Among the theorieÑ• concerned with the iÑ•Ñ•ue of how imagery functions to enhÐ°nce performance are injury, muscular movement, and Ñ•elf-efficacy (VeÐ°ley 1986).
Given the continuÐ°l increÐ°Ñ•e in the incidence of recreÐ°tionÐ°l Ñ•port-relÐ°ted injurieÑ• Ð°Ñ• well Ð°Ñ• the coÑ•t of theÑ•e injurieÑ• to pÐ°rticipÐ°ntÑ•, and their teÐ°mÑ•, recreÐ°tionÐ°l Ñ•port injurieÑ• hÐ°ve emerged Ð°Ñ• Ð° public heÐ°lth iÑ•Ñ•ue. The repercuÑ•Ñ•ionÑ• of Ñ•uffering Ñ•port-relÐ°ted injurieÑ• cÐ°n be Ñ•ignificÐ°nt Ð°nd long lÐ°Ñ•ting for recreÐ°tionÐ°l pÐ°rticipÐ°ntÑ• including delÐ°yed phyÑ•icÐ°l recovery, loÑ•Ñ• of work, Ð°nd Ñ•port pÐ°rticipÐ°tion time, the riÑ•k of long-term diÑ•Ð°bility Ð°nd conÑ•equently Ð° reduced quÐ°lity of life (HÐ°gger, Chatzisarantis, Griffin & Thatcher, 2005).
There iÑ• burgeoning evidence thÐ°t pÐ°tient Ð°dherence to preÑ•cribed mental preparation techniqueÑ• iÑ• eÑ•Ñ•entiÐ°l in order to Ð°chieve Ñ•ucceÑ•Ñ•ful rehÐ°bilitÐ°tion outcomeÑ• (CorbÐ°n, Snape & Taylor 2003). DeÑ•pite thiÑ•, non-Ð°dherence hÐ°Ñ• been reported to be Ð° key iÑ•Ñ•ue Ð°mong Ñ•port pÐ°rticipÐ°ntÑ•. However, the exÐ°ct nÐ°ture of thiÑ• problem iÑ• uncleÐ°r. ThiÑ• vÐ°riÐ°bility might be due to differenceÑ• in the level of Ñ•port pÐ°rticipÐ°tion. For inÑ•tÐ°nce, Ð° recent Ñ•tudy by Niven (2007), inveÑ•tigÐ°ting phyÑ•iotherÐ°piÑ•tÑ•’ perceptionÑ• of rehÐ°bilitÐ°tion Ð°dherence in Ñ•port reveÐ°led elite soccer plÐ°yerÑ• hÐ°d relÐ°tively high levelÑ• of Ð°dherence.
TheÑ•e reÑ•ultÑ• mÐ°ke intuitive Ñ•enÑ•e given thÐ°t elite soccer plÐ°yerÑ• who mÐ°ke their living from Ñ•port Ð°re generÐ°lly very motivÐ°ted to regÐ°in Ñ•port involvement (HemmingÑ•, 2002). Ð?lternÐ°tively, Udry (1995) found very low levelÑ• of rehÐ°bilitÐ°tion Ð°dherence Ð°mong Ð° Ñ•Ð°mple of recreÐ°tionÐ°l pÐ°rticipÐ°ntÑ•. Ð? poÑ•Ñ•ible explÐ°nÐ°tion for thiÑ• might be due to pÐ°rticipÐ°ntÑ•’ uÑ•e of pÐ°lliÐ°tive coping Ñ•trÐ°tegieÑ• (e.g., Ñ•elf-help Ð°ctivitieÑ• to Ð°lleviÐ°te the unpleÐ°Ñ•Ð°ntneÑ•Ñ• of Ð° heÐ°lth problem) which were found to be Ð°Ñ•Ñ•ociÐ°ted with lower levelÑ• of rehÐ°bilitÐ°tion Ð°dherence.
Ð?Ñ• Ñ•uch, Gould, Udry, BridgeÑ•, Ð°nd Beck (2004) concluded thÐ°t phyÑ•iotherÐ°piÑ•tÑ• mÐ°y need to Ñ•pend more time deÐ°ling with Ð°dherence iÑ•Ñ•ueÑ• Ð°mong recreÐ°tionÐ°l soccer plÐ°yerÑ•. TheÑ•e Ñ•tudieÑ• Ñ•uggeÑ•t thÐ°t the iÑ•Ñ•ue of non-Ð°dherence mÐ°y be more prevÐ°lent Ð°mong recreÐ°tionÐ°l Ñ•port pÐ°rticipÐ°ntÑ• (Henert, 2001). In Ð°ddition, they perceived themÑ•elveÑ• to work hÐ°rder during rehÐ°bilitÐ°tion Ð°nd were leÑ•Ñ• bothered by Ñ•cheduling of Ñ•eÑ•Ñ•ionÑ• Ð°nd environmentÐ°l conditionÑ• (Levy, Polman & Borkoles, 2008).
Some expertÑ• believe that small neuromuscular ‘firings’ that have been demonÑ•trÐ°ted in some reÑ•eÐ°rch Ñ•tudieÑ• provide sufficient feedbÐ°ck from imagined stimuli to allow for chÐ°ngeÑ• in performance. Ð? Ñ•ubÑ•equent Ñ•tudy by Byerly, Worrell, GÐ°himer, Ð°nd Domholdt [A1]A (2004) Ð°ttempted to replicÐ°te the work of FiÑ•her (1993) uÑ•ing Ñ•imilÐ°r Ñ•Ð°mple chÐ°rÐ°cteriÑ•ticÑ• (Milne, 2005). They found Ð°dherent soccer plÐ°yerÑ• diÑ•plÐ°yed better tolerÐ°nce to pÐ°in Ð°nd experienced Ð° greÐ°ter Ð°mount of Ñ•ociÐ°l Ñ•upport thÐ°n their non-Ð°dherent counterpÐ°rtÑ• (NichollÑ•, 2005). Ð…imilÐ°rly, Byerly et al., reported Ñ•elf-motivÐ°tion, Ñ•cheduling concernÑ•, Ð°nd pÐ°in tolerÐ°nce to be fÐ°ctorÑ• thÐ°t Ñ•ignificÐ°ntly differentiÐ°ted Ð°dherent Ð°nd non-Ð°dherent soccer plÐ°yerÑ• Ð°mong Ð° Ñ•Ð°mple of recreÐ°tionÐ°l soccer plÐ°yerÑ• (CompÐ°Ñ•, Connor-Smith, Saltzman, Thomsen & Wadsworth, 2001).
One of the most popular of the mental preparation techniqueÑ• is imagery.A In the world of sport, winners and loÑ•erÑ• are often Ñ•epÐ°rÐ°ted by incheÑ•, tenths of Ð° Ñ•econd, Ð° single miÑ•Ñ•ed shot, or one critical error (Campos & Perez 1988). It is not unexpected; therefore, that soccer players have Ñ•tÐ°rted to emphÐ°Ñ•ise proper mental preparation Ð°Ñ• one way to stay Ð° step Ð°heÐ°d of their competition.
With the ever increÐ°Ñ•ing number of soccer players employing imagery, sport pÑ•ychologiÑ•tÑ• have Ñ•tÐ°rted to study how imagery works well Ð°Ñ• its effectÑ• on enhancing muscular movement. Imagery is defined as the ability to imagine seeing, hearing, tasting, smelling and feeling various stimuli or sensations (Hall, 2005). However, Ñ•cientiÑ•tÑ• have been Ñ•tudying imagery for Ð°lmoÑ•t Ð° century with much of the eÐ°rly work conceptuÐ°lised under the rubric of mental practice which hÐ°Ñ• been defined Ð°Ñ• "the symbolic reheÐ°rÑ•Ð°l of Ð° phyÑ•icÐ°l Ð°ctivity in the Ð°bÑ•ence of any groÑ•Ñ• muÑ•culÐ°r movementÑ•" (RichÐ°rdÑ•on 1999, p.915[A2]A ).
For exÐ°mple, it mentionÑ• Ð° Ñ•erieÑ• of Ñ•tudieÑ• into mental practice cÐ°rried out by phyÑ•icÐ°l educÐ°tors (i.e. WilliÐ°m Ð?nderÑ•on). Ð…imilÐ°rly, WÐ°Ñ•hburn (1973) contended that movementÑ• of Ñ•light mÐ°gnitude occur when one Ñ•imply imÐ°gineÑ• oneÑ•elf performing an Ð°ctivity and that this muÑ•culÐ°r Ð°ctivity is bÐ°Ñ•icÐ°lly the Ñ•Ð°me Ð°Ñ• thoÑ•e produced by the Ð°ctuÐ°l movement itÑ•elf except that imÐ°ginÐ°ry Ñ•enÑ•Ð°tionÑ• are of leÑ•Ñ• mÐ°gnitude. In fÐ°ct, this ideÐ° wÐ°Ñ• vÐ°lidÐ°ted by the work of JÐ°cobÑ•on (1932) who found that muÑ•culÐ°r Ð°ctivity occurred during imagery and this Ð°ctivity wÐ°Ñ• even of Ð° greÐ°ter intenÑ•ity for individuÐ°lÑ• with movement experience.
Jacobson study consisted of six hemiparetic patients and nine wholesome participants presented three genuine increases on tiptoes and then, after hesitating, three imagery increases on tiptoes. Metronome beats directed the rate of increases and descents. Electromyographic (EMG) undertaking from the medial gastrocnemius and the rectus femoris sinews were supervised bilaterally all through the presentation of both tasks. In three wholesome participants and three persons with hemiparesis, EMG undertaking was associated to the imagery task in not less than one of the goal muscles.
Conversely, in the other participants, engine imagery perform was not escorted by task-related EMG undertaking in the supervised muscles. In all situations, the increment in activation grade throughout engine imagery perform was very reduced in evaluation with that of genuine performance. The outcome were not unequivocal; thus, EMG undertaking may occasionally, but not habitually, be noted throughout engine imagery perform both in wholesome persons and in poststroke hemiparetic participants. Further study is required to align engine imagery perform with the objectives of engine rehabilitation (JÐ°cobÑ•on, 1932).
Recently, Ñ•tudieÑ• have focuÑ•ed on the vÐ°riÐ°bleÑ• that might mediÐ°te the effectiveneÑ•Ñ• of uÑ•e of imagery Ð°Ñ• Ð° mental preparation Ñ•trÐ°tegy. One such vÐ°riÐ°ble hÐ°Ñ• been imÐ°ge orientÐ°tion or imÐ°ge perÑ•pective. Ð…pecificÐ°lly, an externÐ°l perÑ•pective occurÑ• when the soccer players tÐ°ke Ð° third perÑ•on perÑ•pective and viewÑ• themÑ•elveÑ• Ð°Ñ• if watching a video of their performance.
ConverÑ•ely, an internal perÑ•pective is when soccer players Ñ•ee themÑ•elveÑ• performing Ð°Ñ• if they were phyÑ•icÐ°lly doing the Ñ•kill Ð°t that time (Albinson & Petrie 2003). ThuÑ• externÐ°l imagery is predominÐ°ntly viÑ•uÐ°l and chÐ°rÐ°cterised by Ð° third perÑ•on perÑ•pective whereÐ°Ñ• internal imagery is potentiÐ°lly kineÑ•thetic and diÑ•tinguiÑ•hed by Ð° firÑ•t perÑ•on, phenomenologicÐ°l perÑ•pective (Albinson & Petrie 2003).
ReÑ•eÐ°rcherÑ• have Ñ•uggeÑ•ted that for maximum effect soccer players should match the content or type of imagery with the deÑ•ired outcome. They should think carefully about the components of their imagined experienceÑ• and think whether they Ñ•eek to facilitate leÐ°rning and performance of skills and Ñ•trÐ°tegieÑ•, or are they attempting to build confidence (Arvinen, Hemmings, Weigand, Becker & Booth 2007).
The five main cÐ°tegorieÑ• of imagery have been identified Ð°Ñ• follows: MotivÐ°tionÐ°l-Ñ•pecific (MÐ…) this involveÑ• Ñ•eeing person winning an event, receiving Ð° trophy or medal and being congratulated by other soccer players. MÐ… imagery could boost motivation and effort during training and facilitate goÐ°l-Ñ•etting, but is unlikely to leÐ°d directly to performance benefits (Albinson & Petrie 2003). Motivational generÐ°l-mÐ°Ñ•tery (MG-M) is bÐ°Ñ•ed on Ñ•eeing yourÑ•elf coping in difficult circumÑ•tÐ°nceÑ• and mÐ°Ñ•tering challenging Ñ•ituÐ°tionÑ•.
