about risk issue by providing information and sensible counseling. It enhances activities possessing constructive influence at workplace and spot out better practice (Safety 1st, 2009, Issue-6, pg. 6).

This operation tries to expose the threat appraisal method to confirm that threat appraisal is unavoidably intricate, problematic, and bureaucratic or a duty just for professionals.

It intends aw well to increase understanding and knowledge on the issue of risk management, offer information as well as sensible counselling, support and promote actions that have a constructive impression at place of work, moreover discover as well as be acquainted with high-quality application (Safety 1st, 2009, Issue-6, pg. 6).

Need to Revise the CDM Regulations 1994

The new Regulations came into force in April 2007. The goal of the restructured Regulations is to spotlight the merits of successful planning as well as management of construction projects beginning from the design model to onwards. These Regulations better point out health and safety concerns with the intention of trimming down the threat of damage to individuals who erect, draw on and retain buildings, as well as to tackle the commonly acknowledged inclination that the construction industry resumes excessively dangerous and unsafe to individuals attached with it.

The goal is to facilitate members of the construction industry to work collectively on the way to implement a new health & safety awareness management agenda, by means of making regulation easier; planning and management improvement from concept to onwards; early risks detection; enhance co-operation and team work; reducing bureaucracy and increasing values along with standards (AGS, Newsletter Issue 55, 2007).

Approved Code of Practice

A sketch of Approved Code of Practice (ACoP) has been shaped providing realistic guidance on how to adhere to law. It entails some constructive information, not obvious from regulations themselves, regarding how CDM 2007 will link to the PPP perspective. There is no indication until now of an assured industry acknowledged regulation. The Health and Safety Commission's CIAC has formed a sub-group exclusively to organize construction of this regulation (Public Sector Review).

Approved Code of Practice that comes with the Regulations affirms the viewpoint behind the new regulations.

If hazards are reduced or curtailed, in addition to providing financial support and surplus concerning improved physical condition as well as protection, it too will end in ”... decline in the total rate of possession since the design is planned for secure, simple and undemanding repairs with sanitary job in addition to the basic information that is accessible in the health and safety file.”

The gist of this philosophy is that;

  • Form safety a central component of running construction projects
  • recognize risks early at the design phase
  • support mutual work amid all companies
  • advance project planning
  • Diminish bureaucracy (EDP, 2007).

CDM Regulations 2007

The fresh Regulations are divided into 5 parts:

Part 1 – Application as well as description of the Regulations;
Part 2 – All-purpose duties in relation to all construction projects;
Part 3 – Additional duties pertaining to notifiable projects;
Part 4 – Practical requisites for all construction sites;
Part 5 –Central Planning with revocations (Birmingham Health, Safety & Environment Association, 2007)

What type of project is notifiable?

A notifiable project continues more than 30 days comprising holidays and weekends or it engages more than 500 person days of construction work. It is the duty of CDM co-ordinator to notify the project (AGS Newsletter Issue 55 - December 2007).

2. Application of Regulations

The Regulations apply to all new building construction, new services installations, alterations, maintenance, or renovations of a building or any of its services, site clearance and demolition (University of Oxford, 2008).

Cost effectiveness

The cost effectiveness of CDM has been assessed seriously, the accusing CDM as a source of a good deal bureaucratic paper work. The HSE reaction to this has been comprehensible that any paper work that does not exercise effect on health and safety should not be accomplished under CDM. It gives the impression that there is a need to clarity designers' duties under CDM. The view is that they frequently receive the safe alternative and construct domains of risk assessments that face approximately any possibility. This may not enhance safety, since the risk assessments may be standard. Consequently, there is an awareness that CDM is ineffective due to time redundancy that does not assist in improving health and safety (HSE, 2007).

Competence, Co-Operation and Co-Ordination

A client should ensure under Regulation 4 that: "The client is responsible to take sensible and logical measures to make certain that the individual to be selected or attached is experienced, proficient and skilled" (RICS Journal, 2007).

All duty holders under CDM 2007 must be competent to perform his duties. Appointer must ensure the competence of the appointee and similarly the appointee should not attach to a company if he is incompetent; co-operate with others on the similar project as well as ask for the co-operation of others; and co-ordinate with each other in a mode to make sure the health and safety of people involved in the construction process. These duties promote an indication of the mutual working approaches which are convinced all through the construction industry in Great Britain (Jones Day Law Firm, 2007).

