Research Results and Analysis on OHS Practices

CHAPTER 4 RESEARCH RESULTS AND ANALYSIS 4.0 INTRODUCTION In this chapter, data collected were analyzed and discussed. The analysis was based on the research questions that informed the study. In discussing the issues emerging from the data, ideas expressed by authorities in the literature reviewed in Chapter Two were considered for purposes of confirming or contrasting ideas. The results covered biographic data on respondents which might have influence on OHS practices, OHS policy and practices in the company, the company’s compliance with legislation on occupational health and safety and employees awareness of hazardous conditions at the workplace at the selected manufacturing companies in Shah Alam, Malaysia. 4.1 QUESTIONNAIRE RESULTS Subsequent to the questionnaire survey conducted in between 24 May 2014 to 7 June 2014, 27 out of 30 Malaysian manufacturer companies in Shah Alam, who replied to the questionnaire survey. The research results and analysis are as follow; 4.2 PROFILE OF RESPONDENTS We addressed our questionnaire to Human Resource Representative /OHS Committee and Plant Manager / Supervisor because we thought these individuals would possess the most comprehensive and accurate knowledge about the questions in our survey. Indeed, as depicted in Graph 4.1; 41 % of the respondents held one of the positions we were targeting. Graph 4.1. Title of Survey Respondents For study purpose, the examiner separated the respondents into 6 type of industry by sector, Graph 4.2 shown below the respondent distribution of the questionnaire survey. 34% of the responder companies were from the electronics manufacturing industry, metal manufacturing is 13% and 10% from the plastic manufacturer, food manufacturing is 10%, 13% from the car manufacturing and 20% from furniture manufacturing industry in Shah Alam, Malaysia. Graph 4.2 Type of industry by sector of organization. 4.3 FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS 4.3.1 OHS policy and practices in the company The objective of this research question was to explore respondents‘ opinion as to whether Occupational Health and Safety practices in the manufacturing company are compatible with selected OHS best practice‘. Respondents were provided with eleven elements of best practice and were asked to indicate their opinion by indicating whether they strongly agree, agree, not sure, disagree, or strongly disagree. For purposes of analysis, strongly agree and agree were called agree and strongly disagree and disagree were called disagree. As shown in the graph 4.3, In terms of training in strategies for protection against hazards at the workplace, 92.3% agreed that they get induction safety training and 3.85 % did not get induction training. 80% agreed with the statement that they get trained in safe work procedures for their jobs, 12% respondents not sure of the statement and only 8% disagreed. The majority of the respondents have been trained. Graph 4.3.1 Compatibility of Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Practices in company Another issues that we can see from the graph 4.3.1, 66.67% agree and 11.11% disagreed to the statement that the management always gets involved is safety matters and 37.04% disagree that managers communicate and listen to them about health and safety, only 44.4% agreed to the statement and 18.5% are not sure. As we can see from the above graph, employees are encouraged to report workplace incidents. About 14.81% percent of the 27 respondents said they were not encouraged to report workplace hazards, while 18.5% respondents said they were not sure about the extent to which employees were encouraged to report hazard, with 66.67% respondents saying they were encouraged to do so. Reporting occupational hazards is critical in OHS policy making and reviewing as contained in the OHS Regulation 1996 and Codes of Practice. According to Baker (2002), consistent improvements in preventive action through reporting hazards and eliminating unsafe behaviours lead to a drop in occupational hazards. Respondents were also asked whether they made aware of safety issues, 59.26% agreed, 25.9% is not sure and 14.81% disagreed to that statement. Related to that matters we also asked whether they manager or supervisor making sure that they can do work safely only 59.26% agree and 25.93% are disagreed. Graph 4.3.2 The Company compliance with OHS Legislation This research question sought whether in the opinion of respondents, in the 27 selected manufacturing companies in Shah Alam, health and safety policy and practices falls within legislation protected in the Department of Safety and Health. Sixteen questions were provided for respondents to form their opinion by indicating whether they strongly agree, agree, not sure, disagree, or strongly disagree. For purposes of analysis, strongly agree and agree were called agree and strongly disagree and disagree were called