Besides, environment education is one of the most effective ways in combat with the existing water pollution problems. According to Karata A. and Karata E.(2015), environmental education is the process of recognizing values and clarifying concepts in developing one’s attitudes to comprehend his or her interrelatedness between human beings and biophysical circumstances, that is, aim to developing the human in the world to be alert and pay attention to the environmental issues and which can work systematically to solve the existing problems and provide precautions to the predicted one by having knowledges, skills, attitudes, motivation and commitment. It is important to educate the people about the impacts if the water on earth is being polluted and there will be a serious issue when the rate of purification activities such as raining process is exceeded by the rate of pollution of the water.
A research carried in Rasht City of Guilan Province by Noorhosseini, Allahyari, Damalas and Moghaddam (2017) showed that overall, 62.7% of the residents had moderate, 20% had high, and 4% had very high environmental awareness which means that the available environmental education is insufficient for the world citizens. Thus, it is essential for the group to participate in the environmental education to instil the civilian of the understanding about the water pollution to create a barrier for the clean water sources from being polluted in every country.
The groups should contribute the relevant information in biology, chemistry, geology and hydrology for the individuals and groups to better analyze the pollution by critical thinking. For examples, the students in university is going to take the subjects pertinent with the environment conservation such as wastewater treatment and recycling methods, the farmers have to possess a good attitude in fertilizing biologically as excessive use of chemical fertilizer may cause negative consequences (Karatas A. and Karatas E.,2015). Parents have to know about the jeopardies of excessive consumption and children will follow their parent’s lead to reduce the family consumption of water. Moreover, instructional slideshows, films, presentations, and posters that emphasize the important of conversation of environment ought to be use.
These meaningful educations are focusing to help people develop knowledge and ability to overcome water pollution. In this sense, awareness and vigilance should be targeted for every people no matter old or young with environment education. At this point, local governments have the duty and responsibility for the preservation of water pollution as they are the primary organizations. All the other level of education organizations, NGOs, private and public institutions should work together to build a social neighborhood with strong environmental alertness to reduce the water pollution level. Precaution and conscious provide our future assurance and the perseverance of human being (Karatas A. and Karatas E.,2015).
Beside from water pollution, critical solution can also be developed for other types of environment issues with environmental education as the environmental education purpose to bring the people’s attitudes towards the environment to a positive direction. So, this will rise people’s alertness and environmental amicably people able to produce radical solution to overcome any kind of environmental problems. Here, environmental education is extremely important for water pollution as it helps people to apply good attitudes when dealing with the issues. Critical thinking, effective determination and decision-making skill can be enhanced by such educations. Hence, to reduce the water pollution level in Earth, environmental education will always be the primarily method as it can provides long-term solutions.
In water, there are many different kinds of chemical substances are considered as pollutants including inorganic ions and complex organic molecules hence these pollutants can be categorised into various classes and each class of these pollutant has its own particular hazards (Sharma, Gulati, Puri,2014). In organic water pollutants, crude oil and various petroleum products may cause severe harmful effect to the aquatic life. There are also chlorinated solvents which are quite persistent and toxic that cannot be seen by naked eye and other organic solvents like ethanol, methyl ketone and acetone that are mostly produce by commercial industries every day. In addition, food processing by-product including fats and grease can pollute the water too.
Large amount of chemical usage including pesticides, insecticides and herbicides in agricultural activities are typically an example of pollutants in water. Whereas the inorganic pollutants are metal and inorganic fertilizers. The metal and their compounds increase health hazards as the organometallic compounds poisoning the water and the health risk is higher. Some of the inorganic pollutants are not poisonous but are still a menace if they are used excessively such as nitrates and phosphates will cause the bloom of algae in surface water which decrease the oxygen level in the water and eventually the aquatic creatures are unable to live on. This phenomenon is termed as eutrophication.
The traditional technologies for water treatment including coagulation-flocculation, filtration and disinfection which deal with the influent water source consist of just naturally existing biological and chemical substances. However, increasing of difficulty in treatment of drinking water in recent years is due to the consequences of urbanization and industrialization which cause the discharge of various kind of toxic chemicals into natural water source. The existence of disinfection-resistant pathogens is a threat in the water treatment since disinfection is the last line of protection in water treatment.
Especially in urbanized nation, it is imperative to improve the technologies for the water treatment plants to hold the requirement for the elimination of complex chemical compound, preserve the drinking water resources from being attack by the pathogen agents. Green chemistry solutions provide the prevention of water pollution in a technically sound and cost-effective way in advance research and development and accomplishment of innovative water treatment technologies (Sharma, Gulati, Puri,2014). The green methodologies tend to process efficiency and consistency, better investment and operation cost savings and less rely on chemicals that results in a environment friendly water treatment.
These improvements will give better quality of treated water and a high degree of persistency by recycling and reuse of the chemicals, waste minimization and less use of energy. Coagulation is one of the process in water treatment that destabilize and aggregate the smaller particles into larger complex compounds. Water waste like colloids, heavy metal and ions are held by electrical charges can be destabilized and aggregated to be separated from the wastewater. Coagulation can be achieved by chemically and electrically. Electrocoagulation introduces an electrical current into an aqueous solution basically with an aluminium and iron anode.
Aluminium is generally the best material in electrocoagulation as it provides trivalent cations and mostly usable in any types of wastewater treatment applications. According to a experiment carried out by Lech, Teresa, Boguslaw, and Marta (2012), electrocoagulation is able to seize more than 99% of various heavy metal cations and capable for microorganism removal from the water. Electrocoagulation provides many advantages such as no addition of coagulation chemicals, low cost in operation compared with traditional water treatment system, much less of sludge production and easy to maintain. Thus, it presents a environment friendly and effectively way for sustainable water reuse.
Traditional coagulation involves the use of chemical coagulant like aluminium and iron salt may produce large volume of sludge with high bound water content which can be hard to be removed and separated. In addition, they are limited to eliminate turbidity and only a portion of natural organic matters (NOM). In this case, enhanced coagulation method is introduced in recent years to remove the disinfection by products that come from the natural organic matter and also eliminates inorganics, small particles and colour causing compounds. In water treatment plant, chemical coagulants is the main arm in removing organic substances and improving the effectiveness of this enhanced coagulation.
Generally, it is an optimized coagulation process with long-practiced techniques to deal with the NOM removal. Several studies and research have been conducted on the low basicity, highly charged polymeric aluminium and ferric salts like polymeric sulphate and polyaluminoferric sulphate.
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