How is “good” determined: By what is best for the greatest number of people and by those consequences.
Most Noted Philosopher (s): Jeremy Bentham & Stuart Mill
Major Strengths: Encouraging all human welfare and the end-justifies-the-means.
Major Weaknesses: Finding all the consequences for all in society is complex. When do the end-justifies-the-means for all in society?
How is “good” determined: By Self-interest and what will serve that person and solely that person.
Most Noted Philosopher (s): Epicurus
Major Strengths: Every person ought to carry out in self-interest no matter what the outcome. Encourages individual freedom and responsibility for their actions.
Major Weaknesses: Contradictory to one’s own self-interest when related too all in society. Cannot show a consistent method of dealing with conflicts with others.
Ethics of Care
How is “good” determined: The theory that caring for others and sensitivity to others is important for a moral life.
Most Noted Philosopher (s): Carol Gilligan
Major Strengths: One should carry out with caring and compassion in all actions. A person should constantly consider others and the consequences of their actions towards them early.
Major Weaknesses: May lead others to look at gender as a system to the guide as too who is best and not perfect equality of gender. May only change one incomplete theory with another incomplete theory.
How is “good” determined: Look at what’s good no matter what the consequences are to be positive/negative.
Most Noted Philosopher (s): Immanuel Kant
Major Strengths: Must be logical and not self-contradictory. Must still be effective to create a universal rule for all in society.
Major Weaknesses: Works not to define away exceptions in every situation when competing obligations begin. Establishing what one can create a comprehensive rule for without exceptions.
Prima facie Duties
How is “good” determined: It is a person’s moral obligation to perform various duties in society and they must serve those duties.
Most Noted Philosopher (s): Sir William David Ross
Major Strengths: Determine the act with the highest duties too societal duties. Do the act which has the highest degree for right over wrong.
Major Weaknesses: Difficulty in figuring out what is always the most significant social duty. When does one duty outweigh another duty?
Divine Command Theory
How is “good” determined: Moral principles set down by a higher power or God/Goddess stating what is appropriate/unacceptable.
Most Noted Philosopher (s): St Augustine
Major Strengths: An all-powerful and all-knowing being/beings have set rules/commandments for a man to serve in any situation. By observing those rules/commandments they will have rewards in another life.
Major Weaknesses: Difficulty showing proof there is a supernatural world. Inability to prove those higher powers will reward someone.
How is “good” determined: By a human being’s own character as a person.
Most Noted Philosopher (s): Aristotle and Confucius
Major Strengths: An exceptional character will require you to serve honorable accomplishments in life. By doing noble actions one will strive to be an honorable person with a full or accomplished life.
Major Weaknesses: Seeking to verify if an individual does have a goal or purpose to exist. Convincing or not if humans are created with morals implanted or are, they picked up from events in development.
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