Nowadays, Malaysia is a multi sector economy and technology development based on the presence of many technological inventions. Traditional banking act as physical bank and delivery channel which to give customers to place or get their money out of the bank safety deposit boxes, managing checking or current accounts, paying cheques drawn by customers. However, e-banking is one of the technological inventions that give conveniences to customers to manage financial transactions on a secure website performed by retail or virtual bank, credit union or building society.
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E-banking is also called electronic banking which is the automated delivery of new banking services and products directly to customers through electronic, interactive communication channels. It brings many benefits and capabilities to customer compared to traditional banking. E-banking is fast and convenient way of using computer to easy access to the bank in 24hours. E-banking utilizes the internet system as the delivery channel by which to accomplish banking activity, for example, paying bills, transferring funds, viewing checking and savings account balances, paying mortgages and purchasing financial instruments and certificates of deposits (Haque et al, 2009). Internet banking enable customers to access their general information and accounts of bank products and services through PC or other intelligent device using web browser software on 24 hours a day and 7days a week, such as Netscape Navigator or Microsoft internet explorer (Mohamad, Hanudin, Suddin, Noren, 2007). The development in information technology have had an tremendous effect in development of more flexible payment methods and more user-friendly banking services in the world of banking (Serkan, Safak, Eda, 2004). There are some features that fall into several categories of internet banking which are transactional, non-transactional, financial institution administration, support of multiple users having varying levels of authority, transaction approval process and wire transfer. In transactional, e-banking act as account and financial transactions, pay bills, wire transfer and apply for loan or new account, investment purchase or sale and others. Electronic Bill Presentment and Payment (EBPP) is an electronic billing which customer can pay bill and receives payment easily, faster, and conveniently over anywhere and any times. Customer perception is interpretation of sensory mind and experienced by customer. The convenience of e-banking are attracted customers and provided no cost charged to customers. Customers have started accepting this internet service and assessing the banks based on their easy to access and convenience. With great confidence toward e-banking, customers are willing uses the internet banking to transfer fund, pay bills, and lot more with a excellent-secured system. It also can establish the relationship between trust and loyalty of customer toward e-banking.
The dramatic growth in internet usage has generated a segment of customers with the ability and desire to conduct banking transactions completely online (Mathew and George, 2003). The internet explosion in the late-1990s brings people more convenience with various applications over the web. In the mid-1990s, customers using internet as monetary business transaction over the web as the financial institutions had implemented e-banking. The majority of US-based banks are escalating their investment in technology and hedging their bets while research specifies that a substantial portion of the customer base may always demand the type of personal interaction that can only be provided by individual branch personnel (Alstad, 2002). TowerGroup’s prediction is highlighted by CRMToday on IT spending by large banks in USA, which the amounts is 24.1 billion in 2004 as compare to 22 billion in 2002. Besides that, many US banks, such as Bank of America and Umpqua Bank are lending from social media channels, offering social networking, pod casting, web casts and other interactive tools. Now competitors can establish an internet bank for as little as $6 million in the USA compared to the cost of setting up a traditional brick and mortar bank (estimated at between $25 and $30 million) (Nathan, 1999). CRMToday (2003a) also stated that without major consumers’ adoption internet banking would not achieve as profitable as promise although there are increasing in amounts of online banking customers. According to the European Central Bank in 2002 (centeno, 2003), the level of services and its quality differ according to the country and the banks even though all main banks provide internet banking services. Bughin, 2001 investigated that the adoption rate is examined to be averaging only 17% of internet users or less than 6% of total bank customers. The author also stated that there are 60% internet customers do not have subject in buying books, CDs or low valued item through online but are reluctant to create online banking transactions. Furthermore, there are differences of internet banking adoption also existed among some countries in Europe. Around 18-25% of populations in Estonia are utilizing internet banking services whereas Italian bank had about no on-line customers by early 2000, banks in Malta initiated internet banking services in December 2002 (Centeno, 2003). Furthermore, there are differences of adoption among banks within the same country. Bughin (2001) stated an example, a leading banks in France have diffusion rate over 11% while minor bank such as the credit commercial de France have translated only 2% of its customers to online for the same period.
In Turkey, there are over 18% of banking customers using e-banking actively (Jamaluddin, Osman, Sukru and Kemal, 2008). Since 1997 internet banking has been recognized as a feasible alternative distribution channel by Turkish commercial banks due to the deregulation in the financial sector, escalation of computer literacy, the rapid diffusion of electronic commerce, strong commitments to reduce operating costs, changing customer demands for innovative financial products and services and create customer convenience (Hakan, 2008). Due to the low cost of attracting customer to utilize internet banking and retaining existing innovation-demanding customers during the past two decades, most of Turkish commercial banks found it irresistible to invest large amounts in online banking although the customer take up of internet banking appeared to be very slow. In addition, the actual number of utilizing e-banking users appeared to be between 1 and 1.2 million (30%) in 2003 although 2million people (50%) were forecasted to utilize e-banking by 2003 (Akinci, 2004; Celik, 2002; Ozkan, 2003). Furthermore, in turkey the numbers of active internet banking accounts are escalating from 150,000 in 2000 to 5.5 million in 2007 and grew annually by 68 percent (Higgs, 2000). In comparison, although this illustrates that internet banking has experienced strong and sustained growth since its inception, Turkey has a lower internet banking penetration rate than that of many European countries. The research on internet banking by individual customers in the country has been required to improve customer’s understanding of how their particular beliefs or motives affect their utilization of the services.
Internet banking growth continued rapidly in Australia with a 26 % increase in the internet banking customer population to 5.5 million users (approximately 34% of the adult population) going on over the 12 months to May 2005 (ACNielsen, 2005). The report stated there are over 7.2 million consumers accessed 27 millions accounts in 2003 which is an increase of 31% compared to 16.2% in 2002 (MISC, 2004). The report showed that users are more efficient in utilizing Internet banking services and transacting more amounts utilizing fewer sessions. Furthermore, internet banking services are increasingly attracted among users women and 50+ years age group is the highest growing in all category. There are 54% of Australian adults were utilizing telephone banking and an estimated 25% of employed internet banking after a period of strong electronic banking market development between 1997 and 2002. Small and medium banks in USA provide more user-friendly services than larger banks and achieved well in the area of personal internet banking, and website reliability and transactional capabilities while larger banks in Australia offer more variety services than smaller banks. Nevertheless, small and medium sized banks in Australia have found to provide more user-friendly services than larger banks and are successful in offering personal banking services.