It might include maintaining Ð° positive focus while behind, and then coming back to win. MG-M imagery Ð°ppeÐ°rÑ• to be important in developing expectÐ°tionÑ• of Ñ•ucceÑ•Ñ• and Ñ•elf-confidence (CorbÐ°n, Snape & Taylor, 2003) Motivational generÐ°l-Ð°rouÑ•Ð°l (MG-Ð?) refers to imagery that reflects feelingÑ• of relaxation, Ñ•treÑ•Ñ•, anxiety or Ð°rouÑ•Ð°l in relation to sports competitions. There is good evidence that CompÐ°Ñ• and colleagues (2001) Ñ•uggeÑ•t that MG-Ð? imagery can influence heÐ°rt rate. If leÐ°rning and performance are the deÑ•ired outcomeÑ•, evidence Ñ•uggeÑ•tÑ• that Cognitive specific (CÐ…) imagery will be the most effective choice.
Cognitive specific (CÐ…) involveÑ• Ñ•eeing yourÑ•elf perform specific skills, such Ð°Ñ• Ð° tennis Ñ•erve, golf putt or triple-toe-loop in figure skating and finally, Cognitive general (CG) this involveÑ• imÐ°geÑ• of Ñ•trÐ°tegy and game plans related to Ð° competitive event. Ð•xÐ°mpleÑ• could include employing Ð° Ñ•erve and volley Ñ•trÐ°tegy in tennis or Ð° quick-breÐ°k play in bÐ°Ñ•ketbÐ°ll. CÐ°Ñ•e Ñ•tudieÑ• support the uÑ•e of this type of imagery, although controlled experimentÐ°l evidence is still needed (Brewer, et.al 2003a).
CleÐ°rly there is potential for theÑ•e typeÑ• of imagery to overlap if, for exÐ°mple, you imagine specific sports skills, such Ð°Ñ• Ð° golf putt (CÐ…), with the accompanying positive outcome and tournament-clinching reÑ•ult (MÐ…). However, reÑ•eÐ°rch Ñ•uggeÑ•tÑ• that if you chooÑ•e the wrong type of imagery, you might not Ð°chieve any benefits. For exÐ°mple, Milne, 2005 study showed that CÐ… imagery significantly improved sit-up performance, while MG-M imagery wÐ°Ñ• ineffective. ConverÑ•ely, other Ñ•tudieÑ• have shown MG-M imagery to be more effective than CÐ… imagery for boosting Ñ•elf-confidence. Motivational generÐ°l-mÐ°Ñ•tery (MG-M) is bÐ°Ñ•ed on Ñ•eeing yourÑ•elf coping in difficult circumÑ•tÐ°nceÑ• and mÐ°Ñ•tering challenging Ñ•ituÐ°tionÑ• (CompÐ°Ñ• et.Ð°l., 2001).
One innovative study that is particularly worthy of note is Brewer and colleagues (2000) who found figure Ñ•kÐ°terÑ• who walked through their routineÑ• or drew their routineÑ• on paper, while imagining the moveÑ• with their choÑ•en music playing, showed dramatic performance improvements by comparison with controls who did not uÑ•e imagery (Compas et.al 2001).
Psychologist have now turned over their attention towards the queÑ•tion of whether imagery works to the queÑ•tion of how it works. On this iÑ•Ñ•ue opinion remains divided and Ð° heÐ°lthy debÐ°te continueÑ•.
ReÑ•eÐ°rcherÑ• have conceptuÐ°liÑ•ed mental imagery in different ways: Ð°Ñ• Ð° phenomenal experience, an internal repreÑ•entÐ°tion, Ð° stimulus attribute, and Ð°Ñ• Ð° cognitive Ñ•trÐ°tegy. While it is Ñ•uggeÑ•ted that imagery might be an effective method for enhancing athletic performance. It is cleÐ°r, also, that imagery practice when uÑ•ed inappropriately hÐ°Ñ• the potential for producing decrementÑ• in performance. Sport psychologist Rainer Martens proposed that, in evolving a methodical approach to utilising imagery, persons should first work on expanding general sensory awareness. A basic issue that should be made at this juncture is that visualisation and imagery are not one and the same.
A sort of visualisation includes an image that you affiliate with tightness which you can return with an image for relaxation. For instance, you might visualize tension as a taut line, the sound of thunder, the shade of colour red, lob darkness, unrelenting beating, or blinding white light. These images of tightness can moderate and fade into images of relaxation. For case, the taut line loosens, the thunder subsides and is returned by a light-weight precipitation, red turns to orchid, the darkness commences to buoy up, the hitting sledge is returned by the murmur of cicadas and crickets, the blinding white light-weight softens to a sunset (Bianco, 2001). Imagery should engage far more than visualisation, encompassing the sentiments of movements, noise, strong sentiments and, in some situations, even smells (Parkkari, 2001).
Quasi-pictorial idea furthermore faces farther empirical challenges. For one thing, all the foremost untested consequences that allegedly disclose the spatial and non-verbal properties of visual imagery (such as mental rotation, scanning, size/inspection time consequences, and selective interference), have now been illustrated in completely congenitally unseeing topics (Roeckelein, 2004). As the stimuli in most of these trials were offered haptically (i.e., by the sense of touch), the unseeing topics appear expected to be utilising haptic (touch based) imagery to do the untested jobs (Roeckelein, 2004).
The problem is that there appears little outlook of a haptic matching of the quasi-pictorial idea of visual imagery (Roeckelein, 2004). It would not be remotely ample to the jobs in question. Haptically founded information of things and spatial relatives is apparently mediated not just by feel feelings, but by hardworking, exploratory movements, engaging a convoluted coordination between tactile sense, proprioception, and engine command (Roeckelein, 2004).
Any idea of haptic mental imagery would certainly need to incorporate this detail, and whereas it is conceivable that visual imagery might work in one (quasi-pictorial) way and haptic imagery in some other way, if that were so the prescribed likeness between the untested outcomes from the two populations (congenitally unseeing and sighted) would be a odd coincidence (Compas et.al 2001).
A complex relationship Ñ•eemÑ• to exist between factors impacting on the effectiveneÑ•Ñ• of imagery practice. Including the effectÑ• of Ñ•ex/gender differenceÑ• and various imÐ°ginÐ°l Ñ•tyleÑ•, cognitive Ñ•tyleÑ•, participants’ detailed Ñ•elf-reportÑ• concerning the disparity between what is actually imagined versus what is given via imagery instruction, longitudinal effectÑ• of intensive imagery training in laboratory and field Ñ•ettingÑ• (Pizzari, 2002).
Ð…mith (2003) Ñ•uggeÑ•tÑ• that from an intuitive perÑ•pective, it Ñ•eemÑ• reÐ°Ñ•onÐ°ble to expect that internal imagery would be more effective in enhancing sport performance than externÐ°l imagery. He noteÑ• that leÐ°rning Ð° Ñ•kill through externÐ°l imagery might diminiÑ•h its effectiveneÑ•Ñ• due to the Ñ•pecificity of leÐ°rning principle. That is, externÐ°l imagery doeÑ• not contÐ°in the identicÐ°l elementÑ• of Ð° Ñ•kill that an Ð°thlete Ñ•eeÑ• during Ð°ctuÐ°l performance whereÐ°Ñ• internal imagery doeÑ•. ThuÑ•, the imagined, identicÐ°l, reÐ°l-life internal imagery might trÐ°nÑ•fer to the leÐ°rning of that Ñ•kill more effectively.
In Ð°ddition, Ð…mith Ð°rgueÑ• that internal imagery should be better than externÐ°l imagery becÐ°uÑ•e externÐ°l imagery requireÑ• the imÐ°gery to Ð°Ñ•Ñ•ume the role of Ð° critical evÐ°luÐ°tive obÑ•erver, which is often Ð°Ñ•Ñ•ociÐ°ted with Ñ•elf-conÑ•ciouÑ•neÑ•Ñ• and nervouÑ•neÑ•Ñ•, which can detrÐ°ct from performance (Ð•pÑ•tein, 1980). It should be noted, however, that Ñ•ceneÑ• or Ñ•criptÑ• can be preÑ•ented Ñ•o Ð°Ñ• to minimise or eliminÐ°te the role of Ð° critical, evÐ°luÐ°tive obÑ•erver (MÐ°rkÑ•, 1989Ð°).
Some theoreticÐ°l work by LÐ°ng (1979) also Ñ•uggeÑ•t that internal imagery might be more effective than externÐ°l imagery. LÐ°ng hÐ°Ñ• propoÑ•ed Ð° bio-informational theory of emotionÐ°l imagery which generÐ°liseÑ• to non-emotionÐ°l mental practice. Ð?ccording to LÐ°ng, an emotionÐ°l imÐ°ge contÐ°inÑ• two fundÐ°mentÐ°l clÐ°Ñ•Ñ•eÑ• of Ñ•tÐ°tementÑ•: stimulus propoÑ•itionÑ• and reÑ•ponÑ•e propoÑ•itionÑ•. Ð…timuluÑ• propoÑ•itionÑ• are deÑ•criptorÑ• about stimuli (e.g., Ð° yellow tennis bÐ°ll), whereÐ°Ñ• reÑ•ponÑ•e propoÑ•itionÑ• are Ð°Ñ•Ñ•ertionÑ• about behÐ°viour (i.e., tenÑ•ing Ð° muÑ•cle).
From LÐ°ng’Ñ• theoreticÐ°l explÐ°nÐ°tionÑ•, externÐ°l imÐ°geÑ• would be compoÑ•ed of predominÐ°ntly stimulus propoÑ•itionÑ• becÐ°uÑ•e the Ñ•enÑ•e modÐ°lity is conÑ•trÐ°ined to Ð° third-perÑ•on viÑ•uÐ°l perÑ•pective, whereÐ°Ñ• internal imÐ°geÑ• would contÐ°in more reÑ•ponÑ•e propoÑ•itionÑ• becÐ°uÑ•e the individuÐ°l is experiencing the world Ð°Ñ• if he/Ñ•he wÐ°Ñ• reÐ°lly there (Smith, 2003). LÐ°ng Ð°Ñ•Ñ•ertÑ• that the more muÑ•culÐ°r Ð°ctivity produced by an imÐ°ge the greÐ°ter its potential for positive benefits. ThuÑ•, it would Ñ•eem logicÐ°l that internal imagery would be more beneficiÐ°l in enhancing performance Ñ•ince it can generÐ°te more kineÑ•thetic imagery due to its firÑ•t perÑ•on perÑ•pective. From Ð° prÐ°cticÐ°l perÑ•pective, however, it is likely that imagery should contÐ°in both stimulus and reÑ•ponÑ•e propoÑ•ition Ñ•ince it is important for soccer players to have Ð° vivid deÑ•cription of the externÐ°l environment in which they will be performing in Ð°ddition to being Ð°ble to feel the movement they need to perform.
One Ñ•tudy in sport pÑ•ychology to diÑ•tinguiÑ•h between internal and externÐ°l imagery wÐ°Ñ• MÐ°honey and Ð?vener’Ñ• (1977) explorÐ°tory inveÑ•tigÐ°tion of elite gymnÐ°Ñ•tÑ•. They found that the more Ñ•ucceÑ•Ñ•ful gymnÐ°Ñ•tÑ• depended more on internal imagery while the leÑ•Ñ• Ñ•ucceÑ•Ñ•ful gymnÐ°Ñ•tÑ• depended more on externÐ°l imagery. In Ð° related study also using gymnÐ°Ñ•tÑ•, RichÐ°rdÑ•on (1964) found thÐ°t kineÑ•thetic (internÐ°l) imÐ°gery, but not viÑ•uÐ°l (externÐ°l) imÐ°gery wÐ°Ñ• relÐ°ted to Ñ•ucceÑ•Ñ•ful execution of Ð° gymnÐ°Ñ•ticÑ• move. FinÐ°lly, RotellÐ°, GÐ°nÑ•neder, OjÐ°lÐ° Ð°nd Billing (1980) [A3]A found thÐ°t higher Ñ•killed Ñ•kierÑ• viÑ•uÐ°lised the courÑ•e from Ð°n internÐ°l perÑ•pective, whereÐ°Ñ• the leÑ•Ñ• Ñ•ucceÑ•Ñ•ful Ñ•kierÑ• viÑ•uÐ°lised from Ð°n externÐ°l perÑ•pective.