Competency Measurement under CDM New Regulations

There are three phases to competency.

Vital perceptive of risk and risk management

Adequate comprehension of the tasks to be applied and the risks they entail;

The basic understanding and capability to perform those duties.


Duty holders under CDM 2007 Regulations are:

  • Clients
  • Designers
  • CDM Co-ordinator
  • Principal Contractors
  • Contractors


A client is a person retaining construction work performed as a component of his industry. The client may be a person, a company or a partnership (Veritas Consulting Safety Services).

A number of alterations have been carried out in the latest CDM Regulations however; the alterations made to the client's role had the maximum influence. The influence of Client is prevalent on the mode a project is proceeded. They are responsible for the effect of their health and safety approach of workers by project. Though, the Regulations also appreciate that a lot of Clients are very little familiar with construction health and safety, hence, they are not competent enough in project planning and management (Leicestershire County Council, 2007).

Duties of Client

Clients have to adhere to explicit duties for the construction work carried out on their behalf. But if the project is notifiable then the clients are responsible for additional tasks.

To comprehend the role of a client, the duties assigned to him under CDM Regulations are listed below;

  • Ensure the competency as well as resources of every appointee;
  • Make sure about the proper management planning intended for the project involving safety and welfare services;
  • Allocate adequate time along with funds for each and every phase of the project;
  • Give designers and contractors pre-construction information;
  • Hire a CDM co-ordinator;
  • Assign a principal contractor;
  • Ensure that construction phase should begin in the presence of welfare facilities;
  • Supply information to CDM co-ordinator concerning health and safety file;
  • Maintain the health and safety file (Salford City Council, 2007).

Ensure that they are committed;

  • Make sure that the designers, contractors and other duty holders are proficient and experienced;
  • Agree to adequate recruitment time for contractors for planning and preparation for the works.
  • Ensure the safety of project management;
  • Improve communication and co-operation between designers and contractors;

CDM co-ordinators

A CDM co-ordinator is appointed for client counseling on projects that go on for more than 30 days or else entail 500 person days of construction work. His counseling is based on health and safety issues all through the design planning period of construction work (Veritas Consulting Safety Services).

Duties of CDM Co-ordinator

A new duty holder introduced by CDM is CDM co-ordinator, instead of the planning supervisor, who is a plan counselor with regard to risk management and safety. The CDM co-ordinator has very clear and comprehensible duties than planning supervisor. The CDM co-ordinator is a significant selection by the client and his key responsibilities are mentioned below;

  • to inform HSE about the project; to inform and support the client of its duties i.e. selection of competent contractors and designers; and guarantee sufficient planning for project management.
  • Make certain that proper planning is done and executed for the health and safety management all through the construction phase (from planning to preparation).
  • Supply information to contractors and designers.
  • Gather pre-construction information required by contractors and designers.
  • Interaction with principal contractor concerning the gist of health and safety file.
  • Communicate with principal contractor regarding information about the preparation and development of construction phase plan, which may influence construction planning and management (Build4Growth Ltd).
  • Make sure that designers fulfill their responsibilities practically.
  • Confirm co-operation between principal contractors and designers.
  • Preparation of health and safety file.
  • Health and safety file assessment and appraisal.
  • Keep the health and safety file up to date.
  • Deliver health and safety file to the client as the project comes to an end (Jones Day Law Firm, 2007).
  • Make sure to deliver a project safely through an early induction of other duty holders and then authorize them to take on the requisite work.
  • Ensure that the team members or workforce is competent and skilled.
  • Ensure the supply of welfare facilities on construction site by the contractor.
  • The role of CDM co-ordinator for notifiable projects is to
  • supply a basic project advisor to client in relation to health and safety management and risk management;
  • support client in the selection of skilled contractors;
  • assist client in preparing competent management;
  • safe management of design process;
  • make communication and interaction possible among team members;
  • ensure co-operation between workforce;
  • reduce risks to workers due to an early input with designers and clients;
  • help client in preparing decisions as regards to the time required for preparation by the contractor; and
  • counsel client about ample time for staffing, starting from the selection of a contractor to the time when construction work begins (Imperial College, 2007).


Designers involve architects, quality surveyors and engineers who prepare designs, specifications, proposal of quantities and the arrangement of articles and issues (Veritas Consulting Safety Services).

