The Iran-Iraq war, also known as the Gulf War lasting from 1980 until 1988 caused a lot of devastation for all countries involved. There were over 500,000 causalities combined. It was the beginning of chemical weapons being used in the middle east. This war embraced western intervention and encouraged foreign policy change.
The conflict began when Iraq was greedy for more oil, and wanted to take over the oil industry in the middle east. Iraq wanted to conquer more territory in order to have easier access to the gulf. Therefore, they decided to attempt to neutralize Iran, their neighbor. Iraqs president at this time was Sadaam hussein . He lacked military experience, he did not use strong sustainable military tactics, executed many generals, and over estimated the power and strength of his army. Iraq invaded Iran in seven different areas, all areas strategically decided. The tacts that Iraq used were successful in smaller areas, but proved to be not as successful in large citifies. Iraq invaded Iran with a five to one military power ratio and used very advanced weapons at first. After just 48 hours, Iran began to fight back.
This attack was shortly after the Iranian revolution. This is one reason that Iraq decided to attack Iran. Unfortunately for Iraq, Iran was stronger than ever after the revolution, and people came together to fight against their countrys enemy. Iran used local civilian resistance at first, and did not rely on advanced weaponry. Iranians began a self sacrifice war. Citizens of all ages joined the military, and although they lacked training, their love for the country proved to be enough. Irans president was Hewhemi Rafsajani. This man was recruited from the military and had gained a lot of respect during and after the revolution. Rafsanjani could n to only simplify complex military tactics, but he was also thought to be a genius.
In 1985, the war of cities began. The war of cities consisted on both Iran and Iraq firing missiles into each others population, and on August 12, 1986, Iraq bombed Irans oil-loading facilities.
After only a short period of time Iraq realized that Iran was begging to win. In order for Iraq to retain its pride it voluntarily backed out of the territories it had conquered on January 6, 1987. This was not carried through, and Iraqs president was proven guilty for the same thing that he executed many generals for. Fake claims and lies. After this, the war only got more bloody. Iraq became desperate and started using chemical weapons. This was not only a shock to Iran, but also to the rest of the entire World. No-one could comprehend the amount of devastation these weapons could bring, and were scared of the future with them. The chemicals that were used in this deadly attack were soon after found to be made in Iraq, being overseen by the president himself. These chemical weapons were extremely deadly, the most devastating was the skull missile that was brought from Russia, this one devastated over 350 miles after being fired, along with over 5,000 people in some instances from a singular bombing. Many people all over the World were shocked at the use of these deadly weapons. Iraq not only used them against their enemies ruthlessly, but these weapons also killed Iraqs own people in the process. This war began affecting civilians areas and land almost more than just warfare areas. Civilians fled from all over to find safe places for their families. Thousands of civilians on both sides were killed and injured.
Towards the middle of the war is when Kurdistan got involved. Kurdistan is a place in Northern Iran. Iran supplied the Kurdish with supplies to fight against Iraq, also their long time enemy. Iran used the Guerrilla groups to fight against Iraq, and this was very impactful for Iran against Iraq . The war in the North against the Kurds was solely about Oil for Iraq. Iraq wanted complete control of the industry, and to take over any competitors. The United States got involved as soon as they saw the industry being put in jeopardy. Not only does the United States rely heavily on the Middle Eastern Oil Industry, but so does Russia. Both the United States and the Soviet Union have strong militaries and a reason to step in to the War. Ronald Reagan, the United States President at the time announced action to protect the oil shipping through the gulf. The United States did not want the soviets to have control of the Oil Industry, and therefore stepped in to help Iraq. The United States renamed and rebranded the Kuratt ships. This signaled to Iran that their previous advantage in the war was soon to be over.
The Americans made effort to sink Iranian ships, and the war soon began to be solely in the Gulf. A mass casualty occurred when Iran accidentally fired a missile at a passenger jet carrying over 290 civilians. There were no survivors. Sadam Hussein announced victory to his people using over 100 billion dollars in weaponry and parading it through streets. On July 20th, 2988, the UN Security Council unanimously voted for a cease-fire, known as Resolution 598. After nearly two years of continuing conflicts, on August 15, Hussein offered a peace settlement to Iran. This ended the devastation that had lasted eight years.
In conclusion, long lasting war between many different powerful countries did not end with victory, but with loss. With civilian and military deaths on all sides involved, all countries were left worse off than they were before the fighting began. The world was shocked not only from the use of chemical weapons and mass casualties, but also from the amount of carelessness and lack of respect for human life. At the end of the war, the United States prepared for the unknown unexpected, and for the dreaded continuation of the gulf war.
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