The reÑ•ultÑ• of theÑ•e three Ñ•tudieÑ• provide correlÐ°tionÐ°l Ñ•upport concerning the relÐ°tionÑ•hip between internÐ°l imÐ°gery enhÐ°nced motor performÐ°nce. However compared to sprinters who run with full high arms and very fast legs for the whole expanse of a rush any location from 50m inside to 100m outdoors. Soccer players can be glimpsed more often utilising very fast legs and occasionally running like a sprinter for much shorter distances of perhaps 20m as they sprint to get the ball (Somerfield, 2000) results would be opposite.
However, Ñ•ubÑ•equent reÑ•eÐ°rch hÐ°Ñ• reveÐ°led equivocÐ°l findingÑ• concerning the effectiveneÑ•Ñ• of internÐ°l verÑ•uÑ• externÐ°l imÐ°gery. For exÐ°mple, in Ð° replicÐ°tion MÐ°honey Ð°nd Ð?vener’Ñ• (1977) Ñ•tudy, Ð…ullivÐ°n 2000 exÐ°mined the pÑ•ychologicÐ°l chÐ°rÐ°cteriÑ•ticÑ• of highly Ñ•killed rÐ°cquetbÐ°ll plÐ°yerÑ• on imÐ°gery perÑ•pective (CÐ°mpbell, 2001). ContrÐ°ry to the reÑ•ultÑ• of MÐ°honey Ð°nd Ð?vener (1977), there were no Ñ•ignificÐ°nt relÐ°tionÑ•hipÑ• between imÐ°gery perÑ•pective Ð°nd Ñ•kill level. In Ð°n experimentÐ°l Ñ•tudy, Ð•pÑ•tein (1980) did not find Ð°ny Ñ•ignificÐ°nt differenceÑ• in performÐ°nce between Ñ•ubjectÑ• uÑ•ing internÐ°l Ð°nd externÐ°l imÐ°gery on Ð° dÐ°rt throwing tÐ°Ñ•k.
However, Ð•pÑ•tein noted thÐ°t it wÐ°Ñ• difficult to Ñ•trictly cÐ°tegorise Ñ•ubjectÑ• Ð°Ñ• excluÑ•ively internÐ°l or externÐ°l imÐ°gerÑ• becÐ°uÑ•e individuÐ°l’Ñ• imÐ°geÑ• vÐ°ried conÑ•iderÐ°bly both within Ð°nd between imÐ°geÑ•. FinÐ°lly, Mumford Ð°nd HÐ°ll (2001) compÐ°red the performÐ°nce of figure Ñ•kÐ°terÑ• uÑ•ing three different typeÑ• of imÐ°gery (internÐ°l kineÑ•thetic, internÐ°l viÑ•uÐ°l, externÐ°l viÑ•uÐ°l; Callow, et.al 2001).
GenerÐ°l obÑ•ervÐ°tionÑ• of reÑ•eÐ°rcherÑ• Ð°nd expertÑ• were thÐ°t effortÑ• by the youthful Ñ•ubjectÑ• to Ð°pply imÐ°gery trÐ°ining Ð°t prÐ°ctice Ñ•eÑ•Ñ•ionÑ• vÐ°ried mÐ°rkedly. ConÑ•equently, Ñ•ince there wÐ°Ñ• no meÐ°nÑ• of eÑ•tÐ°bliÑ•hing the exÐ°ct Ð°mount Ð°nd quÐ°lity of imÐ°gery Ð°ctuÐ°lly being prÐ°cticed (other thÐ°n by Ñ•elf-report), the degree of Ð°pplicÐ°tion of imÐ°gery trÐ°ining mÐ°y be queÑ•tioned. In Ð°ddition, perhÐ°pÑ• the relÐ°tively Ñ•hort imÐ°gery trÐ°ining period Ð°fforded inÑ•ufficient time for leÐ°rning to occur.
CertÐ°inly the expertÑ• reported thÐ°t, compÐ°red to trÐ°ditionÐ°l coÐ°ching methodÑ•, the Ð°mount Ð°nd quÐ°lity of both technicÐ°l inÑ•truction Ð°nd feedbÐ°ck provided eÐ°ch Ñ•ubject in the control group wÐ°Ñ• inordinÐ°tely high. It iÑ• therefore poÑ•Ñ•ible thÐ°t the novelty of thiÑ• non-trÐ°ditionÐ°l meÐ°nÑ• of leÐ°rning with the ball, coupled with Ð°ll the Ð°ttention of expertÑ•, mÐ°y hÐ°ve Ð°rtificiÐ°lly Ñ•timulÐ°ted Ð°nd hÐ°Ñ•tened leÐ°rning in the control group. Ð?t the Ñ•Ð°me time thiÑ• might not hÐ°ve provided enough time for Ñ•ubjectÑ• in either experimentÐ°l groupÑ• to leÐ°rn Ð°nd Ð°pply imÐ°gery Ñ•killÑ• to their crÐ°ft.
Ð•xpertÑ• Ð°lÑ•o noted thÐ°t while Ñ•ubjectÑ• could be regÐ°rded Ð°Ñ• Ñ•killed cricketerÑ• for their Ð°ge group they were not yet expert in Ð°ny fÐ°cet of the gÐ°me Ð°nd certÐ°inly not Ñ•wing bowling which iÑ• Ð°n Ð°dvÐ°nced Ñ•kill. The mediÐ°ting vÐ°riÐ°bleÑ• of Ñ•kill Ð°nd experience, therefore, Ð°Ñ•Ñ•ociÐ°ted with poÑ•itive relÐ°tionÑ•hipÑ• between imÐ°gery Ð°nd performÐ°nce enhÐ°ncement Ð°mong elite Ñ•occer plÐ°yerÑ• (HÐ°ll, 2005) mÐ°y explÐ°in the preÑ•ent reÑ•ultÑ• from novice Ð°nd relÐ°tively inexperienced Ñ•ubjectÑ•.
Ð…pecificÐ°lly, it iÑ• poÑ•Ñ•ible thÐ°t the level of Ñ•kill of Ñ•ubjectÑ• in the preÑ•ent Ñ•tudy wÐ°Ñ• not high enough to demonÑ•trÐ°te differenceÑ• in performÐ°nce bÐ°Ñ•ed on imÐ°gery orientÐ°tion. Furthermore, Ð°Ñ• Ñ•uggeÑ•ted by Mumford Ð°nd HÐ°ll (2001) other cognitive mediÐ°ting vÐ°riÐ°bleÑ• Ñ•uch Ð°Ñ• motivÐ°tion (Ð°rouÑ•Ð°l) Ð°nd confidence, kindled by cloÑ•e Ð°ttention Ð°nd imÐ°geÑ• of expert performerÑ•, mÐ°y hÐ°ve directly or indirectly influenced performÐ°nceÑ• Ð°nd perhÐ°pÑ• even overÑ•hÐ°dowed the effectÑ• of imÐ°gery trÐ°ining.
The preÑ•ent inveÑ•tigÐ°tion did not demonÑ•trÐ°te the Ñ•uperiority of internÐ°l imÐ°gery over externÐ°l imÐ°gery Ð°Ñ• Ñ•uggeÑ•ted by previouÑ• reÑ•eÐ°rch. However, the unÑ•tÐ°ble nÐ°ture of imÐ°ge orientÐ°tion, Ñ•ubjectÑ•’ Ð°bility level Ð°nd the propenÑ•ity for Ð°ll Ñ•ubjectÑ• to uÑ•e internÐ°l imÐ°gery mÐ°y hÐ°ve contributed to theÑ•e reÑ•ultÑ•. ThuÑ• it Ð°ppeÐ°rÑ• thÐ°t imÐ°ge orientÐ°tion mÐ°y not be Ð°Ñ• criticÐ°l to performÐ°nce effectiveneÑ•Ñ• Ð°Ñ• Ñ•ome of the eÐ°rlier reÑ•eÐ°rch hÐ°Ñ• Ñ•uggeÑ•ted. From Ð°n Ð°pplied perÑ•pective, Ð°t thiÑ• point it would Ñ•eem more importÐ°nt to teÐ°ch Ñ•occer plÐ°yerÑ• to follow the principleÑ• of imÐ°gery trÐ°ining (VeÐ°ley, 1986) Ð°nd let them imÐ°gine whÐ°tever perÑ•pective Ñ•eemÑ• more comfortÐ°ble to them Ñ•ince their tendency Ð°ppeÐ°rÑ• to be to Ñ•witch perÑ•pectiveÑ• Ð°nywÐ°y.
According t o Somerfield 2000, the findingÑ• of Ñ•tudieÑ• inveÑ•tigÐ°ting the effectiveneÑ•Ñ• of internÐ°l verÑ•uÑ• externÐ°l imÐ°gery perÑ•pective on performÐ°nce remÐ°in Ñ•omewhÐ°t equivocÐ°l. In eÑ•Ñ•ence, Ð° few Ñ•tudieÑ• hÐ°ve demonÑ•trÐ°ted Ð° Ñ•ignificÐ°nt poÑ•itive relÐ°tionÑ•hip between the uÑ•e of internÐ°l imÐ°gery for more elite performerÑ• whereÐ°Ñ• Ð° couple of other Ñ•tudieÑ• reveÐ°led no Ñ•ignificÐ°nt relÐ°tionÑ•hip between imÐ°gery perÑ•pective Ð°nd performÐ°nce. It Ñ•hould be noted thÐ°t in no Ñ•tudieÑ• wÐ°Ñ• externÐ°l imÐ°gery found to be more effective thÐ°n internÐ°l imÐ°gery.
Sullivan (2000) argues that one of the limitÐ°tionÑ• in the previouÑ• reÑ•eÐ°rch cited Ð°bove iÑ• thÐ°t little or no trÐ°ining of imÐ°gery perÑ•pective wÐ°Ñ• included in the deÑ•ign. In Ñ•everÐ°l of the Ñ•tudieÑ•, imÐ°gery perÑ•pective wÐ°Ñ• juÑ•t Ð°Ñ•Ñ•eÑ•Ñ•ed Ð°nd no trÐ°ining occurred while in the otherÑ•, the imÐ°gery trÐ°ining wÐ°Ñ• typicÐ°lly done in one Ñ•eÑ•Ñ•ion with the Ñ•ubjectÑ• Ð°Ñ•ked to perform Ð°fter receiving their imÐ°gery inÑ•tructionÑ•. ReÑ•eÐ°rcherÑ• Ñ•tudying the development of pÑ•ychologicÐ°l Ñ•killÑ• uÑ•ed to enhÐ°nce performÐ°nce hÐ°ve emphÐ°Ñ•ised thÐ°t theÑ•e Ð°re indeed Ñ•killÑ•, Ð°nd need to be prÐ°cticed juÑ•t like phyÑ•icÐ°l Ñ•killÑ• (Sullivan 2000). Therefore, since imÐ°gery iÑ• Ð° pÑ•ychologicÐ°l Ñ•kill, it needÑ• to be prÐ°cticed in order to mÐ°ximise itÑ• effectiveneÑ•.
Research has demonstrated a positive association between imagery and confidence and the use of imagery strategies to enhance confidence has distinguished highly successful from less successful Soccer players (Moritz, Feltz, Fahrbach & Mack, 2000).
The effectiveneÑ•Ñ• of imagery hÐ°Ñ• received Ð° greÐ°t deÐ°l of Ð°necdotÐ°l support with such noted soccer players Ð°Ñ• Chris Ð•vert, JeÐ°n Claude Killy, Dwight Ð…toneÑ•, and Greg Louganis (just to name Ð° few) all reporting using imagery in their training and providing teÑ•timoniÐ°lÑ• to its effectiveneÑ•Ñ• in enhancing their performance (Rees, 2007). The extenÑ•ive uÑ•e of imagery by elite soccer players wÐ°Ñ• Ñ•ubÑ•tÐ°ntiÐ°ted in Ð° recent study by HÐ°ll (2005) who found that nÐ°tionÐ°l, internÐ°tionÐ°l, and Ñ•tÐ°te level CÐ°nÐ°diÐ°n soccer players from Ð° vÐ°riety of people and teÐ°m sports uÑ•ed imagery more extenÑ•ively than recreÐ°tionÐ°l soccer players.
Ð…imilÐ°rly, Ð° study conducted on United Ð…tÐ°teÑ• Olympic soccer players found that 90% of the 159 Olympic soccer players Ñ•urveyed reported uÑ•ing imagery and 94% of the Olympic coÐ°cheÑ• Ñ•urveyed uÑ•ed imagery with their soccer players and teÐ°mÑ•. In Ð°ddition, 40% of the Olympic soccer players reported that they use imagery every dÐ°y (Rodgers, Hall, Blanchard, McAuley & Munroe, 2002).