Designers are all persons who encompass a little contribution into issues related to designs of project. It comprises architects as well as engineers who by and large have liability for design; surveyors who sketch out requirements; contractors who perform design composition as suggested by a design-and-build contract; moreover a person with authorization to indicate or change the requirements and patterns of designs to be used (Jones Day Law Firm, 2007).

Designers have a significant part to perform in CDM 2007. They are in a distinctive status of reducing the risks that occur all through the construction process.

Designs enhance from key conception to a comprehensive arrangement. It entails diverse groups and individuals at unusual stages. At all stages, designers associated with all fields can perform significantly through identification and eradication of hazards. Designer's initial judgment basically involves the health and safety of building composition. This judgment inspires the subsequent design alternatives. It is as a result imperative to deal with health and safety issue from the start.

Firstly, designers require abolishing hazards. Eradication of hazards eliminates the linked risk, decreasing it risk to a satisfactory point. Presenting nonspecific risk information is undesirable. Designers officially are not involved in keeping the process record, however, it is constructive. Noteworthy and considerable risks are those that are rare and outlined. These are not expected to be noticeable by contractor and complicated in handling. A designer requires making sure the availability cleaning and safe maintenance of regular construction parts (Grove Services (UK) Limited, 2009).

Duties of Designers

The duties of designers include following;

  • Designers should ensure sufficient resources to tackle the health and safety issues.
  • They should supply satisfactory information concerning risks linked with design.
  • They should co-ordinate with others for risk management.
  • Designers must be sure about their competency for the task he has been assumed.
  • Identify risks, make an out line of it and try to reduce them (RRC Training).
  • Guarantee that his design check risks to construction workers.
  • They must embrace workplace regulations 1992.
  • Supply information necessary for other designers, clients or contractors to adhere to their responsibilities under CDM.
  • Designers should report about the design and resources employed in the structure.
  • One duty is the building maintenance after finishing the construction (Estates and Facilities Division Quarterly Briefing V.16, N.1).

Additional Duties

The additional duties of designers include

  • To make sure that a CDM co-ordinator has been assigned by client
  • Before the induction of CDM co-ordinator, design work should not begin.
  • Co-operate with CDM co-ordinator.
  • Initial selection of the CDM co-ordinator is vital for successful planning as well as for creating efficient management planning from the beginning.
  • Initial selection of the CDM co-ordinator is vital for successful planning as well as for creating efficient management planning from the beginning (Imperial College, 2007).

Principal contractors

A principal contractor is appointed for projects goes on more than 30 days or engage 500 person days of construction work. His role is to prepare, supervise and organize health and safety during construction work. The principal contractor is generally a key managing contractor for the work (Veritas Consulting Safety Services).

The Principal Contractor's duties

According to CDM 1994, preparation of health and safety plan was the duty of the planning supervisor and development of that plan was the responsibility of the principal contractor. But under CDM 2007, for both preparation and development of construction plan, only the principal contractor is responsible. The CDM co-ordinator must communicate with him concerning the preparation and aptness of the original plan but principal contractor holds the responsibility of construction phase plan. The thing that remained untouched in CDM 2007 is the presence of a proper plan before the start of construction work (Jones Day Law Firm, 2007).

Duties of Principal Contractors

Principal contractors are appointed by Estates Director for notifiable projects. They perform numerous duties comprising

  • Management of construction phase.
  • Co-ordination during construction phase.
  • Provide proper safety and welfare facilities.
  • Check unofficial approach to site.
  • Enforcement of site set of laws.
  • Workers' secure appointment, education and training.
  • Perfection in co-operation as well as co-ordination between contractors.
  • Improve communication among workforce to prevent risks.
  • Preparation of construction plan.
  • Provide health and safety information to the desirable individuals (Grove Services (UK) Limited, 2009).

For Notifiable projects the principal contractor should perform following responsibilities;

  • They must make sure that the contractors perform their duties safely and risk free.
  • They must be sure about the appointment of CDM co-ordinator and HSE notification before the start of project.
  • They must show their competency and skill in the management of the health and safety issues during project.
  • Contractors' requirements for information should be gone through without delay.
  • Make sure the contractors are working in collaboration of each other and ensure team work.
  • Supply quick information to the CDM co-ordinator pertinent to the health and safety file (Imperial College, 2007).