Since achieving independence in the 1957 banking activities in Malaysia has changed enormously with appearances of new technology application. In the 1980, the first Automated teller Machines (ATM’s) was introduced which was be the most visible piece of evidence of the emerging electronic banking in Malaysia. ATM is a computerized telecommunications device that used for transfer funds between checking, balance enquiry, cash withdrawal, savings and credit card accounts, bill payments, making cash and check deposits and making payments to application for initial public offerings in Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange. This technology brought the revolution were longer banking hours which unlimited beyond office hours (BNM Annual Reports, 1985-1997). Apart from this, the next changes in this evolutionary process will be the telebanking and PC-banking in the 1990’s. In the early 1990 telebanking was introduced in Malaysia as delivery channel for branch financial services via telecommunications devices connected to an automated system of the bank where customers can perform retail banking transactions through using Automated Voice Response (AVR) technology. The functions of telebanking are almost similar to the ATM services except withdrawal and deposit of cash. Telebanking brings convenience, extended access and significant time saving to the customers. The insufficiency of cash withdrawal function in telebanking leads to the poor customer response to telebanking. In the 1990’s, ten local commercial banks are offering PC-banking or home banking services. PC-banking is an online banking device which customer can utilize their computers in anywhere anytime for account transactions by subscribing and dialing into the banks’ intranet proprietary software system. PC-banking can raise speed, decrease cost and enhance flexibility of business transactions which is more suitable among corporate customers. In the half of 1990, the number of customer that utilizes this service still small. This is because they faced some problems, such as risk in transacting on the internet, lack of trust and loyalty of customer and poor of product and service quality. In this table indicates that frequency of familiarity and usage of using ATM is the highest and PC-banking is the lowest percentage. ATM can attracted all of banking customer to use this service because it really brings convenience to the customer since it can save time, reduce difficulty, and enhance flexibility of business transaction to customers. There are 80% that not using telebanking because this service can’t provide any cash withdrawal function. However, PC-banking also faced lack of attraction from banking customers due to the new banking service that introduced to this country, which most of customer still unable to accept this new internet service. When customer utilize PC-banking, they may face some problems, such as risk in transacting on the internet, lack of trust and loyalty of customer and product and service quality. Furthermore, e-banking in Malaysia is become increasingly popular on developments in information technology and telecommunications. In Malaysia internet banking service (IBS) was established in six years ago (The Star, 2005). IBS is a convenience and new physical banking service which is to attain more potential customers as it allows bankers to deliver banking services to a wider segment of customers through electronic and interactive communication channels (Goi, 2005), with 12 domestic banks offering IBS to 4.5million subscribers currently (Bank Negara Malaysia, 2007). So surprisingly internet banking has become one of the popular services with 51 percent out of 8,000 of total respondents once a month. In the beginning, there are 5 Malaysia banks have invested millions of ringgit in online banking but these banks are still functioning as dial up intranet facilities. The online service is still unavailable for customers because of the insufficiency of legal framework and security concerns. The investment may be wasted due to the deficiency of important business understanding to support customer adoption if a bank introduces Internet Banking Services without a clear understanding of factors influencing customer adoption (Goi, 2005; Pires and Aisbett, 2002). In table 1 it illustrates the demographic characteristics of the internet bank users and the non-internet bank users among the sample respondents was analyzed. Mean monthly income is the only significant difference appears which it assumed that the internet bank user monthly income is highly than non-internet bank user. It also shows that there is no significant difference between the mean age of the internet bank users and the non-internet bank users. These two groups are equal in percentage of graduates and undergraduates in which both of the groups are nearly about 85%.
The purpose of this research is to identify and evaluate the consumers’ perception toward e-banking. Consumer perception is important to bankers because of that banker can only understand and determine what customer actually wants to and how e-banking service shall satisfy them. There are some variables will be discussed which are affecting the growth of e-banking in Malaysia. From the customer’s perspective, internet banking assists a convenient and effective approach to control personal finances without visiting the bank and from any locations, as it is accessible 24 hours a day and 365 days in a year (Rotchanakitumunai and Speece, 2003). Through this report we will discuss about different countries have different customers’ perception about e-banking. This research also studies whether service or service quality will influences the trust and willingness of customer for using e-banking. Besides that, we also explore the factors which are taken to assess customer perception toward various application of internet banking. The factors that will be assessed are convenience of account transaction, flexibility, reliability, save time and cost. Internet banking is convenient, no geographical barriers, low cost and isn’t bound by operational timings (IAMAI’s, 2006). More than 50% of total respondents agreed that e-banking is convenient and flexible ways of banking and it also have a variety of transaction related advantages (Divya and Padhmanabhan, 2008). The purposes of internet banking consist of customer convenience through personalized service, cost containment through decline in operating cost, revenue expansion through better quality and additional non-financial services, and performance enhancement by making the service from any location (Bradley & Stewart, 2002; Chau & Lai, 2003; Frust et al., 2000; Suganthi & Balachandran, 2001). How saving of cost and time affect the perception of customer toward e-banking are also analyzed. So this research main purpose is to examine the variables of the actual perception of customer toward e-banking.
This research explores and examines some topics which are important elements that help in consumers’ perception toward e-banking. Banker should understand the need of customer so that they can improve the insufficient of the services. Banker should find out the way to attract more customers to utilize their services. In line with global trends, most customers are not focusing on this internet application. So, we need to solve this problem regarding the importance of the e-banking among customer in the local area. Customer should learn to use internet banking which can bring conveniences without going to the bank. Then customers will obtain satisfaction with the system when it provides them maximum convenience while bank transaction is occurred. The convenience of internet banking is contributing to changing patterns in cash withdrawal and day to day money management and assisting people gain greater control of their finances (Beer, 2006). On the other hand, there are few factors that lead to this problem occurrence. Firstly, not many people start to use e-banking because they still not trust on the system through internet. They will worry and always have a doubt about whether their money is safe. In addition there are few cases of fraud have been reported in online banking. The hacker wills forgery information by entering person information without the owner knowing and takes out his/her money. Secondly, there are lacks of social contact because internet banking don’t have any assistance will be served to customer. It will create difficulty to the customer since in the bank there will be banker which will helps and assists customer needs. They will easily give up since there are many lack of skill problems occurred when utilizing the systems. Besides that, it is difficult to do survey since there are a lot of public are faced limitation of time, because it may take times to explain to the public.