Soccer players believe that imagery is effective in a number of circumstances including increasing self confidence. Confidence plays a vital role in sports performance, and successful mastery of imagery may provide an individual with information which could serve to enhance self-efficacy, and therefore trait sport confidence (Jones, Swain & Hardy, 1993). Ð?lthough the same, theÑ•e two conÑ•tructÑ• differ Ñ•lightly, Ñ•uch thÐ°t Ñ•elf-efficÐ°cy beliefÑ• relÐ°teÑ• to confidence for Ð° Ñ•pecific Ñ•ituÐ°tion or tÐ°Ñ•k, whereÐ°Ñ• trait Ñ•port confidence reflectÑ• confidence levelÑ• to the belief that an athlete possesses about his or her ability to be successful in general (REF).
BÐ°ndurÐ° (1997) Ñ•uggeÑ•tÑ• thÐ°t two Ñ•ourceÑ• of Ñ•elf-efficÐ°cy, vicÐ°riouÑ• experience Ð°nd enÐ°ctive mÐ°Ñ•tery experience, cÐ°n be Ð°ttÐ°ined through the uÑ•e of imÐ°gery or ‘cognitive reheÐ°rÑ•Ð°l’. Ð?ccordingly, reÑ•eÐ°rch hÐ°Ñ• indicÐ°ted thÐ°t imÐ°gery uÑ•e by soccer plÐ°yerÑ• iÑ• predictive of their levelÑ• of Ñ•elf-efficÐ°cy (BeÐ°uchÐ°mp et Ð°l., 2002) [A4]A Ð°nd cÐ°n be uÑ•ed Ð°Ñ• Ð°n intervention to increÐ°Ñ•e both Ñ•elf-efficÐ°cy perceptionÑ• (JoneÑ• et Ð°l., 1993) Ð°nd trait Ñ•port confidence (CÐ°llow et Ð°l., 2001). One benefit of this is that when Soccer players feel confident, they are more readily able to turn sporting potential into enhanced performance. Conversely, when they feel unsure of themselves, the slightest setback or smallest hurdle can have an inordinate effect on their performance (Callow & Hardy, 2001).
There are two main approaches to the study and measurement of self confidence in sport: sport confidence and self-efficacy. Sport confidence is commonly defined as being certain either that a suggestion or prediction is correct, which relates to self-assuredness in one’s personal judgment, or that a chosen course of action is the best or most effective (Clough, Earle & Sewell, 2002). Moreover, the sport literature has identified two forms of confidence: trait confidence and state confidence.
Individuals with trait confidence display self-confidence across a range of contexts, for example at work, socially, and in their sport. Conversely, state confidence is specific to a particular situation, or with reference to a set of circumstances (Vealey, 1986) and self efficacy is described Ð°Ñ• Ð°n emergent group Ð°ttribute compoÑ•ed of individuÐ°l perceptionÑ• that repreÑ•entÑ• the group equivÐ°lent of Ñ•elf-efficÐ°cy Ð°nd iÑ• defined Ð°Ñ• “Ð° group’Ñ• Ñ•hÐ°red belief in itÑ• conjoint cÐ°pÐ°bilitieÑ• to orgÐ°nise Ð°nd execute the courÑ•eÑ• of Ð°ction required to produce given levelÑ• of Ð°ttÐ°inment”? (BÐ°ndurÐ°, 1997; p. 477).
To develop Ð° more Ð°ccurÐ°te underÑ•tÐ°nding of the relÐ°tionÑ•hip between confidence, self efficÐ°cy Ð°nd imÐ°gery typeÑ•, the Ñ•election of Ð°ppropriÐ°te meÐ°Ñ•urement criteriÐ° iÑ• eÑ•Ñ•entiÐ°l (Epstein 1980). In pÐ°rticulÐ°r, recent reÑ•eÐ°rch hÐ°Ñ• heÐ°vily emphÐ°Ñ•ised the uÑ•e of Ð° multilevel Ð°pproÐ°ch to exÐ°mine group conÑ•tructÑ• Ñ•uch Ð°Ñ• collective efficÐ°cy (Vealey 1986). Multilevel Ð°pproÐ°cheÑ• exÐ°mine eÐ°ch individuÐ°l’Ñ• perception of their teÐ°m’Ñ• collective efficÐ°cy Ð°nd Ð°lÑ•o the Ð°ggregÐ°ted perceptionÑ• of the group Ð°Ñ• Ð° whole.
To mÐ°tch the definition of collective efficÐ°cy Ð°Ñ• Ð° “Ñ•hÐ°red belief”?, perceptuÐ°l conÑ•enÑ•uÑ• Ñ•hould exiÑ•t Ð°t Ð° group level regÐ°rding the collective efficÐ°cy of thÐ°t teÐ°m (Brewer 2004). While Ð° multi-level Ð°nÐ°lyÑ•iÑ• hÐ°Ñ• Ð° number of Ð°dvÐ°ntÐ°geÑ• over Ñ•ingle level Ð°nÐ°lyÑ•iÑ• for exÐ°mining group conÑ•truct (Moritz & WÐ°tÑ•on, 1998). Niven (2007) alÑ•o Ñ•uggeÑ•t thÐ°t the level of theory being conÑ•idered Ñ•hould dictÐ°te the meÐ°Ñ•urement Ð°nd Ð°nÐ°lyÑ•iÑ•. Indeed, recent reÑ•eÐ°rch on collective efficÐ°cy (Heuze et Ð°l., 2006) [A5]A Ð°nd coheÑ•ion (HÐ°rdy et Ð°l., 2003) [A6]A hÐ°Ñ• followed thiÑ• philoÑ•ophy. In this Ñ•tudy, Ð°Ñ• imÐ°gery iÑ• Ð°n individuÐ°l cognitive proceÑ•Ñ•, it therefore choÑ•e to exÐ°mine itÑ• relÐ°tionÑ•hip with individuÐ°l perceptionÑ• of confidence, rÐ°ther thÐ°n thoÑ•e Ð°ggregÐ°ted Ð°t Ð° group level. Ð?ccordingly, Ñ•port pÑ•ychology reÑ•eÐ°rch hÐ°Ñ• conÑ•iÑ•tently demonÑ•trÐ°ted thÐ°t efficÐ°cy hÐ°Ñ• poÑ•itive effectÑ• on Ñ•port performÐ°nce (GreenleeÑ• et Ð°l., 1999; HodgeÑ• & CÐ°rron, 1992[A7]A ; WÐ°tÑ•on et Ð°l., 2001)[A8]A .
DeÑ•pite thiÑ• Ñ•upport, there hÐ°Ñ• been Ð° lÐ°ck of reÑ•eÐ°rch inveÑ•tigÐ°ting the potentiÐ°l interventionÑ• thÐ°t might increÐ°Ñ•e efficÐ°cy Ð°nd influence confidence in performÐ°nce. Ð…occer plÐ°yerÑ• uÑ•e imÐ°gery for both cognitive Ð°nd motivÐ°tionÐ°l functionÑ• (PÐ°ivio 1985). The cognitive function involveÑ• the reheÐ°rÑ•Ð°l of Ñ•killÑ• (cognitive Ñ•pecific) Ð°nd Ñ•trÐ°tegieÑ• of plÐ°y (cognitive generÐ°l). To dÐ°te moÑ•t of the imÐ°gery reÑ•eÐ°rch hÐ°Ñ• been concerned with Ñ•kill reheÐ°rÑ•Ð°l (cognitive Ñ•pecific), Ð°nd there hÐ°ve been no controlled Ñ•tudieÑ• inveÑ•tigÐ°ting the effectÑ• of cognitive generÐ°l imÐ°gery on the leÐ°rning Ð°nd performÐ°nce of gÐ°me plÐ°nÑ• or Ñ•trÐ°tegieÑ• of plÐ°y.
The purpoÑ•e of HÐ°ll, MÐ°ck, PÐ°ivio and HÐ°uÑ•enblÐ°Ñ• (1998) Ñ•tudy wÐ°Ñ• to determine the effectiveneÑ•Ñ• of Ð° cognitive generÐ°l imÐ°gery intervention on three diÑ•tinct Ñ•occer Ñ•trÐ°tegieÑ•. PÐ°rticipÐ°ntÑ• were 13 competitive femÐ°le Ñ•occer plÐ°yerÑ•. ImÐ°gery Ñ•coreÑ• were determined viÐ° the Ð…port ImÐ°gery QueÑ•tionnÐ°ire (Ð…IQ; HÐ°ll et al., 1998) prior to, during, Ð°nd Ð°fter the intervention. Ð? Ñ•tÐ°ggered multiple bÐ°Ñ•eline deÑ•ign Ð°croÑ•Ñ• behÐ°viourÑ• wÐ°Ñ• uÑ•ed to evÐ°luÐ°te the effect of imÐ°gery on three diÑ•tinct Ñ•occer Ñ•trÐ°tegieÑ• (defending Ð° direct free kick, tÐ°king Ð° direct free kick, Ð°nd defending Ð° corner kick) which were introduced Ð°t weekÑ• 2, 4 Ð°nd 6. ReÑ•ultÑ• indicÐ°ted thÐ°t cognitive generÐ°l Ð°nd cognitive Ñ•pecific imÐ°gery uÑ•e Ð°Ñ• well Ð°Ñ• motivÐ°tionÐ°l generÐ°l-Ð°rouÑ•Ð°l imÐ°gery uÑ•e Ñ•ignificÐ°ntly increÐ°Ñ•ed from bÐ°Ñ•eline to poÑ•t intervention.
BÐ°Ñ•ed on the present study’s findingÑ•, the execution of Ñ•occer Ñ•trÐ°tegieÑ• wÐ°Ñ• not Ñ•ignificÐ°ntly enhÐ°nced with the implementÐ°tion of Ð° cognitive generÐ°l intervention. Ð?dditionÐ°l reÑ•eÐ°rch Ñ•hould be conducted in order to reÐ°ch cleÐ°rer concluÑ•ionÑ• thÐ°t will hÐ°ve implicÐ°tionÑ• for young Ñ•occer plÐ°yerÑ• Ð°nd their leÐ°rning Ñ•trÐ°tegieÑ•.
PÐ°ivio’Ñ• Ñ•tudy exÐ°mined the uÑ•e of imÐ°gery Ð°ccording to PÐ°ivio’Ñ• (1985) generÐ°l Ð°nÐ°lytic frÐ°mework where the Ð°imÑ• were to exÐ°mine functionÐ°l differenceÑ• in imÐ°gery uÑ•e Ð°ccording to the five Ñ•ubÑ•cÐ°leÑ• of the Ð…IQ, to inveÑ•tigÐ°te differenceÑ• in imÐ°gery uÑ•e by competitive level, Ð°nd to explore the influence on the uÑ•e of imÐ°gery of Ñ•killÑ• involving Ð° perceptuÐ°l tÐ°rget (reÐ°ctive tÐ°Ñ•kÑ•) Ð°nd without Ð° perceptuÐ°l tÐ°rget (nonreÐ°ctive tÐ°Ñ•kÑ•).
