Abdel-Hameed M. Bashir, 2003, Determinants Of Profitability in Islamic Banks : Some Evidence from the Middle East, Islamic Economic Studies, vol. 11, No. 1. Author’s article study the determinants of profitability in Islamic banks across eight Middle East countries between 1993 and 1998. The author attempts to examine the relationship between the performance of Islamic banks and the internal and external banking characteristics. The performance of bank is measured by using the operating efficiency and profitability measures. The author also used several ratios to access the relationship between performance and internal bank characteristics. In order to separate the effects of bank characteristics on performance, the author has addressed the four variables of external characteristics that is necessary to control which are the macroeconomic environment, the financial market structure, the regulation indicators, and country (dummy) variables. The author’s analysis found that a higher profit margins results from a larger equity to total asset ratio and larger loan to asset ratio interacted with GDP.
Abdus Samad & M. Kabir Hassan, 2009, The Performance of Malaysian Islamic Bank During 1984-1997 1997: An Exploratory Study, International Journal of Islamic Financial Services, Feb 2009, vol. 1, No.3
This article is an exploratory study on performance of Malaysian Islamic bank where the author evaluates the Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad (BIMB) performance in term of risk and solvency, community involvement, liquidity and profitability during 1984-1997. The author used financial ratios as the method to evaluate bank’s performance and also do the comparison of the performance of Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad (BIMB) between two periods that are 1984-1989 and 1990-1997. Not only have that, the author also made comparison between Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad (BIMB) versus other conventional banks. As the result, Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad (BIMB) relatively less risky and more liquid compared to other conventional banks.
Anjum Siddiqui, 2008, Financial Contracts, Risk and Performance of Islamic Banking, Managerial Finance, vol. 34, No. 10 pp. 680-694
This article is discussing about the financial contracts, risk and performance of the Islamic Banks in terms of their contracts and risks. This article examines the risks occurred and the various modes of Islamic Banking. The author has stated that Islamic Banks are prohibited from acquiring any three elements into their transactions which are interest (Riba), uncertainty (Gharar), and gambling (Maysir). Since now, the Islamic Windows are very popular, there is an uncertainty whether the conventional banks with Islamic Windows products are receiving or paying any three elements stated above. There are several financial contracts which stated by the author, which are cost plus sales (Murabaha), credit sales (bay ”bithaman ajil”), leasing (Ijarah), partnerships (Mudarabah and Musharakah), forward contracts (Salam and Istisna), and also Qardul Hasan (benevolent loan). Along with these financial contracts, there are several risks which the bank should bear. Some of the risks are credit risk, liquidity risk, withdrawal risk, legal risk, operational risk and also the fiduciary risk. One of the risks which is commonly bear by the Islamic Bank is credit risk which means the risk is arise due to the asymmetric information.
Mahmood H. Al-Osaimy & Ahmed S. Bamakhramah, 2004, An Early Warning System for Islamic Banks Performance, Islamic Econ., vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 3-14
This article is about the warning system for Islamic banks performance where the author explored the increasing demand for predicting the performance of Islamic banks due to the vital importance of any problem that may face these banks before it materializes and negatively affects their performance and their financial status. The article comprehensively analyzes the save on the costs of bad performance or failure to depositors, owners and the economy. The rationale for an early warning system comes from several reasons. However, this article tries to find out at benefiting from the previous research efforts on the subject to develop a preliminary model for the prediction of the performance level of Islamic banks (i.e. an early warning system), hoping for further development and improvisation and application. The author also does the research or study on Discriminate analysis and scores are then extracted and used to differentiation between the higher and lower performance groups of banks, then forming a possible early warning system for the prediction of future performance of the observed banks. Lastly it was tested and conclusions were made.
Racha Ghayad, 2008, Corporate Governance and the Global Performance of Islamic Banks, Humanomics, vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 207-216
In this article, the author attempts to study the corporate governance and the global performance of Islamic banks. The author found that the elements that affect the performance of Islamic banks are the internal variables of quantitative nature and the internal qualitative variables. The author also revealed that the previous Shari’a board members have lack of knowledge in modern banking, experience, and banking language. In order to ensure a better quality of supervision and consultation, they need a qualification in finance and commerce. Besides that, the author has addressed two roles of Shari’a board in the operation of Islamic banks which are legal and tacit role. These roles are essential in order to ensure that the Islamic banks are in compliance with the Shari’a rules and principle in their operation.
Salina H. Kassim & M. Shabri Abd. Majid, 2010, Impact of financial shocks on Islamic banks : Malaysian evidence during 1997 and 2007 financial crises, International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 3 No. 4, pp. 291-305
From the article above, the author is discussing on the ability of the Islamic banks facing the financial crisis, namely the 1997 Asian financial crisis and 2007 financial crisis. The study is to look whether the Islamic banks is more resilient compared to the conventional banks. This is due to the instinctive nature which all of the financial transactions must be based on the trade and also asset linked. This is also because of the Islamic banks practices which emphasize on the trade based arrangements and prohibits the involvement of the interest based transactions. From the quotation of other journal stated in this article, there is proof that Islamic banks are more liquid than the conventional banks and thus less exposed to the liquidity risk. The author use two methodologies to test the Islamic banks and deposit’s financing. There are impulse responds functions and variance decomposition analysis. The result shows that Islamic financing respond significantly to the crisis.
Sudin Harun, 1996, The Effects of Management Policy on the Performance of Islamic Banks, Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 1996, Vol. 13, No. 2
In this article, the author attempt to examine the effects of management policy on the performance of Islamic banks. Author used three variables included investment, savings and current accounts to indicate the effects of management policy on profitability. The author also found an opposite relation between fund-use management and profitability ratios. Other than that, the author also found the percentage of income from financing activities towards profit-sharing ratio measures between Islamic banks and the users of fund. For the profit-sharing ratio between banks and depositors, it seem give benefits to both parties.
Turen S., 1996, Performance and Risk Analysis of the Islamic Bank: The Case of Bahrain Islamic Bank, Islamic Econ., vol. 8, pp. 3-14
In this article, the author uses the analysis from Bahrain Islamic banks. The purpose of this paper is to investigate quantitatively and also at micro level the claim that Islamic banking offers high performance and stability and to evaluate the risk-return characteristics of the Islamic banks, Bahrain Islamic Bank (BIB) has been taken as an example. The research is conducted through three different methods that is financial ratio analysis and stock analysis both indicate that BIB offers a higher return and a lower coefficient of variation than the other commercial banks. Portfolio analysis too, shows that BIB’s stock is the best for the purpose of portfolio diversification. The results of the investigation can be used as a partial but quantitative explanation to the arguments whether the profit sharing concept of Islamic banking can achieve a higher profitability and lower risk than conventional commercial banks.
SUMMARY OF JOURNAL ARTICLES ON THE RESEARCH TOPIC
From the literature review above of the title of The Performance of the Islamic Banks in Malaysia, we had found that there are many determinants of the Islamic banks to be efficient in various ways. From the topic above, we can clarify that Islamic banks also has to perform better to compete with the conventional banks. Most of the articles summarized are discussing on the performance if Islamic banks itself and its efficiency. We believe that the summary is important to the research topic when it will be conducted.
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