A contractor is a company engaged in building, variation, repairs or flattening work. These companies entail construction mechanical, civil engineering, demolition and maintenance companies (Veritas Consulting Safety Services).

Contractors' duties

The principal Contractor appoint contractor in case of notifiable projects and it is client who appoint him when the project is not notifiable.

Duties of Contractors

The duties of contractors are following;

  • The contractors must be proficient and skilled in their job performance.
  • They should plan and manage their task accurately.
  • The contractors must scrutinize their work for health and safety assurance.
  • They should co-operate with principal contractors as well as the contractors and improve co-ordination.
  • In the absence of principal contractor or in case of non-notifiable work, the duties of contractors includes following;
  • The contractors must make the client aware of his job or responsibilities.
  • They must examine their work to guarantee a risk free environment and to handle health and safety issues.
  • They should supply sufficient information to their workers.
  • The contractors should provide training and awareness to their workforce.
  • They make the security of site certain against unofficial access.
  • The duties of contractors include the assurance of welfare facilities for workforce on the site (IET, 2008).

Additional Duties

In case of notifiable projects, the duties of contractors are as under;

  1. The contractors must verify the appointment of CDM co-ordinator and HSE notification before the work begins.
  2. They must inform the principal contractor about the risks created by their works.
  3. They must inform the principal contractor about the other contractors attached with their work.
  4. The contractors must adhere to the practical guidance and rules suggested by the principal contractor about health and safety.
  5. They must notify the principal contractor about the key problems they face on site.
  6. The contractors should inform the principal contractor about injuries and unsafe incidents on site.
  7. They must supply awareness about health and safety file (Imperial College, 2007).



Primary and secondary methods have been used to identify the impact of CDM Regulations.


Primary method is used for direct communication or personal interviews with respondents. A qualitative data is collected through interviews. Data obtained through this method is based on oral-verbal responses. This method, though, is time consuming and costly, yet it produces high response and less negative response rate. In the current research paper based questionnaires were used to interview the duty holders. These questionnaires demonstrated the attitudes and beliefs of their specific job positions. The respondents openly described about their responsibilities and experiences under CDM 2007 regulations.


Data was collected from nose to nose dialogue and interviews with duty holders i.e.-e clients, designers, planning supervisor, principal contractor and contractors or subcontractors. The well thought-out interviews with 12 duty holders were organized so as to survey the CDM function to a variety of diverse task circumstances. Three interviewees were selected from every duty holder. These contestants were picked to signify distinctive executive formation, welfare, safety as well as environmental settings. A wide ranging problems were conferred with respect to CDM as numerous among interviewees turned up from huge and reputable corporations.


Primarily the survey aimed at a questionnaire. A substantial comprehension was assumed to create the plan and design of the feedback form. It has been composed with care. It was short, concise and simple so as to interest the respondents. Respondents were serious and we find no ambiguities in responses. Words and sentences used in questionnaire are very familiar and intelligible.

Throughout these interviews were based on a chain of concerns in shape of a questionnaire which includes queries concerning other duty holders, recognition of key apparent issues with CDM and achievements and disappointments faced as a result of the modification of CDM along with suggestions and recommendations. These questions were the personal observations of every duty holder.


  1. What is your service rank?
  2. Which of the known divisions are you attached with?
  3. Number of employed individuals in your organization?
  4. By and large how can you appraise CDM Regulations?
  5. In the past two years, how did you find CDM? Could you explain your experience?
  6. How would you tell the attitudes of other people you worked with, towards CDM Regulations?
  7. Which duty holder do you consider as strategic to the effectiveness of CDM Regulations?
  8. Tell us about your big challenge while working under CDM?
  9. Do you think existing CDM supports bureaucracy?
  10. What are the achievements of CDM?
  11. What are the accomplished spheres of CDM? And why?
  12. What are the failures of CDM? Mention the core fields of failure? And why?
  13. As a duty holder how effortless it is to discover problems regarding you?
  14. How long does CDM tackle professional health problems?
  15. How the issue of health and safety is linked with the function of CDM?
  16. As a duty holder what is the degree of requirement expected by you?
  17. Can you identify vital issues relevant to safety planning?
  18. To what extent do you assume that collaboration and harmony can be enhanced among duty holders?
  19. How can HSE and construction industry sort out to talk about the requirements?
  20. As a duty holder how patent and comprehensible are CDM regulations for you?
  21. How health and safety planning can be enhanced?
  22. How can duty holders perform successfully and efficiently to handle health and safety?
  23. How, as a duty holder, CDM Regulations manipulate you?
  24. How new CDM can deal with communication, co-ordination and co-operation among duty holders, principally, between contractors and designers?
  25. Are the people involved in evaluation process themselves are capable or not? Is it bureaucratic?
  26. How CDM Regulations are appropriate and pertinent to planning commitments?
  27. Do CDM regulations certify the preference of capable duty holders? Your perception of competence and proficiency and suggestions for improvements!
  28. To what extent does CDM assist in attending towards worker's commitments and appointments? Does it need enhancement? How?
  29. Do you consider review of CDM as effective and productive?
  30. Do you call CDM review as failed and hopeless?
  31. Illustrate cost proposition of CDM to construction industry as well as your corporation?
  32. Evaluate the constructive advantages of CDM?
  33. What sort of crucial steps can be taken in to enhance the efficiency and value of CDM?