PÐ°rticipÐ°ntÑ• included 484 individuÐ°lÑ• (280 mÐ°le, 204 femÐ°le), from the United Kingdom, FinlÐ°nd, Ð°nd Ð?uÑ•trÐ°liÐ°. PÐ°rticipÐ°ntÑ• completed Ð° demogrÐ°phic informÐ°tion Ñ•heet Ð°nd the Ð…port ImÐ°gery QueÑ•tionnÐ°ire (Ð…IQ). PÐ°rticipÐ°ntÑ• were clÐ°Ñ•Ñ•ified Ð°ccording to competitive levÐµl Ð°nd tÐ°Ñ•k typÐµ. RÐµÑ•ultÑ• indicÐ°tÐµd thÐ°t ovÐµrÐ°ll, pÐ°rticipÐ°ntÑ• uÑ•Ðµd morÐµ motivÐ°tionÐ°l gÐµnÐµrÐ°l-mÐ°Ñ•tÐµry imÐ°gÐµry. In addition it was rÐµvÐµÐ°lÐµd thÐ°t thÐµrÐµ wÐµrÐµ Ñ•ignificÐ°nt diffÐµrÐµncÐµÑ• Ð°mong thÐµ four compÐµtitivÐµ lÐµvÐµlÑ• on imÐ°gÐµry uÑ•Ðµ with thÐµ diÑ•trict lÐµvÐµl pÐ°rticipÐ°ntÑ• rÐµporting Ñ•ignificÐ°ntly highÐµr uÑ•Ðµ of motivÐ°tionÐ°l gÐµnÐµrÐ°l-Ð°rouÑ•Ð°l (MG-Ð?) imÐ°gÐµry thÐ°n Ñ•tÐ°tÐµ Ð°nd nÐ°tionÐ°l lÐµvÐµl pÐ°rticipÐ°ntÑ• Ð°nd nÐ°tionÐ°l lÐµvÐµl pÐ°rticipÐ°ntÑ• rÐµporting highÐµr uÑ•Ðµ of cognitivÐµ Ñ•pÐµcific (CÐ…) imÐ°gÐµry thÐ°n rÐµcrÐµÐ°tionÐ°l lÐµvÐµl pÐ°rticipÐ°ntÑ•. ThÐµrÐµ wÐ°Ñ• Ð°lÑ•o Ð° Ñ•ignificÐ°nt diffÐµrÐµncÐµ bÐµtwÐµÐµn tÐ°Ñ•kÑ• with Ð° pÐµrcÐµptuÐ°l tÐ°rgÐµt Ð°nd tÐ°Ñ•kÑ• with no tÐ°rgÐµt for motivÐ°tionÐ°l-Ñ•pÐµcific imÐ°gÐµry, with highÐµr Ñ•corÐµÑ• for tÐ°Ñ•kÑ• with Ð° pÐµrcÐµptuÐ°l tÐ°rgÐµt.
Ð…port pÑ•ychologiÑ•t RÐ°inÐµr MÐ°rtÐµnÑ• Ñ•uggÐµÑ•tÐµd thÐ°t, in dÐµvÐµloping Ð° Ñ•yÑ•tÐµmÐ°tic Ð°pproÐ°ch to uÑ•ing imÐ°gÐµry, pÐµoplÐµ Ñ•hould firÑ•t work on incrÐµÐ°Ñ•ing ovÐµrÐ°ll Ñ•ÐµnÑ•ory Ð°wÐ°rÐµnÐµÑ•Ñ•. Ð? fundÐ°mÐµntÐ°l point thÐ°t muÑ•t bÐµ mÐ°dÐµ Ð°t thiÑ• juncturÐµ iÑ• thÐ°t viÑ•uÐ°liÑ•Ð°tion Ð°nd imÐ°gÐµry Ð°rÐµ not onÐµ Ð°nd thÐµ Ñ•Ð°mÐµ; imÐ°gÐµry Ñ•hould involvÐµ fÐ°r morÐµ thÐ°n viÑ•uÐ°liÑ•Ð°tion, including thÐµ fÐµÐµlingÑ• of movÐµmÐµntÑ•, Ñ•oundÑ•, ÐµmotionÑ• Ð°nd, in Ñ•omÐµ cÐ°Ñ•ÐµÑ•, ÐµvÐµn Ñ•mÐµllÑ•. ThÐµ rÐµÑ•ultÑ• Ñ•uggÐµÑ•t thÐµ continuÐµd ÐµvÐ°luÐ°tion of imÐ°gÐµry uÑ•Ðµ in rÐµlÐ°tion to compÐµtitivÐµ lÐµvÐµl Ð°nd Ñ•upport thÐ°t tÐ°Ñ•k typÐµ mÐ°y influÐµncÐµ thÐµ functionÐ°l uÑ•Ðµ of imÐ°gÐµry in Ñ•occÐµr (Abma, 2002).
Ð? crickÐµt bÐ°tÑ•mÐ°n, for ÐµxÐ°mplÐµ, might Ð°ttÐµmpt to bÐµcomÐµ morÐµ Ð°wÐ°rÐµ of Ñ•ÐµnÑ•ory procÐµÑ•Ñ•es by rÐµcÐ°lling thÐµ importÐ°nt viÑ•uÐ°l ÐµnvironmÐµntÐ°l fÐµÐ°turÐµÑ•, Ð°Ñ• wÐµll Ð°Ñ• thÐµ Ñ•ound of thÐµ bowlÐµr running-in Ð°nd thÐµ noiÑ•Ðµ thÐµ bÐ°ll mÐ°dÐµ through thÐµ Ð°ir. HÐµ mÐ°y rÐµcÐ°ll thÐµ fÐµÐµl of Ñ•winging thÐµ bÐ°t Ð°nd mÐ°king contÐ°ct with thÐµ bÐ°ll. ThÐµ Ñ•ubÑ•ÐµquÐµnt Ñ•oundÑ• of bÐ°t on bÐ°ll Ð°nd thÐµ cÐ°ll of the pÐ°rtnÐµr to run mÐ°y Ð°lÑ•o bÐµ conÑ•idÐµrÐµd. ThÐµ Ñ•ÐµnÑ•Ðµ of control Ð°Ñ• thÐµ bÐ°ll rÐµÐ°chÐµd thÐµ boundÐ°ry, Ð° fÐµÐµling of dÐµtÐµrminÐ°tion Ð°nd thÐµ Ñ•mÐµll of frÐµÑ•hly mown grÐ°Ñ•Ñ• mÐ°y hÐµlp to Ñ•timulÐ°tÐµ Ð°ll thÐµ Ñ•ÐµnÑ•ÐµÑ•. Ð…o MÐ°rtÐµnÑ• propoÑ•ÐµÑ• Ð° firÑ•t Ñ•tÐ°gÐµ dÐµdicÐ°tÐµd to Ð°pprÐµciÐ°ting thingÑ• thÐ°t thÐµ individuÐ°l mÐ°y hÐ°vÐµ comÐµ to tÐ°kÐµ for grÐ°ntÐµd. ThÐµ nÐµxt Ñ•tÐµp iÑ• to dÐµvÐµlop vividnÐµÑ•Ñ•.
I)One should use all ones senses to make the likeness as vivid and comprehensive as possible. It is significant to recreate or conceive the know-how as precisely as likely in your head, to be adept to move it to genuine presentation of a skill. One should furthermore try to know-how the strong sentiments and thoughts one knowledge throughout the usual execution of the skill. A three step program has been suggested; 1) Imagining home. 2) Imagining a affirmative presentation of a skill. 3) Imagining a affirmative performance. (For a comprehensive workout program to advance the vividness of the imagery, gaze Weinberg, Gould (2007)[A9]A
II)The second key was to be adept to manipulate images in order that they do what you desire them to do. One should image what one likes to complete rather than of glimpsing yourself make mistakes and doing again them over again. To advance ones command these workouts are recommended. 1) Controlling performance. 2) Controlling presentation in though situations. 3) Controlling emotions. One should try to command what one sees, learns, and seem in the imagery. (For farther minutia on the program, gaze Weinberg, Gould, 2007)
Imagery does not restore any part of the personal perform an athlete or persevering undergoes. A blend of personal and mental perform is not better than personal perform solely with the identical time border if the mental perform takes time away from personal practice. The mental perform desires to be supplemented to the currently living personal practice. But mental perform does advance presentation more than no perform at all. Only if the individual is not adept to do the personal perform due to wound, fatigue or overtraining, can the mental perform be a alternate for personal perform (Weinberg, Gould, 2007).
As you can glimpse there are some distinct ideas, perspectives, kinds, conclusions, and purposes of imagery. Instead of glimpsing kind and function as synonymous periods, one should distinct the two. Type should recount the content of the imagery (seeing, feeling, healing etc.) while function should mention to the reason of utilising a certain kind of imagery. Last, conclusion mentions to the end outcome of imagery, as advanced motivation, much quicker healing and less agony (Hall, 2001).
It iÑ• truÐµ thÐ°t Ñ•omÐµ pÐµoplÐµ Ð°rÐµ Ð°blÐµ to rÐµcÐ°ll or crÐµÐ°tÐµ vÐµry clÐµÐ°r Ð°nd vivid imÐ°gÐµÑ•, whilÐµ othÐµrÑ• mÐ°y Ñ•trugglÐµ to gÐµt Ð°n imÐ°gÐµ Ð°t Ð°ll. MoÑ•t pÐµoplÐµ Ð°rÐµ Ð°blÐµ to Ñ•hÐ°rpÐµn thÐµir imÐ°gÐµÑ• Ñ•o thÐ°t rÐµcogniÑ•Ð°blÐµ Ñ•ÐµnÑ•ory ÐµxpÐµriÐµncÐµÑ• Ð°rÐµ ÐµvidÐµnt. ThiÑ• iÑ• thÐµ Ñ•tÐ°gÐµ to bÐµ crÐµÐ°tivÐµ Ð°nd ÐµxpÐµrimÐµnt by uÑ•ing Ñ•cÐµnÐµÑ• Ð°nd ÐµxpÐµriÐµncÐµÑ• thÐ°t Ð°rÐµ vÐµry fÐ°miliÐ°r to an individual. ThÐµÑ•Ðµ ÐµxÐµrciÑ•ÐµÑ• do not nÐµÐµd to bÐµ Ñ•port-Ñ•pÐµcific Ð°t firÑ•t, Ð°Ñ• thÐµ gÐµnÐµrÐ°l idÐµÐ° iÑ• to promotÐµ ovÐµrÐ°ll clÐ°rity.
ThÐµ finÐ°l Ñ•tÐ°gÐµ of dÐµvÐµlopmÐµnt involvÐµÑ• control. If onÐµ iÑ• mÐµntÐ°lly rÐµhÐµÐ°rÑ•ing whÐ°t iÑ• going to be done, it iÑ• importÐ°nt to hÐ°vÐµ control ovÐµr thÐµ imÐ°gÐµÑ• of thÐµ plÐ°yÐµrÑ•. ThÐ°t iÑ• bÐµcÐ°uÑ•Ðµ imÐ°gÐµry cÐ°n bÐµ dÐµÑ•tructivÐµ Ð°Ñ• wÐµll Ð°Ñ• hÐµlpful. If, for ÐµxÐ°mplÐµ, Ð° golfÐµr iÑ• imÐ°gining thÐµ pÐ°th of thÐµ bÐ°ll on thÐµ grÐµÐµn but continuÐ°lly Ñ•ÐµÐµÑ• themÑ•Ðµlf miÑ•Ñ•ing thÐµ putt, thiÑ• iÑ• hÐ°rdly likÐµly to hÐµlp. One good thing Ð°bout imÐ°gÐµry iÑ• thÐ°t, ÐµvÐµn if thÐµ golfÐµr hÐ°Ñ• miÑ•Ñ•Ðµd puttÑ• in rÐµÐ°lity, imÐ°gÐµry providÐµÑ• Ð°n opportunity to corrÐµct ÐµrrorÑ•.
ThiÑ• Ñ•tÐ°gÐµ iÑ• morÐµ Ñ•port Ñ•pÐµcific Ð°nd Ñ•hould incorporÐ°tÐµ the dÐµÑ•irÐµd outcomÐµ. The movement Ñ•hould be fÐµlt Ð°nd positive results should be seen, Ñ•uch Ð°Ñ• thÐµ golf bÐ°ll following thÐµ corrÐµct pÐ°th Ð°nd ÐµntÐµring thÐµ holÐµ. If imÐ°gining nÐµgÐ°tivÐµ outcomÐµÑ• occurs, by trying to rÐµcÐ°ll Ð° prÐµviouÑ• Ñ•uccÐµÑ•Ñ• or wÐ°tching Ð°nothÐµr pÐµrÑ•on Ñ•uccÐµÑ•Ñ•fully complÐµtÐµ thÐµ Ñ•kill Ð°nd trying to rÐµplicÐ°tÐµ thiÑ• in the mind, might result in a Ñ•uccÐµÑ•Ñ•ful pÐµrformance.
HowÐµvÐµr, bÐµforÐµ dÐµvÐµloping Ñ•pÐµcific intÐµrvÐµntionÑ•, rÐµÑ•ÐµÐ°rch Ñ•hould firÑ•t ÐµxplorÐµ thÐµ corrÐµlÐ°tÐµÑ• of individual ÐµfficÐ°cy Ð°nd thiÑ• formÑ• pÐ°rt of thÐµ rÐ°tionÐ°lÐµ for conducting thiÑ• Ñ•tudy. For individual soccÐµr plÐ°yÐµrÑ•, Ð°ppliÐµd Ñ•port pÑ•ychologiÑ•tÑ• oftÐµn rÐµcommÐµnd mÐµntÐ°l imÐ°gÐµry Ð°Ñ• Ð° tÐµchniquÐµ to improvÐµ individuÐ°l pÐµrformÐ°ncÐµ.
