In sole proprietorships, the business is owned by a single owner. In partnerships, business is owned and run by more than one owner. In a limited liability company, partners own the company but have limited liability. Apart from these three firms, the corporation is a legal entity, separate from the owners, and is solely responsible for the it’s own obligations but not the employees or the customers whereas in the other three organizational forms, owners are not different from the business and for any other obligations, they themselves are responsible. Ch. 1 – 1P
Limited Liability Companies: A limited liability company is the form of corporate structure which has the element of partnership with limited liability. Limitited liability to the owners to the extent of their share in the business, if anything happens which is not expected then the owners liability will not pass to their own assets. The limited liability company is a limited partnership without general partner. The members have limited liability, but the business can run by them as managing members. It is a business organization that has some of the apects of a corporation with those of a sole proprietorship. The meaning of Limited Liability in a corporate context is that the liability faced by the owners is limited. That means, in a limited liability partnership, the firm could not have a right to use the owner’s personal property to pay off outstanding debts. The owners have limited liablility based on their investment and the maximum liability owners have is their investment in the company.
Ch1.2 – 3CC A corporation gathers its preliminary funds by selling its stocks. The owners who aquire these shares are called the shareholders or equity holders. In the porecess of expansion or acquisitions, a corporation often borrows funds from outsiders. In such cases, the debtors become the investors in the firm. However, the ownership of the corporation rests with the equity holders. In case of its inability to pay back the funds to its debtors, a firm may file for bankruptcy. Bankruptcy does not necessarily bring about a closure to the existing businesses of a corporation. It reflects the inability of the firm to satisfy the claims of the people from whom the funds were borrowed. Upon being declared as bankrupt, the ownership and control of the corporation passes on from the equity holders to the debt holders who become the decision makers of its future course of action.
Four basic financial statement: 1. Balance Sheet. 2. Income statement. 3. Satement of retained earnings. 4. Statement of cash flows. Praimary purpose of preparinf the basic financial statement: 1. Balance Sheet: It shows the financial health of an entity. The praimary purpose of preparing Balance Sheet is to report the financial position of an entity at the end of a particular period. It includes the assets, liability, and equity of the company. 2.Income statement: The praimary purpose of income statement is to report the net income or the net loss of the entity. The net income or net loss is calculated by matching the expenses with the revenue. 3. Statement of retained earnings: The purpose of preparing retained earnings statement is to identify the effect of net income and distribution of dividend on the financial position of the company. 4. Satement of cash flows: The purpose of preparing satement of cash flows is to identify the inflow and outflow of cash for a partcular period. It catagorises the total activity in to operating, financing, and investing activities. It shows the net cash generated or used in each activitirs. Important financial statement: All the four basisc financial stsement is important for an enterprise, because all the four statement reflects the financial highlights of the company. But as the investment is concerned the income statement, and Balance sheet are the most important financial statement of the company. Because, the income statement shows the profitability of the entity, and the Balance Sheet shows the financial health of the company. An investor while investing in a company praimarily wants to know the profitabilty and the financial stability of the commpany. On itsbalance sheet,Maxidrive overstated the economic resources it owned and understated its debts to others. On itsincome statement,Maxidrive overstated its ability to sell goods for more than the cost to produce and sell them. On itsstatement of retained earnings,Maxidrive overstated the amount of income it reinvested in the company for future growth. On itsstatement of cash flows,Maxidrive overstated its ability to generate from sales of disk drives the cash necessary to meet its current debts.
Ch2.7 – 2CC Financial Statements (issued by a firm usually quarterly and annually) are accounting reports that present past performance information to provide a snapshot of a firm’s assets. In the US the public companies are required to file their financial statements with the US securities and Exchanges. Companies provide extensive notes with additional details on the information provided in the statements in addition to the four financial statements i.e. Balance Sheet, Cash Flow Statement, Income Statement, and Income Statement. The information that the notes to the financial statements are:
Off-balance sheet transactions do not appear on the balance sheet or the transactions or arrangements but they can have a material impact on a firm’s future performance. The off-balance sheet transactions are disclosed as part of the managerial decision and analysis (MD&A). Managerial Decision and Analysis is a state of the financial statement in which the company’s management discusses about the recent year or quarter, taking into consideration about the significant events that have occurred and the company. Management must also discuss the coming year, and outline goals and new projects Thus, the off-balance sheet transactions appear in Management Decision and Analysis in a firm’s financial statement and cannot be found elsewhere. 5
Ch2.8 – 1CC & 2CC Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) legislation was passed by congress in 2002, intended to improve the accuracy of financial information provided to both boards and to shareholders. This act was passed because of the numbers of scandals faced before. For Example: Problems at Enron and elsewhere kept hidden from boards and shareholders. After all these scandals many people felt that accounting statement of these companies, did not present an accurate picture of the financial health of a company, while often remaining true to the letter of GAAP. WorldCom executives effectively fudged the company’s accounting numbers, inflating the company’s assets by around $12 billion dollars. The swift bankruptcy that followed led to massive losses for investors The mark-to-market practice led to schemes that were designed to hide the losses and make the company appear to be more profitable than it really was. In order to cope with the mounting losses, Andrew Fastow, a rising star who was promoted to CFO in 1998, came up with a devious plan to make the company appear to be in great shape, despite the fact that many of its subsidiaries were losing money. That scheme was achieved through the use of special purpose entities (SPE). An SPE could be used to hide any assets that were losing money or business ventures that had gone under; this would keep the failed assets off of the company’s books. In return, the company would issue to the investors of the SPE, shares of Enron’s common stock, to compensate them for the losses. Sarbanes-Oxley Act attempted to do this in three ways:
The duty of the accounting firm is to ensure that the company’s financial statements accurately reflect the financial state of the firm but if an audit team refuses to accommodate the request by a client’s management than that client will not choose the same accounting firm again for its next contract. SOX addresses this concern by placing strict limits on the amount of non-audit fees (consulting or otherwise) that an accounting firm can earn from the same firm that it audits.
Sox also put the criminal penalties on providing the false information to the shareholders i.e. $5 million and inprisionment of a maximum of 20 year. So, it is for both the CEO and CFO to personally attest to the accuracy of the financial statements presented to the shareholders and to sign a statement to that effect.
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