This research is contributed to give customers to better understand about e-banking. There are many features and characteristics of the e-banking that many people still no realize about it. Through this research, we will interview a numeral of people and will explain about internet banking to give consumer to better understand the services that already provided to help them to ease their life. For example, CIMB offers CIMB Bank AirAsia Savers Account, a paperless account which customer will directly enjoy the convenience of viewing their account statement online without require a passbook (AirAsia Berhad, 2007-2010). Such a good service provided by bank, customer won’t know about it if they no utilize internet banking. This study has combined varieties of factors from past research to study consumers’ perception toward e-banking. Both practitioners and academics can obtain the advantages by to better understand the consumers’ perception in the value of internet banking services. Furthermore, they can also identify the deficiency of the service in e-banking through this research so that the service would be improved to match customer’s requirement. Hence, customer can properly understand and adapt the problem that they face as necessary. In Malaysia, Maybank has become the first bank to introduce internet banking services (Maybank2u.com) and an combined web-based cash management portal on June 1, 2000. The online banking services will allow customer to perform bill payment, banking enquiry functions, funds transfer, credit card payment and accounts summary as well as transaction history (Suganthi, Balachandher and Balachandran, 2001). However, the influence of consumers’ acceptance e-banking in Malaysia seems more challenging because of the deficiency of information and academic in e-banking.
The scope of study is only concentrate about consumer area and perception toward e-banking. In this study, the research will be focus on MMU student, CIMB banking users and businessman that will regularly using banking service. The reason that we choose MMU student is because MMU student will often using online banking systems to pay tuition fees, transfer fund to their friends, check for their transaction account anywhere anytime. Apart from this they can teach their parent to use these services since it is very convenience and saving time, especially to those parent that very busy with their work. Besides that, we also focus on CIMB bank users which they can provide some information through interviews or questionnaires. Then, we will determine how depth the respondents understand about internet banking and what their comment regarding e-banking. Through this research we will resolve the inadequate and insufficient of service of internet banking. In addition to this, for sure business man they want to utilize something that very fast, time-saving, and can assist to their business. They can conduct most of their business on the internet and make transactions between their businesses without going to the bank. It can guarantee service quality for users conducting business transactions while utilizing IT applications and infrastructure. Through this research we can ask for some suggestion or any dissatisfied regarding internet banking from different view of business man, CIMB bank users and MMU student.
The extension of this study include there are large amounts of people still don’t have the internet connection in their home and some don’t know how to use e-banking services which will result in lack of internet banking users. There is a need for public knowledge to deal with computers and browsers since there are a lot of public still unable to use the internet applications. Besides that, it will lead to the difficulty of development of e-banking in the country. Customer may prefer visiting the bank branch because there are lacks of social contact regarding e-banking will creates difficulty to the customer since in the bank there will be banker which will helps and assists customer needs. Then it may take some time to learn and get to use to internet banking, as it requires a lot of procedures. If bank’s server down, customer may not access to the website. Secondly, the limitation that I faced is the difficulty of communication with the respondents when interviewing and collecting data for my research. Some of the people will resist for doing the research survey because they thought I wanted to promote or sell something. The thing that I frequently faced is meeting people who reject to answer any question before I start to talk about my research purpose.
In chapter 1, the main title is introduction which is a beginning section that states the internet banking among difference countries. Background of study explaining what about of a particular topic is placed. Problem statement is focus on the attention of the problem solving team. Research objective is writing about the purpose of this research. In significant of study, I will shift from the particular to the general, and present the importance of the study from target beneficiaries to the people in the community, to the people in the region and nation. Scope of study is focus on the coverage of areas in this research such as student and businessman. The limitation of study is about the restriction that I facing during doing this research. In addition, Chapter 2 is literature reviews. In this chapter reviews and introduces the previous journals related age, income, education, gender, convenience, perceived ease of use, reliability, saving time and cost, service or service quality and trust. I will focus on how these independent variables influence consumers’ adoption of internet banking. There will be an overview of some journals about consumers’ adoption toward e-banking will be presented which will used to examine the relationship between independent and dependent variables. In Chapter 3 it is about research methodology that including theoretical framework, hypothesis of study, data collection and data analysis. In Theoretical framework, I will suggest the integrative interrelationships among important variables in the research which is includes age, income, education, gender, convenience, perceived ease of use, reliability, saving time and cost, service or service quality and trust. There are four method are used in data analysis, which are frequency distribution, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, cross tabulation and descriptive analysis.
In this chapter 2, I review many journals about this topic in the various area of e-banking. In the 2.2 those journals are investigating about demographic affects the consumers’ adoption toward e-banking. In the 2.3, those journals are investigating the factors that influence the consumers’ adoption toward e-banking. In the 2.4, those journals are investigating about the service or service quality which will influence consumers’ adoption. In the 2.5, those journals are investigating about influence of trust toward consumers’ adoption.