The competently planned interviews were conducted with 12 duty holders to study the CDM role to a range of assorted job conditions. Three interviewees were opted from each duty holder.


Three recurring clients for this research were interrogated. One from private sector, working for about 8 years with 100 to 200 employees and other two operating for 20 years with 1500 employees. Since last year, two clients have been attached with 98 and one with 50 to 100 CDM projects of construction.


Three designers for this research were interrogated. Two design organizations performed both as a contractor and client along with the role of supervisor. One was a civil engineer with 50-125 personnel and other two were architects with 1,100 workers attached with CDM projects. One organization was operating for 4 years and other two were in business for 19 years. The cost assumed by designers was up to £ 95 M.

CDM Co-ordinators

Three CDM Co-ordinators were interrogated for this investigation.

One was joined with project management tasks and other two belonged to design companies. These supervisors had been operational through out previous year under CDM projects with above 1,300 staff workers. One planning supervisor, from private sector, had been concerned with 20-40 CDM projects for 20 years with 150-300 workers and the two others were functional for 10-18 years with 1,300 staff. The cost of construction during last year was assumed between £ 300M to £ 800M


Similarly three principal contractors were interviewed for this research. All of them were engaged in construction and design projects. One was a civil engineer, one house builder and one was commercial builder organizations. They all have been connected with construction industry for 20 years. The civil engineer contractor had been attached with 20-50, the house builder with 50-100 and commercial builder was attached with above 100 CDM projects during the previous year with 100-300, 1,500 and 300-600 employees respectively. The principal contractor's cost was estimated between £ 70M and £ 700M. Two of them also contributed in maintenance and refurbish projects.


All the three contractors / subcontractors interrogated for this research were assumed the position of designer. Two of them performed as planning supervisor as well and have been in industry for 20 years. One contractor has been working for 12-20 years. These contractors employed 30-60, 60-80 and 100-300 workers respectively. The fields of small contractors include painting, glazing, roofing, plumbing, highway building and electrical fixing with 30-60 workers whereas the large subcontractor was associated with diverse spheres with 1,100 staff workers. One contractor assumed 10-20, the other 21-50 and the third one above 95 CDM projects.

The cost of construction specified by these contractors or subcontractors was between 5M and 199M through out previous year.


Secondary data has also been collected indirectly for the research through government reports. This method is inexpensive, easily accessible and saves time and effort as compared to primary data collection. In this method, data is easily available. For this research, data has been obtained through quantitative sources.

  1. CDM 2007 Impact Survey shows that the implementation of CDM regulations is ineffective and unsuccessful for a few organizations working in concerning areas of construction in UK. This survey was conducted online by the CDM 2007. The sample was large with 228 CDM 2007 duty holders in this survey. The participants included in the survey came from diverse disciplines like site and design duties, architecture, training, planning and health and safety professional.
  2. Construction industry is regarded as one of the most hazardous industries in UK and world wide. People attached with this industry do get injured or they may die. According to the report of Health and safety Executive 2,800 workers have expired during last 25 years in UK and many more are suffering from long term illness. With a view to improve health and safety system in construction industry CIOB conducted a research to approach those who are the victims of health and safety risks.

This research appraises key issues associated with health and safety in a construction industry like health and safety in industry; effect of CDM; occupational strain and its influence; crane safety along with worker's safety.