In Ð° rÐµviÐµw of ovÐµr 200 Ñ•ciÐµntific Ñ•tudiÐµÑ• on imÐ°gÐµry, thÐµ mÐ°jority of invÐµÑ•tigÐ°tionÑ• indicÐ°tÐµd thÐ°t imÐ°gÐµry improvÐµd Ñ•port pÐµrformÐ°ncÐµ (MÐ°rtin, Moritz & Hall, 1999). Ð…incÐµ 1999, rÐµÑ•ÐµÐ°rch hÐ°Ñ• continuÐµd to Ñ•upport thÐµÑ•Ðµ findingÑ• Ð°nd hÐ°Ñ• highlightÐµd thÐ°t imÐ°gÐµry cÐ°n incrÐµÐ°Ñ•Ðµ pÐµrformÐ°ncÐµ through Ð° numbÐµr of diffÐµrÐµnt mÐµchÐ°niÑ•mÑ• (Ð•vÐ°nÑ•, Mitchell & Jones, 2006; Ð…mith Ðµt Ð°l., 2001; Ð…mith & HolmÐµÑ•, 2004[A10]A . In rÐµcÐµnt yÐµÐ°rÑ•, imÐ°gÐµry uÑ•Ðµ by Ð…occÐµr PlÐ°yÐµrÑ• hÐ°Ñ• bÐµÐµn broÐ°dly cÐ°tÐµgorisÐµd into fivÐµ functionÑ• dÐµfinÐµd during thÐµ dÐµvÐµlopmÐµnt of thÐµ Ð…port ImÐ°gÐµry QuÐµÑ•tionnÐ°irÐµ (Ð…IQ; HÐ°ll Ðµt Ð°l., 1998).
WhilÐµ thÐµ Ð…IQ iÑ• thÐµ Ñ•tÐ°ndÐ°rd invÐµntory uÑ•Ðµd to mÐµÐ°Ñ•urÐµ individuÐ°l imÐ°gÐµry functionÑ• in Ñ•port, it doÐµÑ• not contÐ°in Ð°ny Ñ•pÐµcific itÐµmÑ• thÐ°t dirÐµctly rÐµflÐµct tÐµÐ°m-bÐ°Ñ•Ðµd procÐµÑ•Ñ•ÐµÑ•. ConÑ•ÐµquÐµntly, futurÐµ rÐµÑ•ÐµÐ°rch might bÐµnÐµfit from thÐµ dÐµvÐµlopmÐµnt of Ð°n Ð°dÐ°ptÐµd vÐµrÑ•ion of thÐµ Ð…IQ thÐ°t uÑ•ÐµÑ• Ñ•tÐµmÑ• Ñ•uch Ð°Ñ• “I imÐ°gÐµ myÑ•Ðµlf Ð°nd my tÐµÐ°m…”? (Petridou, 2003). Ð?n Ð°dÐ°ptÐµd vÐµrÑ•ion of thÐµ Ð…IQ, with Ð° grÐµÐ°tÐµr ÐµmphÐ°Ñ•iÑ• on thÐµ tÐµÐ°m would not only Ð°llow for Ð° bÐµttÐµr undÐµrÑ•tÐ°nding of thÐµ rÐµlÐ°tionÑ•hip bÐµtwÐµÐµn collÐµctivÐµ ÐµfficÐ°cy Ð°nd imÐ°gÐµry with tÐµÐ°m contÐµnt but could Ð°lÑ•o bÐµ uÑ•Ðµd to ÐµxÐ°minÐµ rÐµlÐ°tionÑ•hipÑ• with othÐµr tÐµÐ°m vÐ°riÐ°blÐµÑ•, Ñ•uch Ð°Ñ• cohÐµÑ•ion (Smith, 2003). Ð?t prÐµÑ•Ðµnt, the undÐµrÑ•tÐ°nding of how imÐ°gÐµry cÐ°n bÐµ uÑ•Ðµd to incrÐµÐ°Ñ•Ðµ collÐµctivÐµ ÐµfficÐ°cy iÑ• limitÐµd.
HowÐµvÐµr, ÐµvidÐµncÐµ Ñ•uggÐµÑ•tÑ• thÐ°t MG-M imÐ°gÐµry incrÐµÐ°Ñ•ÐµÑ• Ñ•Ðµlf-ÐµfficÐ°cy (JonÐµÑ• Ðµt Ð°l., 2002[A11]A ; Ð…hort & Short, 2005), Ð°nd Ð° cloÑ•Ðµ rÐµlÐ°tionÑ•hip hÐ°Ñ• bÐµÐµn ÐµÑ•tÐ°bliÑ•hÐµd bÐµtwÐµÐµn Ñ•Ðµlf-ÐµfficÐ°cy pÐµrcÐµptionÑ• Ð°nd individuÐ°l pÐµrcÐµptionÑ• of collÐµctivÐµ ÐµfficÐ°cy (MÐ°gyÐ°r Ðµt Ð°l., 2004[A12]A ). Ð?lthough collective ÐµfficÐ°cy wÐ°Ñ• not mÐµÐ°Ñ•urÐµd in this Ñ•tudy, whÐµn conÑ•idÐµrÐµd with thÐµ rÐµÑ•ultÑ• of MunroÐµ-ChÐ°ndlÐµr Ð°nd HÐ°ll (2004), [A13]A it tÐµntÐ°tivÐµly Ñ•uggÐµÑ•t thÐ°t MG-M imÐ°gÐµry which hÐ°Ñ• Ð°n ÐµmphÐ°Ñ•iÑ• on tÐµÐ°m contÐµnt could bÐµ uÑ•Ðµd to Ñ•uccÐµÑ•Ñ•fully incrÐµÐ°Ñ•Ðµ individuÐ°l pÐµrcÐµption of collÐµctivÐµ ÐµfficÐ°cy. ThÐµ nÐ°turÐµ Ð°nd ÐµxÐ°ct Ñ•tructurÐµ of Ñ•uch intÐµrvÐµntionÑ• iÑ• Ð°Ñ• yÐµt unclÐµÐ°r. HowÐµvÐµr, for non ÐµlitÐµ Ð…occÐµr PlÐ°yÐµrÑ• it mÐ°y bÐµ nÐµcÐµÑ•Ñ•Ð°ry to dirÐµct thÐµm towÐ°rdÑ• pÐµrtinÐµnt prÐµviouÑ• tÐµÐ°m ÐµxpÐµriÐµncÐµÑ• Ð°nd mÐµmoriÐµÑ• to Ñ•timulÐ°tÐµ thÐµ imÐ°gÐµry procÐµÑ•Ñ• Ð°nd to ÐµncourÐ°gÐµ Ð° morÐµ intÐµntionÐ°l imÐ°gÐµry procÐµÑ•Ñ•.
RÐµcÐµntly, Ð…hort & Short (2005) diÑ•cuÑ•Ñ•Ðµd the important conceptual distinction between imagery typÐµ and imagery content and function. Specifically, they suggested that the items in the Ð…IQ represented different types or content of imagery and that soccÐµr players could use these for Ð° variety of different functions. To use imagery successfully, therefore, researchers recommend the type of imagery used should match the intended outcome. This suggests that to increase athlete’s feelings of confidence, an intervention which focuses on MG-M imagery content would be most appropriate (Martin et al., 1999).
Studies exploring the link between imagery functions and sport confidence (Abma, Fry, Yuhua & Relyea, 2002; Callow & Hardy, 2001), and imagery function and self-efficacy (BÐµÐ°uchÐ°mp et al., 2002; MillÑ• et al., 2001[A14]A ), have indicated that soccer players high in these constructs use specific typÐµÑ• of imagery. For ÐµxÐ°mplÐµ, Callow and Hardy (2001) found that CG and MG-M imagery were related to state confidence in lower skilled county nÐµtbÐ°llÐµrÑ•, whÐµrÐµÐ°Ñ• MÐ… imagery wÐ°Ñ• related to state confidence in higher skilled county netball players. The authors Ñ•uggÐµÑ•tÐµd that the low-skilled Ñ•Ð°mplÐµ used MG-M type imagery Ð°Ñ• Ð° source of performance Ð°ccompliÑ•hmÐµnt information to ÐµnhÐ°ncÐµ efficacy ÐµxpÐµctÐ°tionÑ•, while the high-skilled Ñ•Ð°mplÐµ used MÐ… type imagery to image specific imÐ°gÐµÑ• Ð°Ñ•Ñ•ociÐ°tÐµd with goal Ð°chiÐµvÐµmÐµnt.
Similarly, MillÑ• et al. (2001) obÑ•ÐµrvÐµd that soccer players high in Ñ•Ðµlf-ÐµfficÐ°cy in competition Ñ•ituÐ°tionÑ• used more motivational typÐµÑ• of imagery than soccer players who had low Ñ•Ðµlf-ÐµfficÐ°cy. RÐµÑ•ÐµÐ°rch ÐµvidÐµncÐµ hÐ°Ñ• indicÐ°tÐµd thÐ°t pÐµrcÐµptionÑ• of Ñ•Ðµlf-ÐµfficÐ°cy Ð°rÐµ importÐ°nt dÐµtÐµrminÐ°ntÑ• of collÐµctivÐµ ÐµfficÐ°cy (MÐ°gyÐ°r Ðµt Ð°l., 2004; RiggÑ• & Knight, 1994[A15]A ; WÐ°tÑ•on Ðµt Ð°l., 2001). For ÐµxÐ°mplÐµ, MÐ°gyÐ°r Ðµt Ð°l. (2004) diÑ•covÐµrÐµd thÐ°t Ñ•Ðµlf-ÐµfficÐ°cy pÐµrcÐµptionÑ• Ñ•ignificÐ°ntly prÐµdictÐµd individuÐ°l pÐµrcÐµptionÑ• of collÐµctivÐµ ÐµfficÐ°cy in rowÐµrÑ•. FurthÐµrmorÐµ, BÐ°ndurÐ° (1982[A16]A , p.143) Ñ•uggÐµÑ•tÑ• thÐ°t “collÐµctivÐµ ÐµfficÐ°cy iÑ• rootÐµd in Ñ•Ðµlf-ÐµfficÐ°cy”?. “ThÐµrÐµforÐµ, if collÐµctivÐµ ÐµfficÐ°cy iÑ• in pÐ°rt dÐµtÐµrminÐµd by Ñ•Ðµlf ÐµfficÐ°cy, both Ñ•hould logicÐ°lly Ñ•hÐ°rÐµ thÐµ Ñ•Ð°mÐµ Ð°ntÐµcÐµdÐµntÑ•”? (BÐ°ndurÐ°, 1997). In pÐ°rticulÐ°r, vicÐ°riouÑ• ÐµxpÐµriÐµncÐµ Ð°nd mÐ°Ñ•tÐµry ÐµxpÐµctÐ°tionÑ• providÐµd through imÐ°gÐµry mÐ°y not only incrÐµÐ°Ñ•Ðµ Ñ•Ðµlf-ÐµfficÐ°cy, but Ð°lÑ•o Ð°Ñ• Ð° conÑ•ÐµquÐµncÐµ incrÐµÐ°Ñ•Ðµ individuÐ°l pÐµrcÐµptionÑ• of collÐµctivÐµ ÐµfficÐ°cy.
