Administration of Justice, National Security, Terrorism, & Protection of Classified Information

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Topic 1: The reduction of civilian casualties in War on Terror in Afghanistan

For the War on Terror to be successful in Afghanistan, all parties that play a major role in crushing the Taliban insurgency need to acknowledge that they have to win the hearts and minds of the local population. The soldiers, sailors, marines that were actively pursuing these terrorists first got training in the application of ‘discriminate violence’ to ensure that the civilian population caught in the ensuing crossfire is at a minimal. Their operations would soon reveal that confronting this irregular adversary that hide among the civilian population would often result in collateral damage. The deaths of innocent Aghanisis spark outrage among the locals while the insurgents capitalize on these killings to gain traction. Winning this war requires efforts focusing on reducing these deaths, a strategy that will encourage that local populace to partner with the security agencies while gradually distancing themselves from the extremists.

Objective

To incorporate available strategies and a framework that will allow the security forces on the ground to international police terrorism while reducing the number of civilian casualties. The procedures will include the cooperation of the citizens, government apparatus and foreign contingents in the area without undermining their constitutional, normative or legal rights.

Operational Definitions

Civilian casualties- occurs when civilians die or are maimed by non-civilians by military personnel, law enforcement officers, criminals or terrorists. According to the law of war, these are people who perish as a result of wartime acts.

Problem Statement

How can all the parties involved in fighting terrorism in Afghanistan reduce the number of civilian casualties while still carrying out their mandate?

Hypotheses

Bridging the gap between the law enforcement agencies and civilians is necessary if they are to receive reliable information that will see the operations bear fruit while reducing collateral damage.

Research Philosophy

Making use of all available reference sources and carrying out expert interviews.

Research Approach

The research study will emphasize on developing strategies that will be instrumental in ensuring that there is a reduction in civilian casualties

Research Strategy

A case study approach combined with a qualitative method of research.

Time Horizon

Because the research is longitudinal, the study will examine available resources versus future needs.

Data Collection Methods

Since the researcher in question works in Afghanistan as a security specialist and has direct access to the populace, the most convenient method of data collection will be the use of a questionnaire.

                                                      Potential Impact of social change

The general expectation of the social consequences that this study will have is a change in attitude when dealing with the locals and in turn valuing every single member. An attitude change will also foster good relations between the parties in question thus contributing in fighting terrorism.

Topic 2: Determining the real enemies of peace in a country where old rivalries

The war against the Taliban and terrorism in Afghanistan has over the year been a mix up of traditional rivalries that were already in existence before the US led invasion to place. Traditional rivalries amongst the tribal elders and their supporters create a downward spiral that has made it a daunting task trying to restore law and order. The nation consists of what many security experts like to term as a ‘shifting mosaic” of tribal leaders and the many factions with rivalries, a situation that makes pointing out the real enemies of peace and stability hard to say. If one faction had an enemy around the same area as the Coalition Forces, they would easily inform on them by labeling them as “Taliban.” In most occasions, innocent villagers would become the victims of these rivalries that would leave many died during their wake. In essence, bad intelligence was to blame, but one was to look at the bigger picture, it was the old rivalries that are the real culprits that seen to perpetuate a cycle of unending violence.

Study Objective

To implement strategies that will ensure that the information which enforcers of law and order receive can go through a verification process. Such a framework will ensure that old rivalries do not come into play during the search for the real terrorists.

Operational Definitions

Tribal rivalries- The state of antagonism that exists between two or more tribes that see them continue with a situation of opposition towards each other. In the most occasions, jealousy and competition fuel it to greater proportions that lead to direct conflict.

Problem Statement

How can the Afghanistan maintain its National Security agenda by ensuring that they go after the real enemy of stability and not the victims of old rivalries?

Hypotheses

Understanding the old rivalries that exist in this land and considering them while seeking the actual terrorist. Personnel in charge of these operations will thus have a better understanding of the social landscape giving them an opportunity to avoid acting arbitrarily.

Research Philosophy

Making use of all available reference sources and carrying out expert interviews.

Research Approach

The research will focus on developing beneficial strategies that will be instrumental in ensuring that there is a reduction in civilian casualties

Research Strategy

A case study approach combined with a qualitative method of research.

Time Horizon

Because the research is longitudinal, the study will examine available resources versus future needs.

Data Collection Methods

Since the researcher in question works in Afghanistan as a security specialist and has direct access to the populace, the most convenient method of data collection will be the use of a questionnaire.

Potential Impact of social change

Understanding the traditional rivalries that exist between factions will ensure that proper research occurs before pointing out the real insurgents. As a result, these efforts will go a long way in ending inter-ethnic strife while promoting efforts towards nation building.

Topic 3: Corruption in Afghanistan and how it affects counter-insurgency efforts

The Afghan society has for a long time been the victim of an existential problem, corruption. Within this society, all the major debacles that the government faces including the Taliban insurgency, all have ties to crime. Presently, corruption takes the form of offering or demanding a bribe in public and private sectors throughout the country. Police officers have been known to extort money from local shopkeepers, levy taxes during routine stops and colluding with criminals, which in most cases include the insurgents they ought to be fighting.

Study Objective

To institute a practical framework that will see the administration in Afghanistan take corruption head-on to aid in the greater goal of suppressing the insurgency in the and the residual effects it might have had on the greater Afghan population.

Operational Definitions

Corruption- Refers to dishonest behavior by those in positions of power.

Bribery- asking for gifts or money in exchange for favors and special treatment.

Problem Statement

How does corruption in Afghanistan affect the country’s counterinsurgency efforts?

Research Philosophy

Making use of all available reference sources and carrying out expert interviews.

Research Approach

The research will focus on developing strategies that will be instrumental in ensuring that there is a reduction in civilian casualties

Research Strategy

A case study approach combined with a qualitative method of research.

Time Horizon

Because the research is longitudinal, the study will examine available resources versus future needs.

Data Collection Methods

Since the researcher in question works in Afghanistan as a security specialist and has direct access to the populace, the most convenient method of data collection will be the use of a questionnaire.

                                                       Potential Impact of social change

The general expectation of the social implications that this study will have is a behavior change from the normalization of corruption while bringing people to the realization that it is detrimental to any development efforts.

Topic 4: Bad Governance in Afghanistan and the role it plays

Afghanistan, post-2002 has been a country wrought with weak state institutions that are unable to function as per international standards. The situation is due to the unwillingness of these agencies to implement government policies and enforce laws, which leaves the country at the mercies of its internal enemies. Additionally, the country has power brokers who are either official or unofficial that often issue exceptions from the law and law enforcement agencies to their vast network of friends for them to reap economic benefits. The national government also foments feelings of alienation among the ordinary Afghanis that often leads to semi-clandestine militias and the Taliban resurfacing.

Study Objective

To implement a framework that will aid the Afghan people to fight terrorism by first dealing with issues of bad governance that provides fertile ground for terrorist groups such as the Taliban to thrive.

Operational Definitions

Governance- the action of enforcing norms, laws or policies over a territory that is under one’s jurisdiction.

Problem Statement

How does bad governance in the greater Afghanistan region promote to the security issue that it faces?