The most important ingredient in the making of a distinct European civilization was the political legacy of Rome philosopical legacy of Greece synthesizing power of Christianity traditions of the Germanic tribes 2 St.
Paul used the term ekklesia to refer to a parish church the Mediterranean-wide assembly of Jesus’ followers the office and officials of the Christian religion the building in which Christians worshipped. The Byzantine emperor Justinian is most famous for his reconquest of Italy conversion of the Slavic peoples contributions to Christian theology code of law. The value which Germanic tribes ascribed to the worth of individual members was known as the doom gentes comitatus wergeld The iconoclastic controversy had little impact beyond theology reconciled the pope and the patriarch settled the issue of church-state relations in Byzantium led to further separation between western Europe and Byzantium. Assimilation was the process of integrating the Christian church into the Roman state reconciling Christian theology with Classical philosophy first converting the kings and chiefs of pagans using the similarities between pagan and Christian customs to facilitate conversion According to Ambrose of Milan and Pope Gelasius I, a well-ordered Christian society depended upon the supremacy of the secular authority supremacy of ecclesiastic authority adoption of the Arian concept of the relationship between church and state mutual responsibility of the secular and religious authorities. The Arian heresy asserted the concept of the supremacy of the bishop of Rome that Christ’s nature lay between God and humanity that God and Christ were co-equals that the church was subordinate to the emperor The organizational structure of the early Christian church was based on the teachings of Paul of Tarsus boundaries between the various Germanic tribes administrative divisions of the Roman Empire reforms of St. Augustine of Hippo. All of the following factors influenced pagan rulers to convert to Christianity except the persuasion of a Christian wife the warrior-nature of many of the early Christian missionaries the possible acquisition of literate assistants its use as an ideological basis for their rule. Penitentials seemed to be most concerned with sexual trangressions crimes of property instilling the teachings of Jesus into the hearts of new Christians suppressing heretical views. The success of the Frankish kingdom was most likely the result of divine intervention the Franks’ alliance with the Byzantine Empire the acquisition of Roman Gaul, with its administrative machinery intact the diversion of Islamic invasions in Spain. The success of Constantinople at resisting attacks resulted from all of the following except the weakness of its enemies strong military leadership its fortifications its geographic location. Under the influence of Christian writers such as Tertullian and St. John Chrysostom, Christianity became a(n) egalitarian religion amalgamation of Jesus’ teachings and Greek philosophy misogynist, sex-negative religion a syncretic religion, incorporating pagan rituals nd beliefs. In The City of God, St. Augustine stated that the church was free from sin tainted priests could not administer the sacraments secular states were unnecessary history is the account of God acting in time. In The Confessions, St. Augustine of Hippo suggested that Christianity should adopt the Donatist view of priesthood secular states were unnecessary Greeks and Romans had nothing to offer Christians humans have an innate tendency to sin The monasteries of the Byzantine East provided important social services were often in conflict with the state adopted the Bendictine rule had little impact on the Greek church. The separation between Germanic West and Byzantine East resulted from all of the following factors except religions tensions between East and West differences in the way in which both Christianity and Classical culture were received expansion of the Arabs into the Mediterranean Byzantine refusal to defend the eastern frontier of Europe. Penitentials were the prayers required of sinners Celtic monks who Christianized Scotland manuals that guided the assignment of penance days on which sinners were supposed to fast. The success of The Rule of Saint Benedict was the result of its emphasis on spirituality allegiance to the bishop of Rome moderation and adaptability rejection of Classical ideals. Military units composed of and led by free barbarians were called laeti foederati gentes comitati. According to the account of Gregory of Tours, in “Listening to the Past,” Clovis converted to Christianity in order to win a battle to ensure his eternal salvation because his wife was a Christian because his people demanded it. In early Germanic villages, a man’s wealth and social status were based on his relationship with the king the amount of land he owned how many wives he had the number of cattle he possessed. The basic Germanic social unit was the comitatus folk clan village. The Salic Law of the Franks indicates that German law was concerned primarily with abstract concepts of justice the relationship between Germans and Romans avoiding or reducing violence protecting landed property. In general, Germanic law codes reveal that German society viewed woman as relatively equal to men completely valueless revered and even dominant family property The “Justinian plague” severely weakened the military resources of Byzantium decimated the Muslim armies attacking Byzantium refers to the oppressive nature of Justinian’s Code was the term Italians used to describe Justianian’s attempt to reunify the Roman Empire. The historic role of Byzantium included all of the following except as a protective buffer against invasions from the East preserving Classical political and philosophical texts as a contributor to new scientific and mathematical discoveries preserving the scientific texts of the Classical world The biography of Justinian’s wife Theodora featured in “Individuals in Society,” is an example of the feeble nature of imperial rule in Constantinople a talented individual rising from humble origins to a position of authority the relationship between church and state, known as caesaropapism the decline of religious belief in Byzantium. The foreign attacks on the Byzantine Empire from 560 to 718 produced all of the following except increased popular piety recruitment of mercenary armies imperial reorganization enhanced cultural unity 1 In the Byzantine East, apologists for Christianity insisted on harmony between Christian and classical cultures harmony between the Eastern and Western churches the primacy of the patriarch of Constantinople over the Roman pope the primacy of the patriarch over the emperor. Byzantine science made great strides in astronomy disproved the Hipprocractic theory of bodily humors concentrated on agricultural and industrial applications excelled at military applications 3 In tenth-century Byzantium, commerce and businessmen were respected political stability was the norm rural ideals permeated society monasteries had little influence. Upper-class women in Byzantium were segregated from the outside world enjoyed considerable freedom of movement received an education equal to most men enjoyed equal status with men.
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