According to Kim,Widdows and Yilmazer (2005), age were influencing the attitude of consumers towards internet banking and their ability for learning how to do investment. The younger age groups of consumers are more likely to invest the time to learn to utilize internet banking because this group of consumers can generate more advantages through time saving. Besides that, higher income of consumers will have higher value of time than consumers with lower income, so higher income of the consumer can generate more advantages through adoption of internet banking. More educated consumers may involve fewer training in response to technological change if their general skills facilitate them to be taught the new technology (Bartel and Sicherman, 1998). They also indicated that adoption internet banking of well educated individuals is faster than less educated individuals due to the internet banking, new technology, and warrantees reduction of the time required for money transactions. In Padachi, Rojid and Seetanah (2007) report examined that the younger generation the more they like to utilize the new technological advancements as they are more prefer to adopt e-banking compared to the older generation. Mean age of internet banking users is 45 and 47 for non-internet banking users. Furthermore, the higher of education and income ladder will lead to the greater the probability of customer adopting internet banking. There are 57% of respondent having an education level in the category ‘post graduate’ and 33% in the category of ‘undergraduate’ utilizes the service. There are 48% of people using the internet banking that have the income group of Rs 30000 to 49000, which means the higher income earners are more sensible in utilizing internet. In the Jane, Jeanne and Marianne (2004) report explores the discoveries of demographic correlates of technology acceptance have constructed varying results with respect to important relationships to adoption. Men and women show to have dissimilar acceptance rates of specific computer technologies which men will more prefer on adopting technologies application(Gefen and Straub, 1997), but gender appear not to be found to have a direct on adoption of technology in general (Taylor and Todd, 1995; Gefen and Straub, 1997). The research show that the probability of higher income households ($75000 or more) being current users of ABP was 15 points higher than low income households (under $25000) and was more likely to adopt e-banking. However, research examined younger persons are being more likely to adopt which has also linked age and adoption of technologies (Zeithaml and Gilly, 1987; Trocchia and Janda, 2000; Karjaluoto, 2002; Lee, 2002). The research shows that the age of 65 of respondents were less likely to adopt phone banking and PC banking compared to medium and youngest group. People with married status are more likely to adopt than single males or females because when it comes to bank accounts, married couples may have jointly held accounts. In region variable households living in the northeast were more likely than in the midwest to have adopted or to intend to adopt phone banking or ABP. In the “Demographic characteristics of Western Australian users of electronic banking” journal published by Catherine, Simone and Katherine (2005) explored that most online banking customers were male while the majority of telephone banking customers were females. Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), 2001 stated that consumers of Western Australia, who are between 18 and 24 years of age, employed, male, have higher levels of education, and higher incomes have been examined to be more likely to use information technology that those are older, unemployed, lower incomes and have lower levels of education. The authors also examined 58.4% of the internet banking users are being in professional, administrative, managerial or para-professional occupations. This is because males in these occupations often utilize technologies such as computers and the internet in the workplace, providing them access to the required hardware and possibly encouraging a preference for online interaction with providers. Filoto, Tanzi and Saita (1997); Jayawardhena and Foley (2000); Thornton and White (2001); Pereira (2002) have found these customers may be on higher incomes due to their more educated and/or highly skilled and therefore they are in occupations that need them to be more practiced at using technology-based service delivery modes. Mitchell (1998) and Tan (1999) stated that education may not be an important aspect for EFTPOS users because transactions are usually performed in retail settings and they involve retail personnel who assist the completion of transactions for consumers. Jayawardhena and Foley (2000), Orenstein (1998) and Thornton and White (2001) argued that online banking consumers are more likely to have higher than average education and they may frequently be students because of their higher exposure to technologies such as internet and computer. Councils on the Ageing (2002) stated that in some studies have recommended that older consumers may be discouraged from the utilization of electronic banking by issues such as limitation of mobility and visibility. In Jun Wu, 2005 report examined that the products and services people purchase varies during the different stages of their lives. The result of demographic age profile in this research shows that the 21 to 29 age group is dominant. Furthermore, consumers that more educated will have more money available to spend because of better education, and this influences their life-styles. Wilkie (1990) stated that it will influences which type of products they purchase, what kind of stores to purchase them in, and what prices they are willing to pay as people achieve higher education. Customers with better educated be likely to have better paying occupations than not well educated customers (Schiffman and Kanuk, 2000) because a person’s level of education can affect strongly on their ability to create income and their consumer spending potential. Polatoglu and Ekin (2001) explored that high levels of education improve a consumer’s ability to process more complicated information and make decisions. Income is a famous demographic variable for segmenting markets due to the income levels affect consumer wants and determines their purchasing power (Lamb, 2000). Purchasing power is influenced by inflation, recession, the international value of currency, and productivity. A marketer can take step to redesign, reposition and re-price their goods as economic faced recession, so they can continue to provide value to target consumers (Kotler, 2000). Kolodinsky, Hogarth and Shue (2000) explored that the probability of adoption toward internet banking is increasing with higher levels of financial assets and education. The age of 65+ groups are found to have difficulties in attracting to internet banking (Ilett, 2005; Perumal and Shanmugam, 2005). In gender variable women are found to be more serious in privacy protection and ethical standards than men (Shergill ans Li, 2005). In this studies they found that female users were most likely adopting internet banking at home rather than at work, even when they had part-time of full-time jobs outside the home. Then, they will use the internet late at night while their children slept or whenever there was an additional time after they have busy lives with children, house duties or work. Kolodinsky, Hogarth and Shue (2000) also found that higher income groups were found to be most attracted to internet banking and more likely to adopt internet banking.
With more convenient way, online banking also permits consumer to have direct access to their financial information and to undertake financial transactions (Rotchanakitumnai and Speece, 2003). The banking industry is now utilizing the new communication media (internet) to provide its flexible services to the customers with easy and convenience (Haque, 2009). In Divya and Padmananbhan (2008) report examined that there are 81% of total users agrees or strongly agrees that internet banking is convenient because e-banking brings benefits such as no queuing in bank and one can do anywhere and anytime banking. Internet banking is convenient, no geographical barriers, low cost and isn’t bound by operational timings (IAMAI’s, 2006). E-banking brings customers convenience and flexibility and can be offered at a lower cost than traditional branch banking (Williamson, 2006). The convenience of e-banking is contributing to varying models in cash withdrawal and daily money management and assisting public achieve greater control of their finances (Beer, 2206). The major motivator for internet banking examined by US survey is convenience which it can provide time saving and 24/7 access (Pew, 2003). Furthermore, the adoption of internet banking have been linked to high levels of workplace internet use (Durkin, 2004).Convenience has increasingly been linked to internet customer choices. The key influences on internet customer behavior are knowledge of the online channel, convenience, experience, perceived accessibility and utility (Li, 1999). The description of convenience was in terms of not having to wait, lifestyle, household use, workplace use, not having to travel, personal safety, ‘saved time and 24/7 access’ (Pew, 2003). In Katariina (2006) report explores that in IB context convenience consist of saving time and enhancing service efficiency as compared to branch banking. Polatoglu and Ekin (2001); Gerrad and Cunningham (2003) found convenience have relative advantage of adopting the internet banking service channel. Besides that, IB consumers rated convenience as people are prone to favor more leisure-time and to dedicating less time to financial matters (Devlin, 1995). Internet banking is convenient since it reduces physical effort of visiting counters and the time spent on banking services (Howcroft, Hamilton and Hewer, 2002). Customers can obtain into the internet anytime and anywhere and e-banking is not limited by geographic and time constraints.