The respondents were asked about the impact of CDM Regulations by using questions regarding Co-operation among staff members, integration of designer/client/contractor teams, attraction for workers,

CDM management Practices, better quality, workers care, fall in workers absence caused by injury, prompt achievement, health Risks reduction, safety risks reduction, site safety improvements, onsite staff training and communication among project affiliates. The following table shows the effects of CDM on duty holders. A &D indicated agreed or disagreed.

1- Transparency of new CDM Regulations

By and large, the CDM Regulations were found clear in relation to what is predictable about every duty holder.


One of the three clients disagreed with the clarity of CDM Regulations and opposed it by stating that there is a deficiency of possession from contractors and designers. They were uncertain about the closing stages of contribution by principal contractors. One was required explanation on proficiency evaluation along with planned agenda for planning supervisor. The third one needed a patent testimonial of the client's individuality as well as the designer's accountability. There was an opinion that comprehension of CDM is inconsistent in the civic sector, a reality not facilitated by the inclination for public sector staff to recurrently alter the job placements regularly.


Two of three designers approved the accuracy of new Regulations but one convincingly opposed it. One respondent stated that CDM should intimately be associated with the duties of individuals who take part in construction practice. This view was confirmed by other designers, who revealed the uncertainty in specified circumstances like change in project from one planning supervisor to the other one, substitution in devising and constructing projects and the situation when clients make a decision about designs. The respondents wanted investigation to be precisely considerable with a reliable supervision from the supervisory body. In their opinion ACOP should not merely include cross-references but the reviews of further pertinent legislation, forming it as a sole orientation for the industry. The opposed respondents demanded transparency on a number of issues like what are the duties of contractors, risk assessment, assistance in composing secure and insecure design and problems concerning short term works design.

CDM Co-ordinators

One of three CDM co-ordinators agreed on the lucidity of CDM Regulations but two opposed. All respondents stated that the design task of contractor is not focused in existing CDM. They were of the view that the designer's competence is not suitably tackled. They opined that the role of client should be clarified. The respondent who favoured CDM said that planning supervisors should be inducted early in the project. Designers are uncertain about the concepts of threats and risks and require practical advice to attain safety in design. All three agreed on a new ACOP and said that a direction and supervision is required for planning supervisors. They should be trained about how to guarantee co-operation among designers.

Principal Contractors

One of three respondents agreed on clarity but the other two opined that much is required concerning the role of planning supervisor and an appropriate direction is required for competence assessment. The role of planning supervisor needs supervision.

Contractors / Sub Contractors

The one respondent found CDM Regulations vague. In his view the CDM Regulations should be simple, combined and intelligible with a transparent explanation of the roles and duties of the duty holders particularly designers. HSE should expose the performance concealed by CDM and stress on the broad capacity of execution. One contractor responded about the clarity of his role that he needs more explanation on the approach of client and principal contractor towards the application of their records.

2- Competency Assessment


CDM guarantees that competent duty holders are chosen. On this question two respondents agreed. However, they mentioned that proficiency evaluation or assessment is a complex procedure for rare and small clients and face to face interrogation is an excellent tactic to assess someone. In their opinion, planning supervisor should also perform in this process of competency assessment. The respondents who disagreed were of the view that competency is determined by the assessors and they thought that the assessors themselves are satisfactorily capable. They suggested that proper training and guidance for competency assessment should be provided in the induction of assessor.


All designers disagreed about the selection of competent duty holders. They suggested questionnaires as non-reliable source of getting basic information and recommended face to face dialogues as a successful source.

CDM Co-ordinators

One CDM Co-ordinators agreed about competency assessment with a notion that better supervision can assist. Those who disapproved responded that mostly the competency assessment is avoided due to the demands of the project and appointments rely on reputation of the organizations. Evaluation is not a project feature and CDM can not ensure that only competent people are chosen. They viewed it as more bureaucratic.

Principal Contractor

One principal contractor disapproved the declaration saying that instead of competency assessments by clients; even now they were being inquired to perform acts that are beyond their proficiency. They opined that duty holders are not properly aware of their duties and health and safety proficiency is a secondary issue in competency assessment. The principal contractors who agreed were of the opinion that though it was unattainable to check competence but CDM did stick to this objective. They mentioned that people were not aware about assessment process and needed training. It was suggested that assessment should be based on site visits rather than only paper work and that a scheme should be devised to point out the standard requisite to competence.


