All about Human Brain (structure)

Brain and Learning

A human brain plays a big role in the learning process (Roland & Seitz, 1989). During the learning process, human brain acquires information using various senses of an individual before the information obtained is sent to the short-term memory by the synapses. After the information has been processed in the working memory, it is directed towards the brain’s core where it is compared with already existing data: The things individuals know or have experienced and then stored in the long-term memory. An adult brain consists of billions of neurons (nerve cells), supportive tissue (neuroglia), blood-carrying tissues (vascular) among other tissues. It is responsible for intellectual learning. The brain can be divided into 3 areas, the hindbrain, midbrain and forebrain.

Hindbrain

This part of the brain consists of various structures including the medulla, pons and the cerebellum. Medulla is made up of several nerve fibers that manage automatic body functions such as breathing (respiration). Injury to the medulla affects important body functions and can lead to death. Pons are like links and facilitate breathing sleeping, body movements such as running and dreaming. The cerebellum is found at the base of the brain after medulla and pons. It is responsible for the coordination of muscles enable smooth movement and balance (promotes physical balance and maintains equilibrium).

Midbrain

Midbrain is the section of the brain that has neural stations (or centers) directs eyes and body movements towards visual and auditory stimuli. This part of the brain collaborates with the pons to manage sleep and arousal. Reticular formation comprises a group of neurons that connect hindbrain, midbrain, and brainstem. Damage or absence of this formation leads to unconsciousness and mental inactiveness.

Forebrain

This is the biggest section of the human brain and it is made up of the thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system and cerebral cortex (Glanzman, 2008). Thalamus conveys sensory information to cerebral cortex.it is in charge of harmonizing information, learning, and memory. Hypothalamus is located below the thalamus and it is responsible for emotions as it affects the pituitary gland. It has neural links that enable release of hormones into the bloodstream of the pituitary. The limbic system is found close to the brainstem and it is in charge of emotional responses in individuals. It is found in between cerebrum and brainstem allowing an exchange of emotion and reason. It is located on the edge of the cerebral cortex and lower brain tissues. It consists of structures like fornix, hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus, and septum. The fornix is a triangle like structure located between hippocampus and hypothalamus. Hippocampus integrates learning and changes information from working memory using electrical signals to long term memory. Damage to hippocampus could lead to individuals remembering things that occurred before an operation and not after the operation. This means that such individuals when they come across an article or material that they already read, they tend to believe they are coming across it for the first time: Everything they now indulge in is for the first time. Amygdala is found at the lower end of the hippocampus. It triggers temper, fear or pleasure (Ledesma, Pinales, Garcia, & Elizalde, 2011). Individuals have the tendency to recall an experience (emotional occurrence) and through the amygdala, they are able to experience the same emotions all over again. Amygdala is related to fear and rage and is in charge of visual learning and memory (Kourtzi, 2009). Scholars in cognitive science point out that emotions are important when comes to cognitive learning. The cerebral cortex is a slim layer that manages complicated behaviors like experiencing (receiving) sensations, motor management (control) and higher cognitive processes. It is a section of the brain that makes sense of what individuals read (understand) and think or go over the information. Most brain neurons are found in the cerebral cortex. This can be attributed to its responsibility pertaining to higher cognitive or mental processes including communication (language) and thoughts. Under the cortex, there are 2 hemispheres (cerebral hemispheres). These hemispheres split into 8 different lobes (areas) with 4 lobes being on the left side and the other 4 on the right. Frontal lobes are found at the front part of the hemispheres and are in charge of motor control, speech synthesis and higher mental functions including thinking, memory, and feelings (emotions). Broca’s area found on the left side of the frontal lobe is responsible for speech production. Patients suffering from Broca’s aphasia (no-fluent aphasia) find it difficult in communicating or speaking fluently (Conklyn, Novak, Boissy, Bethoux, & Chemali, 2012). However, their comprehension may be maintained (relatively). The parietal lobe is found behind frontal lobes. Parietal lobes are in charge of clarifying body sensations like pain, temperature, touch, and location of body parts. When individuals come in hot or increased temperatures or any sought of pain, or coldness of a pen, the signal or message is sent to the to this part of the brain: parietal lobes for interpretation. Temporal lobes are found just above human ears. They are in charge of hearing, comprehension, memory and some extent of emotional management. Wernicke’s area is found in the left lobe and is in control of language comprehension. If individual’s left lobe is destroyed, an individual will have challenges when it comes to understanding material or information read or heard (Wernicke’s aphasia). However, an individual can speak without any difficulty (Nakai, et al., 2017). It is important to note that Broca’s area found in the left frontal lobe is in charge of speech synthesis while Wernicke’s area found in left temporal lobe is in control of language comprehension. Occipital lobes are found at the lower back of the brain. They take part in visual perception like color, shape, movements and so on: They are in charge of vision. Any harm to this area could lead to blindness.

Conclusion

The brain works or performs various function or tasks at any given time. Thoughts, emotions, vulnerabilities and on occur simultaneously (Caine, Caine, Mcclintic, & Klimek, 2016). These processes interact with other processes like health preservation and widening of one’s knowledge. Learning and teaching should arrange and take advantage of various processes. Best techniques are to be used to achieve this.

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