Ease of use is another significant determinant for the customer favoring the internet banking (Beer, 2006). One of the three significant features for adoption from the customer’s perspective is ease of use of innovative product or service (Cooper, 1997). When they surf the internet website it is also value noting that appropriate navigation attributes and investigate facility will also certainly be useful to consumers. Roger (1962) hypothesized that perceived ease of use reveals the degree to which an invention is observed as being not too complex to function, understand or learn. In the journal of “analyzing the factors that influence the adoption of internet banking in Mauritius, Padachi, Rojid and Seetanah (2007) found that ease of use is the most significant factor by using factor analysis. The percentage of variance explained of ease of use is 45.90 which is the highest percentage compared to other elements. Consumers’ willingness to utilize IT-based services may influenced by the effort involved in utilizing such options or complication of the service delivery process (Dabholkar, 1996). Customers may not value such service channel if they observe an IT-based service to be complex to utilize (Dabholkar, 1996; Galbreath, 1998). A consumer response is attracted by the appearance of an e-banking website, ease of navigation and customer-oriented interface, but complexities with navigation and connections can discourage online customers (Harridge-March, 2006). One of the significant aspects is ease of use which is related to customer apprehension regarding the efforts required to learn to utilize internet banking and customer interest in new services provided by e-banking (Eriksson, 2005).
Reliability is one of the significant service quality dimensions of e-banking service quality (Jun and Cai, 2001). E-banking has developed enormously over the past several years and will persist to develop as financial institutions continue to strive to permit customers to pay bills, complete money transfers and access critical information online (Divya and Padhmanabhan, 2008). An essential concern of financial institutions is verifying customers logging onto their online banking service (Williamson, 2006). Rotchanakitumnuai and Speece, 2003 assumed that corporate customers are concerned about security and reliability of transactions via the internet. Accurately offering information and executing services could assist improve service reliability (Parasuraman, 1988, 1991) and service outcomes (McDougall and Levesque, 1994). In Katriina (2006) studies explores security classifies to the reliability of IB and an overall trust on the part of the user that banking transactions can be accomplished confidentially and safely. Reliability is defined as the firm executes the services right the first time and the firm honors its promises (Parasuraman, 1985, p.47). The definition of reliability is comprised of accurate record; accurate order fulfillment; accurate calculation of commissions; accurate quote accurate in billing; maintain service promise (Yang, 2004). Reliability is also defined as the ability to execute the promised service constantly and exactly, including quick rely to consumer enquires, rate of updating the website, and accurateness of online paying bill and buying (Santos, 2003). Reliability was illustrated by customer adviser as “well trained employees” in offline banking services. Zeithaml (2000) explored reliability is also concerns among the technical functioning of the information and the site that is offered is exact from online perspective. Customer adviser and customers assumed that the internet has impact on reliability because there’s deficient of personal contact in online banking services.
Time is one of the main factors in internet banking service quality feature for the customers identified by Liu and Arnett (2000). The available information from website can provided to customer to gather and thus if he comes to the branch with queries it will be very specific and will take fewer time of employee (Srivastava, 2006). Nowadays the basic expectations of internet banking services are boosting market reach, enhancing customer service and decreasing costs (Divya and Padhmanabhan, 2008). The internet banking also offers lower cost of deliver products and services to customers than any existing mode of delivery. Low transaction fees is another factor that would stand in the method of customer adoption of internet banking which have two categories of costs, firstly is regular costs related with internet access fees and connection payment and secondly is the bank fees and charges (Suganthi, 2001). In Ahman and Balqa (2006) report stated that internet banking services provided by banks will improve attracting new clients, improve bank competition and performance, boosting bank’s clients belonging that maximize profits and reduce operation costs as a result of enhancing bank’s business. Internet banking only costs two cents for an internet banking transaction, compared with 36 for an ATM transaction and $ 1.15 for a teller-assisted service (Moon, Y and Fre, 2000). Online channel allows banks to provide low-cost, high value-added financial services and also advantage from the promotional opportunity to cross-sell products such as credit cards and loans (Hawkins, 2001). Many banks have attempted to establish customer satisfaction and to decrease operating costs through giving better products and services as a response and aided by technological developments (Kesseven, Sawkuk and Boopen, 2007). The cheapest delivery channel for banking products is online banking (Pikkarainen, 2004). This service saves time and money of the bank with an added benefit of minimizing the likelihood of committing errors by bank tellers (Jayawardhena and foley, 2000). The justifications of banks’ usage of the internet banking service from the bank’s viewpoint are mainly related to cost savings (Robinson, 2000; Sathye, 1999). Cameron (1999) emphasized the fact that the convenience at any time any where is important because consumers notice that they can save time spent contacting different organizations. In this study as the example of M17 commented, internet banking costs customers less to provide services on the internet than it does across our branch network and other channels. In Faye, walter and Injazz (2002) studies examines customers dislike to wait for obtain the service once they have accessed the service delivery point. If such options could save service delivery time, customer would prefer technology-based self-services (Lovelock and Young, 1979). According to Chun and Zheng Wang (2006) report, e-banking brings time and cost saving which customers don’t need waiting for banking services like physical banks do. E-banking brings more control and freedom compared to offline banking services. Consumers may also conduct business in the evening or even at night and don’t be anxious about the safety.
According to Katariina (2006), the rising character of the internet as a service channel has eliminated the locus of power from service providers to consumers, and therefore, cooperation with and learning from consumers as well as adaptation to their individual and dynamic necessitates have become crucial. This paper also investigates the seven dimensions of internet banking service (IBS), such as convenience, security, status, auxiliary features, personal finances, investment, and exploration. These dimensions of IBS have been investigated to enhance our knowledge of consumers’ perceptions and opinions about IBS. IBS can provide the result of cluster analysis more clarify and refine the picture of consumers. Meadows and Dibb (1998a) stated that a well-planned segmentation permits banks to better understand and serve their customers in the expandable competitive environment. A cluster is which security issues of banking in general were determinant (Alfansi and Sargeant, 2000). Due to the ease of use of the required information that available on the internet, customer will more prefer e-services to office services because, the services quality is better and as a consequence of using IBS, they have additional time to spend with their families, friends and hobbies. Adoption on more future-oriented approach and investment in developing IBS that satisfy the needs of growing consumer cluster of youngsters will be the second possibility. In Brandon and Randall (2006) journal examined that personal aspects of service may be of critical significance in cultivating new customer relationships. Operational service issues is the first dimensions that easily supervised and any problems can be fixed easily and quickly which distinguished through customer complaints and comments. The significant issues were giving full attention to the customer, being respectful, making eye contact and smiling and conveying a measure of importance. Being attentive and illustrating interest in the customer is a key to manufacturing a relationship and verifying whether the customer eventually buys the product (Barnes, 2004). In this research found that employees should be educated to focus more on the interpersonal aspects rather than the service aspects. This may be difficult to do with new customers while employees should observably struggle to be responsive to all customers. In Hakan (2008) report stated that particular customers in Turkey executing research on the acceptance of IB has been required to improve our understanding of how their particular beliefs or motives affect their utilization of IB services. To attract more customer for IB, IB professionals should creating easy-to-learn, user-friendly and informative interfaces for potential adopters and providing accessible IB sites, fast page downloads, short transaction times, a wide variety of financial products/services, and frequent-user advantages for active users. Yakhlef (2001) stated that practitioners should give an additional attention to avoid IB users from consequently facing system crashes, access difficulties, service delays, drop outs and system malfunctions to generate a positive manage sense over the IB system and positive attitudes toward IB usage.