Two of three contractors disagreed concerning the selection of competent duty holders. One contractor gave his comments that competency paper work is not verified and the other said that the clients should visit them personally. One of them commented that competency assessment takes place in haste, usually when a problem occurs. The contractors viewed that some SMEs were entirely ignorant of how to devise an assessment method.

3- Communication, Coordination and cooperation


When the clients were interviewed about the improvement in communication, co-ordination and co-operation encouraged by CDM, two clients agreed and one disagreed. They recommended that co-operation can be enhanced by removing ambiguity in the responsibilities of duty holders, assisting designers in designing projects, encouraging mutual work performance and declaration of assurance to co-operate should be signed by all duty holders.


Two designers agreed whereas one disapproved it commenting on CDM to create broad plans concerning the respect for people. They opined that at the concluding stage of a project feedback is required. The contractor should be assigned early so that the workforce gets connected.

CDM Co-ordinators

One CDM co-ordinator agreed while two strongly disagreed. They stated that co-operation, co-ordination and communication was weak when principal contractors include sub contractors who are responsible of design. They recommended the on site presence of designer, early involvement of contractor in design and enhancement of team work.

Principal Contractors

All contractors disagreed and responded that contractors should keep every body connected through out construction process. They suggested frequent meetings and pre-start meetings between principal contractors and the contractors. There should be a boundary between permanent and temporary designers and risks should be recorded in a regular risk record.


One sub contractor agreed and two disagreed. They recommended that during construction process, designers should be actively involved realizing their duties and responsibilities. Besides, early dialogue is useful in shape of pre-start meetings, feasibility meetings and post contract appraisals.

4- Obligations and contribution of CDM to health and safety improvement

As a duty holder, the respondents stated a number of obligations of CDM Regulations. A collective list of these obligations and CDM s' contribution regarding health and safety plans was provided by clients, designers, planning supervisors, principal contractors and contractors. This contribution includes training, Health and Safety File, risk management design, co-operation assurance, threat reduction design, aptitude appraisal, stable co-ordination and construction planning.

5- Achievements of CDM

The respondents were asked about the achievements of CDM. They indicated that

  • sites are safe and healthy;
  • client is the integral part of project team;
  • health and safety are taken thoughtfully;
  • value of design has been appreciated;
  • performance of contractors is improved in providing on site facilities;
  • onsite communication and team work have been enhanced;
  • designers are aware of their duties more than before;
  • designers are taking maintenance issues into account;
  • project management has been enhanced;
  • fatalities have been reduced;
  • co-ordination between contractors has been improved;
  • Onsite injuries have been reduced;
  • Onsite inspections by principal contractors have been enhanced;
  • papers containing basic health and safety information are broadly available;
  • risk management;
  • level of health and safety files is refining;
  • services management;
  • planning improvement;
  • client is more involved;
  • improvement in welfare provision and co-operation;
  • ill-health incidents have been reduced;
  • stress on competence and training;
  • reduction in bureaucracy;
  • enhanced on-site co-ordination;
  • reduction in paperwork.

Problems with CDM

The respondents felt numerous problems as well with CDM. They stated that

  • Clients are uninformed about their duties;
  • No improvement in design and build ability;
  • No improvement in bureaucracy;
  • Misapprehension about the role of planning supervisor;
  • Increased paper work;
  • No reduction in accidents;
  • health and safety issues are not taken into account timely;
  • late induction of planning supervisor;
  • designers offer poor quality work;
  • co-ordinators are not competent people;
  • no cost benefits;
  • clients offer inappropriate information;
  • futile competence assessments;
  • no improvement in occupational ill health challenges;
  • disinterest of clients;
  • conflict between duty holders;
  • lack of awareness and training;

Recommendations to improve CDM

A number of recommendations were suggested by duty holders to improve CDM.


    • Knowledge and training for clients.

Regulate and restructure the proficiency evaluation system.

  • Promotion of early selection of CDM Co-ordinators
  • HSE should play its part to make organizations responsive to their duties.
  • Communication enhancement.
  • Assistance and sustenance for SMEs.


