The National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) sates schizophrenia is a disorder characterized by positive (hallucinations, delusions, racing thoughts), negative (apathy, anhedonia, poor social functioning) and cognitive symptoms (disorganized speech or thoughts, and impaired concentration). The etiology is not confirmed but is believed to be multifactorial involving genetics and environment. Siever and Davis (2004) discuss components of influence including; Psychophysiological components including a failure of P50 suppression and deficit in prepulse inhibition affecting startle response. Cognitive components include deficits in working and episodic memory, and verbal learning. Structurally, the temporal and frontal cortex, the striatum, and the thalamus are linked to schizophrenia.
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NAMI states approximately 1 % of the general population are affected with incidence increasing to 10% for those with familial history, particularly if it is a parent or sibling. Risk is highest in twins where the unaffected has a 50% chance of being diagnosed with the disorder. It also affects men and women equally, onset occurring earlier in men around late adolescences and early twenties and early twenties to early thirties for women. Bhurga (2005) found that migrants and homeless people have a higher incidence while developing countries had a lower rate.
Individuals perceive mental illness depending on their culture and religion. To better assist patients and their families with understanding schizophrenia as a disorder and how to treat it, nurses can provide culturally competent care by considering their needs and preferences using the Nursing Culture Assessment Tool (NCAT). Use would promote patient-centered care and help individualize patient care plans according to their beliefs, improving treatment outcomes.
Erick Erickson’s theory of development, can be used to analyze the stages unachieved by those afflicted with schizophrenia. Reitan (2013) emphasizes ‘identity versus role confusion’ and intimacy versus isolation as the stages at greatest risk for unsuccessful achievement .Mental illness will inhibit the formation of identity, as there may be limitations to life experiences and social bonding. Finding intimacy and connectedness with another person is difficult considering the demands of the illness thus, alienation is common. Psychotherapy can be used to reinforce and strengthen the first two stages to promote success of the two stages mentioned (Reitan, 2013).
Misconceptions of Schizophrenia are common with media portraying it as something frightening or dangerous. It is important to understand that this disorder, while misunderstood, is still one of the more functional psychotic disorders if treated appropriately. After Winter: A Real-Life Schizophrenia Treatment Story (2018) follows Quentin, a Canadian teenager whom expressed fear for his future when discovering he had Paranoid schizophrenia. The video shows how he and his family coped with his disorder. Early intervention and heavy family support allowed Quentin a chance at a better life. The video demonstrated how therapy to achieve recovery and to prevent relapse supported with the use of medication, and a strong health care team, improved his quality of life. Unfortunately, his experience is not the same for everyone as interrupted lifestyle caused by the illness, financial limitations , lack of healthcare and family support can decrease chances of recovery. These factors and the lack of research to understand its etiology support the need for better interventions at local, state, and government levels to help individuals affected.
Schizophrenia Analysis Video Critique. (2019, Jul 09).
Retrieved February 2, 2023 , from
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