Nexhmi and Curtin (2005), these authors state that main factors of customers perceive quality of e banking are help-line support, convenience, security, efficiency, low cost and customization through testing measurement with 146 businesses in Australia. The factor drives business satisfaction or dissatisfaction with technology-driven services is suggested by Meuter and his colleagues (2000). Furthermore, the SERVQUAL scale assumes that customers perceive service quality through five dimensions: reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy, and tangibility developed by Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry’s (1998). SERVQUAL helps managers to enable them to focus on area of personnel-based service for improving customer perceived quality. Disintegration of internet banking service quality into attributes assists a better understand of the impact of each component of service quality on customer’s commitment to internet banking. It also offers bank managers and developers of online systems on how to distribute resources in a way that improves internet banking service quality with useful actionable strategic guidance. In Essam, Mathew and Kevin (2006) studies focused on the main factors of electronic service quality (e-SQ) perceptions of UK banking customers and assess the customers’ perceptions toward their banks’ actual performance on the identified e-SQ dimensions. With an analysis to attracting more customers, enhancing customers’ perceptions, and supporting loyalty, the difficulty business environment in the financial service market in the UK and beyond has also resulted in more force on banks to grow and use other delivery channels (Bauer, 2005; Lee and Lin, 2005; Parasuraman, 2005). UK banks should persist to explore opportunities for deploying and combining appropriate technological solutions in the service of their customers for given the observed positioning of the accuracy and convenience service dimension within the “keep up the good work” quadrant. In Swinder, Philip, and Kevin (2002) studies exploring consumers’ perceptions of internet retail service quality. The superior service quality of companies tends to be more profitable because they are capable to generate stronger loyalty among customer (Bell and Zemke, 1992; Zeithaml, 1996). Customers are becoming less worried that their personal information will be compromised and may simply assume that the website is secure as the online retailing matures. Discovering the moderating role of individual differences would be useful to guide retailers to select the best allocate resources for online service quality improvement with respect to the particular market segment they target. There emerges to be escalating opportunities for customers to engage in customizing products to meet their own specifications (Chen, 2001; Tseng, 1998) as technology advances and online shoppers become more utilized to employing self-service technologies (Bitner,2000). In “IT-based services and service quality in consumer banking” report published by Faye, walter and Injazz (2002) explores that IT-based services have a direct impact on the SERVQUAL dimensions and an indirect impact on customer perceived service quality and customer satisfaction. IT can assist to improve service quality by rising convenience, offering extra services, and gathering service performance information for management use (Furey, 1991). Service providers utilize IT to create value-added services and reduce costs for their customers. Consumers’ willingness to utilize such options may influenced by the effort involved in utilizing IT-based services or complication of the service delivery process (Dabholkar, 1996). Consumer preference towards traditional services, understanding in using IT-based services and perceived IT policies are influencing customer’s estimation of IT-based services. Customer may set a higher value on IT-based services if they perceive that such services bring developed service and information. The more satisfied customers were with IT-based services, the greater they would rate this combined service dimension which had a direct positive effect on perceived service quality and customer satisfaction.
In Sonja and Rita (2008) report identifies customer’s general disposition to trust was examined to have influences on the consumer’s preliminary trust in an online vendor (Gefen, 2000; McKnight, 2002; Teo and Liu, 2007). A number of different measures and instruments internet retailers can utilize to affect trusting beliefs, intentions and behaviours of online consumers are proposed by researchers (Grabner and Kaluscha, 2003). In the growing part of literature in the field of human computer communication, design of trust-inducing websites are introduced that emphasizes on how to realize graphical e-commerce interfaces that are recognized as trustworthy by online consumers (Wang and Emurian, 2005). To attract more customers and ensure the security of their systems, banks use security features such as firewalls, filtering routers, callback modems, encryption biometrics, smart cards, and digital certification and authentication (Mukherjee and Nath, 2003). Training and promotion approaches might be attended by bank managers to influence their customers’ perception of online security and enhance their customers’ knowledge about privacy and security systems and concepts such as encryption methods. In Avinandan and Prithwiraj (2003) report emphasize on the character of trust covering the exchanges and interactions of a retail bank with its consumers on various dimensions of online banking. Relationship marketing has been expressed as relationship banking where it is in the internet of banks to build and sustain long-term bonds with customers in the banking context (Ritter, 1993). The utilization of the privacy programs or models will assist customers to recognize the bank’s concern for customer privacy, to ensure the website’s reliability and to estimate the website’s trustworthiness (Li, 2001). A virtual financial advisor can be utilized to create a higher level of trust and websites should have connections with related helpful sites (Sultan, 1999; Jarvenpaa, 1999). In this report also showed that shared value and privacy is the significant determinant of trust. The utilization of privacy programs or models will assist customers for test the Website’ reliability, identifies the bank’s concern for customer privacy, and estimates the Website’s trustworthiness (Li, 2001). According Norizan and Abdel (2006) study stated that the relationship between trust and attraction is very important since their influence on the actual commitment is different. Furthermore, bankers and policy makers need to understand that more favorable communication environments must be generated to attract customers and to create them more committed to conducting online transactions over the internet. Training and promotion approaches also should authorities by internet banking to increase customers’ beliefs of shared value, opportunistic behavior and communication which will affect or attract the customers’ behavioural intention to use internet banking services. The report of “the influence of trust on internet banking acceptance” by Khalil Md. and Michael J. (2007) test the relationship between trust positively affects the attitude toward using internet banking. Trust was estimated 0.56 in final model which is the highest result to have main positive influence on attitude toward using internet banking. Banks need to develop strategies that could enhance the customer’s trust which are include development of security technology, embracing encryption and firewall technology and working closely with online security firms. Banks may require announcing the benefits associated with the technology and give opportunity for their customers to “test-drive” the technology to create positive attitude towards internet banking. Gronroos (2000) explores customer frequently has trust in a big company because of it fame name and services by a trust which in developed from social norms. The author also illuminates that trust is developed due to the interaction between two persons and the experience made throughout a longer relationship between two parties. E-trust is defined as “the degree of confidence customers have in online exchanges” (Ribbink, 2004, p. 447). Ndubisi (2007) stated that offline trust is recommended to be developed through having a high quality on services, keeping promises, proving that security is a significant issue, showing respect to consumers, having a manner that builds the customer trust the company and fulfilling commitments.