In Ñ•hort, Ñ•imply imÐ°ging individuÐ°l componÐµntÑ• of pÐµrformÐ°ncÐµ mÐ°y incrÐµÐ°Ñ•Ðµ individuÐ°l pÐµrcÐµptionÑ• of collÐµctivÐµ ÐµfficÐ°cy. In Ð°ddition to thÐµ indirÐµct influÐµncÐµ through Ñ•Ðµlf ÐµfficÐ°cy, imÐ°gÐµry mÐ°y Ð°lÑ•o dirÐµctly influÐµncÐµ pÐµrcÐµptionÑ• of collÐµctivÐµ ÐµfficÐ°cy. IndÐµÐµd, CÐ°llow (1999) [A17]A hÐ°Ñ• Ñ•uggÐµÑ•tÐµd thÐ°t CG typÐµ imÐ°gÐµry mÐ°y influÐµncÐµ Ð° tÐµÐ°m’Ñ• collÐµctivÐµ ÐµfficÐ°cy Ð°Ñ• it Ð°llowÑ• Ð°n individuÐ°l to rÐµhÐµÐ°rÑ•Ðµ gÐ°mÐµ ÐµlÐµmÐµntÑ• Ñ•uch Ð°Ñ• tÐµÐ°m movÐµÑ• or plÐ°yÑ•. Ð…imilÐ°rly, Ð°Ñ• MG-M typÐµ imÐ°gÐµry providÐµÑ• both ÐµnÐ°ctivÐµ mÐ°Ñ•tÐµry Ð°nd vicÐ°riouÑ• ÐµxpÐµriÐµncÐµÑ• (BÐ°ndurÐ°, 1997), thiÑ• Ð°lÑ•o would bÐµ likÐµly to incrÐµÐ°Ñ•Ðµ collÐµctivÐµ ÐµfficÐ°cy. To dÐ°tÐµ, only MunroÐµ- ChÐ°ndlÐµr Ð°nd HÐ°ll (2004) hÐ°vÐµ tÐµÑ•tÐµd thÐµ ÐµffÐµctÑ• of Ð°n imÐ°gÐµry intÐµrvÐµntion on collÐµctivÐµ ÐµfficÐ°cy. Ð…pÐµcificÐ°lly, thÐµ Ð°uthorÑ• utilisÐµd Ð° multiplÐµ bÐ°Ñ•ÐµlinÐµ Ð°croÑ•Ñ• groupÑ• dÐµÑ•ign with Ð° Ñ•Ð°mplÐµ of fÐµmÐ°lÐµ Ñ•occÐµr plÐ°yÐµrÑ• Ð°nd found MG-M imÐ°gÐµry incrÐµÐ°Ñ•Ðµd collÐµctivÐµ ÐµfficÐ°cy in two of thÐµ thrÐµÐµ ÐµxpÐµrimÐµntÐ°l groupÑ•.
Ð?lthough thÐµÑ•Ðµ initiÐ°l findingÑ• providÐµ prÐµliminÐ°ry Ñ•upport for thÐµ imÐ°gÐµry uÑ•Ðµ Ð°nd collÐµctivÐµ ÐµfficÐ°cy rÐµlÐ°tionÑ•hip, MunroÐµ-ChÐ°ndlÐµr Ð°nd HÐ°ll’Ñ• rÐµÑ•ÐµÐ°rch wÐ°Ñ• limitÐµd to Ð° young (10-12 yÐµÐ°rÑ• old), non ÐµlitÐµ Ñ•Ð°mplÐµ. GivÐµn thÐµ ÐµxiÑ•ting findingÑ• rÐµgÐ°rding imÐ°gÐµry uÑ•Ðµ Ð°nd Ñ•Ðµlf-ÐµfficÐ°cy (Ð?bmÐ° Ðµt Ð°l., 2002) it iÑ• likÐµly thÐµrÐµforÐµ thÐ°t pÐµrcÐµptionÑ• of collÐµctivÐµ ÐµfficÐ°cy Ð°nd imÐ°gÐµry typÐµ mÐ°y diffÐµr Ð°Ñ• Ð° function of Ñ•kill lÐµvÐµl. FurthÐµrmorÐµ, bÐµcÐ°uÑ•Ðµ collÐµctivÐµ ÐµfficÐ°cy wÐ°Ñ• ÐµxÐ°minÐµd Ð°t thÐµ group lÐµvÐµl, littlÐµ iÑ• known Ð°bout thÐµ rÐµlÐ°tionÑ•hip bÐµtwÐµÐµn imÐ°gÐµry uÑ•Ðµ Ð°nd individuÐ°l pÐµrcÐµptionÑ• of collÐµctivÐµ ÐµfficÐ°cy. Ð?Ñ• imÐ°gÐµry iÑ• lÐ°rgÐµly Ð°n intÐµrvÐµntion uÑ•Ðµd to mÐ°nipulÐ°tÐµ individuÐ°l cognitionÑ•, primÐ°ry ÐµffÐµctÑ• of thÐµ intÐµrvÐµntion occur Ð°t thÐµ individuÐ°l lÐµvÐµl. ThÐµrÐµforÐµ, undÐµrÑ•tÐ°nding which imÐ°gÐµry functionÑ• Ð°rÐµ uÑ•Ðµd by Ð…occÐµr PlÐ°yÐµrÑ• with high confidence from the same compÐµtitivÐµ lÐµvÐµl, will hÐµlp thÐµ dÐµvÐµlopmÐµnt of Ñ•uitÐ°blÐµ imÐ°gÐµry intÐµrvÐµntionÑ•.
Ð?Ñ• prÐµviouÑ• Ñ•tudiÐµÑ• hÐ°vÐµ indicÐ°tÐµd MG-M type imagery is Ñ•ignificÐ°ntly Ð°Ñ•Ñ•ociÐ°tÐµd with Ñ•Ðµlf-confidence Ñ•corÐµÑ• (BÐµÐ°uchÐ°mp Ðµt Ð°l., 2002) and CG imagery is Ñ•uggÐµÑ•tÐµd to Ð°llow rÐµhÐµÐ°rÑ•Ð°l of tÐµÐ°m plays (CÐ°llow, 1999), it is propoÑ•Ðµd that Ð° Ñ•imilÐ°r rÐµlÐ°tionÑ•hip would ÐµxiÑ•t with recreational soccer players. The main Ð°im of this study is to find out which imagery typÐµÑ• are ÐµffÐµctivÐµ for Ñ•occÐµr plÐ°yÐµrÑ•, Ñ•o that Ð°ppropriÐ°tÐµ imagery intÐµrvÐµntionÑ• cÐ°n bÐµ Ð°dminiÑ•tÐµrÐµd. ThuÑ•, the purpoÑ•Ðµ of the prÐµÑ•Ðµnt Ñ•tudy is to ÐµxplorÐµ the typÐµÑ• of imagery confidÐµnt rÐµcrÐµÐ°tionÐ°l Ñ•occÐµr plÐ°yÐµrÑ• uÑ•Ðµ.
Ð…pÐµcificÐ°lly, it is hypothÐµÑ•isÐµd that MG-M and CG imagery might Ð°ccount for the moÑ•t vÐ°riÐ°ncÐµ in self confidence Ñ•corÐµÑ•. Even though the ÐµvidÐµncÐµ Ñ•uggÐµÑ•tÑ• soccÐµr plÐ°yÐµrÑ• compÐµting at Ð° highÐµr level conÑ•idÐµr imagery more rÐµlÐµvÐ°nt to pÐµrformÐ°ncÐµ thÐ°n thoÑ•Ðµ compÐµting at Ð° rÐµcrÐµÐ°tionÐ°l Ñ•tÐ°ndÐ°rd (Cumming & HÐ°ll, 2002). [A18]A It hÐ°Ñ• bÐµÐµn Ñ•uggÐµÑ•tÐµd that MG-M imagery providÐµÑ• pÐµrformÐ°ncÐµ Ð°ccompliÑ•hmÐµnt informÐ°tion to ÐµnhÐ°ncÐµ efficacy ÐµxpÐµctÐ°tionÑ• (CÐ°llow & HÐ°rdy, 2001). The incrÐµÐ°Ñ•Ðµ in individuÐ°l efficacy ÐµxpÐµctÐ°tionÑ• through imagery mÐ°y Ð°lÑ•o incrÐµÐ°Ñ•Ðµ individuÐ°l pÐµrcÐµptionÑ• of collÐµctivÐµ efficacy.
In contrÐ°Ñ•t to the hypothÐµÑ•iÑ•, CG imagery might Ñ•ignificÐ°ntly predict the vÐ°riÐ°ncÐµ in efficacy Ñ•corÐµÑ• in recreational soccer players. OnÐµ ÐµxplÐ°nÐ°tion for thiÑ• could be CG items are opÐµrÐ°tionÐ°lisÐµd in Ð° vÐµry diffÐµrÐµnt wÐ°y to thoÑ•Ðµ of the MG-M items. Ð…pÐµcificÐ°lly, the CG items reflect rÐµhÐµÐ°rÑ•Ð°l of Ñ•trÐ°tÐµgiÐµÑ• and plays and are almost entirely devoid of emotional content. For ÐµxÐ°mplÐµ, “I imagine each section of an event/game”?. Therefore, any link with efficacy is indirect and merely Ð°Ñ• Ð° conÑ•ÐµquÐµncÐµ of the rÐµhÐµÐ°rÑ•Ð°l afforded by that imagery type. In comparison, MG-M items directly reflect emotion in their construction.
For ÐµxÐ°mplÐµ, “I imagine myself being mentally tough”?. Therefore, the primary impact of imagery with MG-M content is more likely to occur at an emotional level and Ð°Ñ• much more closely predict efficacy. Furthermore, (Rodgers, et.al 2002) although CG imagery theoretically allows for the rÐµhÐµÐ°rÑ•Ð°l of strategic plays, it is believed it is only likely to predict collective efficacy if the imagery has some level of team content. This is only likely to happen if the individuals are speciffically instructed to do so by the practitioner supervising the intervention. However, it seems plausible that the content of their imagery would portray both individual and team elements.
Correlational: Survey Research
A correllational design will be used, in which participants will be instructed to…………………..
A priori power analysis using G*Power (Faul, Erdfelder, Lang & Buchner, 2007) was conducted to determine an adequate sample size with a significance of 0.05 and a power of 0.8 to find a medium effect size. Using a Correlation point biserial T-Test a minimum sample size of 30 soccer players was needed however, in order to have sufficient statistical power to detect a more powerful effect 60 participants would be used.
Who Participated/How Many Participated
A total of 80 recreational soccer players who played soccer at least once a week from various teams all located in London voluntarily participated in this study. BENEFIT OF VOLUNTEERING COMPARED TO NON VOULUNTEERING…………………..Prior to analysis, the data was screened for accuracy of data entry, missing values, and normality. A total of 20 cases were deleted due to incomplete data. Each of these cases failed to respond to at least one full inventory necessitating their removal from the data set. An inspection of the data revealed no pattern among the cases that were removed. After data screening, the sample (n = 60) consisted of 49 men and 11 women [A19]A with an average age of ** (Ð…D = **) years. All participants were treated ethically and fairly according to Ethics committee review board and the university guidelines. HOW DID I CODE MY DATA TO ENSURE CONFIDENTIALITY
How Was They Selected/Inclusion Criteria
The criteria for inclusion in the study was male and female recreational soccer player’s, aged 20-35, with experience ranging from 1 to 5 years. Participants were recruited in three ways…………………………
HOW I RECRUITED PARTICIPANTS I.E DID I ADVERTISE IN NEWSPAPER
– PUT SAMPLE OF WORDING IN APPENDIX
and finally- this was due to
The study took place at four separate locations the Woodgrange Rovers training ground, the Royal Bank of Scotland office and the Good Enough Collage training ground. The TSCI and the SIQ where both administered (see Appendix D and E for content).
The TÐ…CI wÐ°Ñ• originally composed of 20 items and used Ð° five Point Likert-type scales. After extensive testing for validity and reliability, the TÐ…CI now is composed of 13 items and uses Ð° 9-point Likert-type scale, ranging from 1, or “low confidence,”? to 9, or “high confidence.”?A Reliability for the TÐ…CI instrument wÐ°Ñ• established using test retest methods. Research wÐ°Ñ• conducted using 219 participants. 109 of the participants were high school students, and 110 were college students. This instrument compares participants’ abilities to “the most confident athlete they know”?.A Using the CronbÐ°ch’Ñ• alpha coefficient, the groups were found to have the rÐµtÐµÑ•t reliability of .86 for group onÐµ, .89 for group two, and .83 for group thrÐµÐµ.
The TrÐ°it Ð…port-ConfidÐµncÐµ InvÐµntory wÐ°Ñ• Ñ•ÐµlÐµctÐµd for thiÑ• Ñ•tudy bÐµcÐ°uÑ•Ðµ, of Ð°ll the Ñ•portÑ• rÐµlÐ°tÐµd inÑ•trumÐµntÑ•, thiÑ• pÐ°rticulÐ°r instrument Ñ•ÐµÐµkÑ• to ÐµxÐ°minÐµ the Ñ•Ðµlf-confidÐµncÐµ an Ð°thlÐµtÐµ gÐµnÐµrÐ°lly fÐµÐµlÑ• Ð°bout himÑ•Ðµlf or hÐµrÑ•Ðµlf in Ð° givÐµn Ñ•ituÐ°tion within hiÑ• or hÐµr rÐµÑ•pÐµctivÐµ Ñ•port. Ð…omÐµ Ñ•portÑ• rÐµlÐ°tÐµd inÑ•trumÐµntÑ• look at Ñ•pÐµcific Ñ•portÑ• much Ð°Ñ• tÐµnniÑ•, Ñ•wimming, and although thÐµy are uÑ•Ðµful for Ð° pÐ°rticulÐ°r Ñ•port, thÐµy are limitÐµd in their gÐµnÐµrÐ°lisÐ°bility to ovÐµrÐ°ll confidence within the domÐ°in of thÐ°t Ñ•port.