  • Shelter industry possession in the composition phase and make leadership simple.
  • Training of supervisor so as to better appreciate design process.
  • Create a composed safety.
  • Tackle the resources deficiency in HSE.
  • Offer assistance precisely to diverse categories of the project.
  • Principal contractor should be kept as core on site.
  • Explain information concerning health and safety in the form of a leaflet or brochure.
  • Make the role of designer and his proficiency level clear.
  • Feedback and improved communication.

CDM Co-ordinator

  • Recruitment period must be mentioned in the F10.
  • Principal designer and clients should put signature on the F10 to make them aware of their duties.
  • Education and training should be made compulsory for duty holders.
  • Avoid design work before the induction of CDM Co-ordinator.
  • HSE should offer practical guidance.
  • Health and safety course must be introduced in higher education.
  • CDM Co-ordinator should be assigned the duty to scrutinize site performance.

Principal Contractor

  • Make the Regulations simple.
  • Create an assessment scheme to evaluate competence.
  • Feedback is mandatory to observe the benefits of CDM implementation.
  • It should be imposed on clients to maintain their Health and Safety File.
  • Sub contractors should be accountable for the health and safety of their workers.
  • Train designers in Health and Safety and risk management.
  • Project group must work jointly to create and handle a collective risk record.


  • CDM should enhance its website to find out information on best performances.
  • CDM must be revealed publicly and encouraged to put up an understanding of commitments.
  • Through out project health and safety should be stressed.
  • Competence assessment system for designers should be set up.
  • Designers must improve their communication with clients and site.
  • Clients and designers should be more accountable.
  • Pre-start meetings system should be introduced.

Secondary Research

  1. CDM Impact Survey indicates that 54% respondents were uncertain about their colleague's awareness of CDM 2007 duties in their organizations and about 47% were doubtful about their competency. Majority of the participants called CDM 2007 a success but there was a minority of them who opined that still it needs enhancement. 59% respondents agreed with constructive appreciation, offered to CDM 2007 by their executives. 19% disagreed and 22% did not respond (CDM 2007, 2009).
  2. The study by CIOB shows very constructive findings. 69% respondents opined that health and safety measures are taken very gravely in their organizations. Over a quarter of respondents agreed that it is a serious matter but is not of a main concern in their companies.

About the healthy environment and safety provided by construction industry, 73% consider that both health and safety are vital but 26% judge safety as important.

60.9% respondents deem that on account of changes in CDM Regulations, health and safety has been enhanced during the previous years.

84.7% responded that depression and downfall has not changed the need of health and safety observance. 31.4% experience stress at work and 42.4% carry on their work with stress diagnosis. The reasons for stress given by respondents were loss of job, work pressure and management stress (CIOB, 2009).

36% respondents in a few organizations viewed that executives keenly support CDM 2007. Some organizations consider guidance and communication as important fields and 75% demanded the clarification of CDM 2007 policies and its implementation but again 72% observe an awareness and knowledge of CDM in their organizations. On the other hand, 25% disagreed about the clarity of CDM policies, 26% are not aware of their duties and 28% voted for no CDM culture.

62% respondents reported about being assisted to deliver CDM responsibilities. 67% reported that they are certain about the competence of their duty holder colleagues because they provide assistance. The survey advocates that majority of the organizations are performing better under CDM 2007 but a few one who are not confident are taking steps to effectively practise it (Demolition News, 2007).

Recommendations and Conclusion

The significant matter is that only competent people are safer people and regarding this organization must consider their limitations. It is ACoP that offers helpful guidelines about the question of competence.

Clarification and education are required. Designers must be lucid and certain about their duties that are handed over to them under CDM. It is recommended that if designers appreciated their duties evidently, they could concentrate on designing out risks sooner than directing towards the formation of risk assessments.

To improve the effective of CDM Regulations some steps should be taken like the training of clients, plan a competency assessment scale other than paperwork, promote early appointment of CDM Co-ordinators, improved communication among people involved in a project, ensure safety and health, handle lack of resources in HSE, provide information regarding health and safety file, clarify the role and competency of designer, mention appointment period in F10, compulsory education for duty holders, introduction to health and safety courses, keep the CDM Regulations simple and easy to comprehend, training in risk management, maintenance of health and safety file, stress on health and safety through out the project, publicize CDM Regulations, accountability and pre-meeting system should be introduced.

The purpose behind the CDM Regulations is laudable however they have undeniably produced professional complications, enlarged planning as well as building expenditure. Moreover, these are hard to pertain logically in a lot of actual state of affairs.


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