This chapter emphasizes on the investigation method to solve the earlier problem statements and achieve the study objectives. The purpose of this chapter is to demonstrate the methodology used to collect data and analyze them in order to get answers for the research questions stated in Chapter 1. Methodology is a systematic study of methods that collect theories, concepts or ideas which are, can be, or have been applied within a discipline or a particular procedure or set of procedures. This chapter is also examines how the independent variables influence consumers’ perception toward e-banking.
After collect the data, complete a literature survey, and define the problem, theoretical framework is ready to be developed. A theoretical framework is a set of interrelated concepts, similar to a theory but not necessarily so well worked-out (Stephen, 1999). A theoretical framework determines and examines about the interrelationships among the variables that are deemed to be integral to the dynamics of the situation being investigated. There are two types of variables, such as dependent variables and independent variables. A conceptual framework has been proposed from the literature review which it assist us to hypothesize and analyze certain relationships and thus to enhance our understanding of the dynamics of the situation. From our study, we design a theoretical framework by identify what variables that influence consumers’ perception toward e-banking.
Consumer adoption defined as the act of consumer’s intent to accept and take up of something. Consumer adoption is an important aspect in order to increase and enhance the users’ utilization of e-banking. Customer adoption is the ultimate goal of service firms in order to increase the number of e-banking users.
According to the age, younger persons are being more likely to adopt internet banking which has also linked age and adoption of technologies (Zeithaml and Gilly, 1987; Trocchia and Janda, 2000; Karjaluoto, 2002; Lee, 2002). In some studies have recommended that older consumers may be discouraged from the utilization of electronic banking by issues such as limitation of mobility and visibility (Ageing, 2002).
The higher of education and income ladder will lead to the higher probability of consumers’ adopting toward internet banking. The consumers that more educated will have more money available to spend and this will influences their life-styles. A person’s level of education can affect strongly on their ability to create income and their consumer spending potential which Customers with better educated will more likely to have better paying occupations than not well educated customers (Schiffman and Kanuk, 2000:4).
Income is a popular demographic variable for segmenting markets due to the income levels that will influence consumer wants and determines their purchasing power (Lamb, 2000:217).
According to the gender, men will more likely to adopt technologies application (Gefen and Straub, 1997), but gender appear not to be found to have a direct on adoption of technology in general (Taylor and Todd, 1995; Gefen and Straub, 1997). Female users were found in more adopting internet banking at home rather than at work, especially in the night while their children slept or whenever there was an additional time for them.
Internet banking is very convenient since it can reduces physical effort of visiting counters and the time spent on banking services (Howcroft, Hamilton and Hewer, 2002). With more convenient way, online banking also allows consumer to have direct access to their financial information and to undertake financial transactions (Rotchanakitumnai and Speece, 2003). Customers can adopt internet banking in anytime and anywhere, with e-banking is also not limited by geographic and time constraints.
One of the significant features for adoption from the customer’s perspective is ease of use of innovative product or service (Cooper, 1997). Perceived ease of use is a degree to which an invention is observed as being not too complex to function, learn and understand (Roger, 1962).
Reliability is defined as the firm implements the services right the first time and the firm honors its promises (Parasuraman, 1985, p.47). The meaning of reliability comprised of accurate record; accurate order fulfillment; accurate calculation of commissions; accurate quote accurate in billing; maintain service promise (Yang, 2004).
The justifications of banks’ usage of the e-banking service from the bank’s viewpoint are primarily related to cost savings (Robinson, 2000; Sathye, 1999). Low transaction fees is another factor which would stand in the method of customer adoption of internet banking which have two categories of costs, firstly is regular costs related with internet access fees and connection payment and secondly is the bank fees and charges (Suganthi, 2001). Convenience at any time any where is important because consumers notice that they can save time spent contacting different organizations (Cameron, 1999). If such alternatives could save service delivery time, customer would more likely technology-based self-services (Lovelock and Young, 1979).
The internet service channel has eliminated the locus of power from service providers to consumers, and therefore, cooperation with and learning from consumers as well as adaptation to their individual and dynamic necessitates have become crucial (Katariina, 2006). To attract more customer for IB, IB professionals should creating easy-to-learn, user-friendly and informative interfaces for potential adopters and providing accessible IB sites, fast page downloads, short transaction times, a wide variety of financial products/services, and frequent-user advantages for active users Hakan (2008). SERVQUAL (service quality) assists managers to enable them to focus on area of personnel-based service for enhancing customer perceived quality (Nexhmi and Curtin, 2005). With an analysis to attracting more customers, enhancing customers’ perceptions, and supporting loyalty, the difficulty business environment in the financial service market in the UK and beyond has also resulted in more force on banks to grow and use other delivery channels (Bauer, 2005; Lee and Lin, 2005; Parasuraman, 2005). The more satisfied customers with IT-based services, the greater they would rate this combined service dimension which had a direct positive effect on perceived service quality and customer satisfaction (Faye, walter and Injazz, 2002).
Trust is developed due to the interaction between two persons and the experience made throughout a longer relationship between two parties (Gronroos, 2000). Banks utilize security features to attract more customers and ensure the security of their systems, such as firewalls, filtering routers, callback modems, encryption biometrics, smart cards, and digital certification and authentication (Mukherjee and Nath, 2003). Training and promotion approaches might be attended by bank managers to increase customers’ beliefs of shared value, opportunistic behavior and communication which will affect or attract the customers’ behavioural intention to use internet banking services (Norizan and Abdel, 2006).