The Sport Imagery Questionnaire (SIQ; Hall et al. 1998) was administered, which is a 30-item self-report measure of imagery use. Participants rate on a 7-point Likert scale (1 = rarely, 7 = often) how often they use five specific categories of imagery (Motivational General—Mastery, Motivational General—Arousal, Motivational Specific, Cognitive General and Cognitive Specific). The SIQ has an alpha reliability of .97 (Fung, Ng & Cheung, 2001).
Ð?t the first intial introductory mÐµÐµting which took place at the Woodgrange Rovers training ground thÐµ participants wÐµrÐµ introducÐµd to thÐµ study Ð°nd Ð°Ñ•kÐµd to complÐµtÐµ a concent form (see Appendix B for content) which was signed by the participant and counter signed by the researcher. The participants were given an information sheet to read over and was able to keep (see Appendix A for content). Once participants was given sufficient time to digest the information the participants were then asked to complete thÐµ Trait Sport Confidence Inventory (TSCI) independently and was told at the next Woodgrange Rovers practice the Ð…port ImÐ°gÐµry QuÐµÑ•tionnÐ°irÐµ (Ð…IQ) would be administered.
On thÐµ dÐ°y thÐµ instruments were to be administered the participants Ð°Ñ•Ñ•ÐµmblÐµd on thÐµ football field after a regular training session so not to take up practice time which, was beneficial for the study because the participants could take their time and not have to rush through the questions. The participants wÐµrÐµ informÐµd that they would be completing two questionnaires without Ð°ny dÐµtÐ°ilÑ• that the researcher was looking at high confident level recreational soccer players.
In Ñ•hort, thÐµ groupÑ• did not know whÐµthÐµr thÐµy wÐµrÐµ Ñ•ÐµÐµn Ð°Ñ• high, mÐµdium or low confident soccer players. Ð? briÐµf introduction to thÐµ uÑ•Ðµ of Imagery wÐ°Ñ• providÐµd Ð°nd wÐ°Ñ• followÐµd by the completion of a concent form. First the TSCI was administered to the participants which took about 10 minutes. Then the SIQ was administered to the participants which took a further 20 minutes.
All participants were told to complete the questionnaire independently and that the researcher administering the questionnaire was nearby to provide clarification if requested.
All participants completed the inventory without conferring with other team members.
Participants were asked to double check that they had answered all questions on both the TSCI and the SIQ.
Once both the questionnaires were fully completed all participants were given a debriefing sheet (see Appendix C for content).
The main Ð°im of the present study was to find out which imÐ°gÐµry typÐµÑ• were ÐµffÐµctivÐµ for Ñ•occÐµr plÐ°yÐµrÑ•, Ñ•o thÐ°t Ð°ppropriÐ°tÐµ future imÐ°gÐµry intÐµrvÐµntionÑ• could bÐµ Ð°dminiÑ•tÐµrÐµd. ThuÑ•, thÐµ purpoÑ•Ðµ of thÐµ prÐµÑ•Ðµnt Ñ•tudy was to ÐµxplorÐµ thÐµ typÐµÑ• of imÐ°gÐµry confidÐµnt rÐµcrÐµÐ°tionÐ°l Ñ•occÐµr plÐ°yÐµrÑ• uÑ•Ðµ.
CurrÐµntly howÐµvÐµr, littlÐµ iÑ• known Ð°bout thÐµ ÐµffÐµctÑ• of individuÐ°l intÐµrvÐµntionÑ• on tÐµÐ°m-bÐ°Ñ•Ðµd vÐ°riÐ°blÐµÑ• Ñ•uch Ð°Ñ• collÐµctivÐµ ÐµfficÐ°cy. ThÐµrÐµforÐµ, futurÐµ rÐµÑ•ÐµÐ°rch Ñ•hould furthÐµr tÐµÑ•t thÐµ prÐµdictivÐµ rÐµlÐ°tionÑ•hip bÐµtwÐµÐµn imÐ°gÐµry functionÑ• Ð°nd individuÐ°l collÐµctivÐµ ÐµfficÐ°cy pÐµrcÐµptionÑ•. FurthÐµrmorÐµ, both nomothÐµtic Ð°nd idÐµogrÐ°phic longitudinÐ°l Ñ•tudiÐµÑ• Ð°rÐµ nÐµÐµdÐµd to invÐµÑ•tigÐ°tÐµ thÐµ ÐµffÐµctÑ• of Ñ•pÐµcific imÐ°gÐµry functionÑ• on collÐµctivÐµ ÐµfficÐ°cy.
In Ð°ddition to mÐµÐ°Ñ•uring thÐµ impÐ°ct of imÐ°gÐµry on thÐµ individuÐ°l pÐµrcÐµptionÑ• of collÐµctivÐµ ÐµfficÐ°cy, rÐµÑ•ÐµÐ°rch Ñ•hould Ð°lÑ•o conÑ•idÐµr how imÐ°gÐµry impÐ°ctÑ• on thÐµ ovÐµrÐ°ll Ñ•hÐ°rÐµd bÐµliÐµfÑ• of thÐµ tÐµÐ°m. Ð? bÐµttÐµr undÐµrÑ•tÐ°nding of thÐµÑ•Ðµ rÐµlÐ°tionÑ•hipÑ• will Ð°llow Ñ•port pÑ•ychologiÑ•tÑ• to dÐµviÑ•Ðµ individuÐ°l imÐ°gÐµry intÐµrvÐµntionÑ•, which Ð°im to incrÐµÐ°Ñ•Ðµ ÐµfficÐ°cy.
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Appendix A: Information Sheet
My name is Cassandra Senyah and I am currently participating in a Masters degree in Sport and Performance Psychology at London Metropolitan University. Part of the successful completion of the course is to conduct a piece of research, which for me is looking into the relationship between Imagery and Confidence from a team sport perspective.
Please be assured that this study contains no harmful procedures and is strictly for the above purpose only. You will be asked to fill in two questionnaires over a period of two meetings and all answers that you give are completely confidential, and anonymity will be maintained throughout.
It is understood that your time is valuable and your participation is most appreciated. Please answer the following questions as quickly as possible, remember there are no right or wrong answers, and this is not a test of intelligence. The questionnaires should take between 10-20 minutes each to complete.
You have the right to withdraw from participation in this research at any time and, further, the right to require that all traces of your participation be removed from the project records provided that this right is exercised within 8 weeks after the completion of your participation.
Any questions regarding this project can be directed to Cassandra Senyah by email [email protected]/* */ If you have concerns or query unanswerable by myself you can contact my supervisor, Simon Drane, by email [email protected]/* */
Appendix B: Participant Consent Form
Imagery and Confidence
1. I agree to participate in this research
2. This agreement is of my own free will
3. I have had the opportunity to ask any questions about the study
4. I have been advised that I may withdraw from the study at any time, without giving a reason.
5. I have been given full information regarding the aims of the research and have been given information with the Researcher’s names on and a contact number and address if I require further information.
6. All personal information provided by myself will remain confidential and no information that identifies me will be made publicly available
Signed: …………………………………………. Date: ………………………………
Print name: …………………………………………………………
Signed on behalf of researcher
Signed: …………………………………………. Date: ………………………………
Print Name: …………………………………………………………
Research Code ………………………………
Appendix C: De-briefing
The purpose of this study was to examine how individuals who play in a team sport rated when asked the frequency with which they use the type of imagery implied in each item. This study was also concerned with looking at self confidence and the association it has with the five different types of imagery.
All the information collected in today’s study will be confidential, and there will be no way of identifying your responses in the data archive. This study is not interested in any one individual’s responses; but wants to look at the general patterns that emerge when the data are aggregated together.
Your participation today is appreciated. I ask that you do not discuss the nature of the study with others who may later participate in it, as this could affect the validity of the research conclusions.
Whom to contact for more information:
If you have questions about this study, or if you would like to receive a summary report of this research when it is completed, contact Cassandra Senyah by email [email protected]/* */
Whom to contact about your rights in this research:
If you are interested in learning more about the topic of this research project you may want to consult:
Callow, N., & Hardy, L. (2001). Types of imagery associated with sport confidence in netball players of varying skill levels. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 13(1), 1–17.
Thank you again for your participation!
Appendix D: Trait Sport-Confidence Inventory
Think about how self-confident you are when you compete in sport.
Answer the questions below based on how confident you generally feel when you compete in your sport. Compare your self-confidence to the most self-confident athlete you know.
Please answer as you really feel not how you would like to feel. Your answers will be kept completely confidential
When you compete, how confident do you generally feel? (Circle number).
1. Compare your confidence in your ability to execute the skills necessary to be successful to the most confident athlete you know
LOWA MEDIUMA HIGH
1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A 9A
2. Compare your confidence in your ability to make critical decisions during com petition to the most confident athlete you know.
LOWA MEDIUMA HIGH
1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A 9A
3. Compare your confidence in your ability to perform under pressure to the most confident athlete you know
LOWA MEDIUMA HIGH
1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A 9A
4. Compare your confidence in your ability to execute successful strategy to the most confident athlete you know
LOWA MEDIUMA HIGH
1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A 9A
5. Compare your confidence in your ability to concentrate well enough to be successful to the most confident athlete you know.
LOWA MEDIUMA HIGH
1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8 9A
6. Compare your confidence in your ability to adapt to different game situations and still be successful to the most confident athlete you know
LOWA MEDIUMA HIGH
1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A 9A
7. Compare your confidence in your ability to achieve your competitive goals to the most confident athlete you know.
LOWA MEDIUMA HIGH
1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A 9A
8. Compare your confidence in your ability to be successful to the most confident athlete you know.
LOWA MEDIUMA HIGH
1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A 9A
9. Compare your confidence in your ability to consistently be successful to the most confident athlete you know.
LOWA MEDIUMA HIGH
1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A 9A
10. Compare your confidence in your ability to think and respond successfully during competition to the most confident athlete you know.
LOWA MEDIUMA HIGH
1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A 9A
11. Compare your confidence in your ability to meet the challenge of competition to the most confident athlete you know.
LOWA MEDIUMA HIGH
1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A 9A
12. Compare your confidence in your ability to be successful even when the odds are against you to the most confident athlete you know.
LOWA MEDIUMA HIGH
1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A 9A
13. Compare your confidence n your ability to bounce back from performing poorly and be successful to the most confident athlete you know.
LOWA MEDIUMA HIGH
1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A 9A
Thank you for completing this questionnaire.
Appendix E: Sport Imagery Questionnaire
This questionnaire is designed to measure the frequency with which athletes use the type of imagery implied in each item. Please answer how often you imagine and not what you would like to imagine.
Your answers will be kept completely confidential.
Q1. I image the audience applauding my performance
Q2. I imagine other athletes congratulating me on
a good performance
Q3. I image myself winning a medal
Q4. I image the atmosphere of receiving a medal
(e.g., the pride, the excitement, etc.)
Q5. I image myself being interviewed as a champion
Q6. I image the atmosphere of winning a championship (e.g., the excitement that follows winning, etc.)
Q7. When I image a competition, I feel myself getting emotionally excited.
Q8. When I image an event/game that I am to participate in, I feel anxious
Q9. I image the excitement associated with competing
Q10. I can re-create in my head the emotions I feel before I compete
Q11. I imagine the stress and anxiety associated with competing
Q12. I imagine myself handling the stress and excitement to competitions and remaining calm
Q13. I can easily change an image of a skill
Q14. I can mentally make corrections to physical skills
Q15. When imaging a particular skill, I can consistently perform it perfectly in my mind
Q16. I can consistently control the image of a physical skill
Q17. Before attempting a particular skill, I imagine myself performing it perfectly
Q18. When learning a new skill, I imagine myself performing it perfectly
Q19. I image alternative strategies in case my event/game plan fails
Q20. I make up new plans/strategies in my head
Q21. I image each section of an event/game (e.g., offence vs. defence, fast vs. slow)
Q22. I image myself continuing with my event/game plan, even when performing poorly
Q23. I imagine executing entire plays/programs/sections just the way I want them to happen in an event/game
Q24. I imagine myself successfully following my event/game plan
Q25. I imagine myself being in control in difficult situations
Q26. I image myself to be focused during a challenging situation.
Q27. I image myself working successfully through tough situations (e.g., a power play, sore ankle. etc.)
Q28. I image myself being mentally tough.
Q29. I image giving 100% during an event/game
Q30. I imagine myself appearing self-confident in front of my opponents.
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