Hypothesis is defined as an unproven proposition or supposition, set forth as an explanation for the occurrence of several specified group of phenomena, either declared merely as a provisional conjecture to direct investigation or accepted as highly probable in the light of established facts. Hypothesis is also a proposition that is empirically predictive and testable statement. A hypothesis is a reasonably conjectured relationship between independent and dependent variables which stated in the form of a testable statement. By using hypothesis we can determine whether it is true or false, and the conditions for truth or falsehood. We generally abbreviated hypothesis with a capital ‘H’ and a subscript (regularly a number). Null hypothesis is the investigated statement in a statistical procedure and designated as H0, this is because there are ‘no relationship exists between x and y’. H0 is the opposite of the primary hypothesis in that it consists of all other outcomes. Then the opposite of the null hypothesis is alternative hypothesis. H0: Income has no positive relationship with consumers’ adoption toward e-banking. H1: Income has positive relationship with consumers’ adoption toward e-banking. H0: Age has no positive relationship with consumers’ adoption toward e-banking. H2: Age has positive relationship with consumers’ adoption toward e-banking. H0: Gender has no positive relationship with consumers’ adoption toward e-banking. H3: Gender has positive relationship with consumers’ adoption toward e-banking. H0: Education has no positive relationship with consumers’ adoption toward e-banking. H4: Education has positive relationship with consumers’ adoption toward e-banking. H0: Convenience has no positive relationship with consumers’ adoption toward e-banking. H5: Convenience has positive relationship with consumers’ adoption toward e-banking. H0: Ease of use has no positive relationship with consumers’ adoption toward e-banking. H6: Ease of use has positive relationship with consumers’ adoption toward e-banking. H0: Reliability has no positive relationship with consumers’ adoption toward e-banking. H7: Reliability has positive relationship with consumers’ adoption toward e-banking H0: Save time and cost has no positive relationship with consumers’ adoption toward e-banking H8: Save time and cost has positive relationship with consumers’ adoption toward e-banking H0: Service or service quality has no positive relationship with consumers’ adoption toward e-banking H9: Service or service quality has positive relationship with consumers’ adoption toward e-banking H0: Trust has no positive relationship with consumers’ adoption toward e-banking H10: Trust has positive relationship with consumers’ adoption toward e-banking
A questionnaire was used to collect the primary data to answer the research questions that filled by the respondents in the paper. The questions are usually printed on paper, and then it may be via self-administered questionnaires, face-to-face interviews and also administrated through internet or e-mails. There are some specific location were chosen for distributing the questionnaires that having concentration of internet users such as MMU melaka, dataran pahlawan and CIMB banks of Batu Berendam, Melaka Town and also MMU. Self-administered questionnaires are more likely by respondents because face-to-face interviews are less applied due to the limitation of time of respondents. The questionnaire will involve the questions that regarding common sense of students and publics of what they perceive toward e-banking whether internet users or non-users. The advantage of face-to-face interviews is the answer from respondents will be more detail than self-administered questionnaires. The advantages of self-administered questionnaires method are save more time compared to interviewing, reduce cost and can give a large numbers of individuals at the same time. After having done the appropriate research, the results were used and collected as complete and valid for final analysis and hypothesis testing.
In this study the secondary data comprised previously study done by other researchers, government publications, industry analyses provided by the media, newspaper articles, books, and relevant materials found both in library and the internet (Sekaran, 2000). William (2003) stated that secondary data are data that have been previously gathered for some purpose other than the one at hand and it already assembled, usually historical and do not require access to subjects or respondents. Secondary data is saving time and cost of acquiring the information and cheaper compared to primary data. Besides that, secondary data search can recognize data, terminology and concepts; it may be useful and available in improves existing primary data. In this study we will utilize the secondary data such as journals, articles, annual reports, newspapers and information from internet to prove how the variables influencing consumers’ perception toward e-banking.
After the data has been collected, it is analyzed by using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences). SPSS can avoid us from making mistakes or even forgetting something. SPSS can create useful graphs and tables for better decision-making (Chong, 2006). Frequencies and percentage distributions of respondents’ demographic information were developed in tables by using SPSS to ensure that these responses were representative of the larger population of New Zealand and evaluate non-response bias (Podder, 2005). We can start with SPSS by defining a set of variables, and then enter data for the variables to generate a number of cases. After the data is entered into SPSS, the cases are all classified by values stored in the variables and then we can run an analysis. Next, we can instruct SPSS to draw graphs and charts the same way we instruct it to do an analysis. In this study, there are four analyses used to analyze the response of the survey. The analyses are frequency distribution, bivariate analysis with cross tabulation, Pearson’s correlation coefficient and analysis with multiple linear regressions.
Frequency distribution is a tabulation of the values that one or more variables obtain in sample in the statistics. A frequency distribution illustrates us a summarized grouping of data which divided into mutually exclusive classes and the number of occurrences in a class. Frequency distribution is a way to demonstrate unorganized data, such as illustrates results of age of people, sales of product within a certain period, income of people, height of student within a class and student tuition fees for a semester. There are some graphs that can be utilized with frequency distributions are bar charts, histograms, line graphs and pie charts.
In statistics, the Pearson’s correlation coefficient is defined as a method of the correlation between two variables X and Y to determine functional relationship between the variables. Besides that, Pearson Correlation can also provide value between +1 and -1 inclusive.
To offer larger insight than single statistics, cross tabulation is used in this study to display the joint distribution of two or more variables and identify the distribution of two or more variables at the same time. Each cell has single cross tabulation and illustrates the number of respondents that provide a specific combination of responses.
Descriptive statistics are utilized to illustrate the major elements of a collection of data in quantitative terms. It can also present and summarize some of a set data in the form of tables and charts, such as maximum, minimum, means, medians and standard deviations and variance between independent and dependant variables.
This chapter discussed about the proposed research model based on the factors influencing consumers’ perception toward e-banking. The model utilized five main variables as factors influence the consumers’ perception usefulness e-banking. Furthermore, the hypotheses are established based on the objectives of this study. Data collection and analysis is discussed in this chapter. The primary data is an original data collected and studied for a specific purpose by the investigator while the secondary data is collected by someone other than the user from censuses, surveys, organizational records and data collected through qualitative methodologies or qualitative research. The SPSS software is used to analyze the data which the result will be report in the following chapter.
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