disagree. As presented in Graph 4.3.2, 55.6% are disagreed that implementing health and safety in the company are expensive, while 7.4% were not sure and 37% agreed that health and safety are expensive to implement. The results shows that implementing health and safety practices in the company are not expensive, company will capitalize but the employees will give return on investment. In regards on health and safety matters, 63% of respondents agreed that company can save money in the long term, while 18.5% not sure and disagreed to that statement and 70.4% agreed that the company can benefit as a whole, 18.5% disagreed and 11.1% not sure that if health and safety practices in the company is benefited. Most of the companies these days are implementing OHS at their workplace, that’s why we include the question if the safety is high priority in the company, 92.6% agreed and 7.4% disagreed. Majority shows that the safety still highest priority in the company. With respect to the statement that the company had made available copies of health and safety policy document to employees, 74.1% of the respondents said copies of health and safety policy document had been made available to them, and 3.7% respondents were not sure, while 22.2% indicated that the copies of the health and safety policy had not been available. As to whether the company provides sufficient health and safety training to the employees, as many as 81.5% out of 27 of the respondents indicated that they had been given training in health and safety. 3.7% respondents said they were not sure, while 14.8% says that health and safety training is insufficient for the employees. According to the Regulations under factories and machinery act 1967 (act 139), employers are required to give employees orientation on legislation governing OHS, copies of OHS policy are to made available to employees and they are to be trained on health and safety practices to ensure incident free workplace environment. Another issue that was addressed was the supply of adequate personal protective equipment (PPE) by the company at no cost to employees, 100% of the respondents agreed to these statements and also 100% agreed that the employees are provided with separate toilet and washing facilities for male and female. With regard to authorities supervising the use of PPE, 29.6% of the respondents said authorities do not supervise the use of PPE, and 18.5% respondents were not sure, while 51.9% agreed that authorities do supervise the use of PPE. Regarding the question as to whether the company had created a safe environment for work, 40.7% of the respondents disagreed that a safe environment had been created for work. 14.8% of the respondents said they were not sure whether the company had provided for the workplace system of work that is safe and without risk to health, while 51.9% agreed that a safe environment had been created at the workplace. With regard to wholesome drinking water, 7.4% of the respondents said the company had not provided employees with wholesome drinking water, with 18.5% saying they were not sure whether the water provided was wholesome, while 74.1% agreed that the drinking water provided by the company was wholesome. In terms of managing fire at the workplace, 7.4% of respondents said they do not agree that the company had provided fire-fighting equipment at the workplace, about 92.6% of the respondents thought otherwise. They agreed that the company had provided firefighting facilities at the workplace. With regard to compensation benefits, 25.9% did not agree that compensation benefits were paid to employees who sustain injuries at the workplace. Also same percentage of 25.9 of the respondents said they were not sure whether these benefits were paid by the company; however 48.1% agreed that compensation benefits are paid to employees who sustain injuries in the course of work. Graph 4.3.3 Level of employee’s awareness of Health and Safety at the workplace This question sought to find how employees were aware of hazardous conditions at the workplace in the company as illustrated at Graph 4.3.3 As shown from the graph 4.3.3, 100% of the respondents said “Yes” that employees are exposed to OHS policy in the company. Respondents were further asked whether they were aware of practices that pose health hazards, 88.9% of the respondents indicated that they aware of practices that posed health hazards and 11.1% of them were not aware of some practices that posed health hazards at the workplace. With respect to excessive heat as a health threat, 88.9% of the respondents said that excessive heat was not a health threat. Respondents were asked whether poor lighting system constitute health hazard. About 85.2% of the respondents said poor lighting system was not a health hazard. 14.8% said that “Yes” poor lighting system was a health hazard. The respondents were further asked whether poor work posture posed a threat to health. 70.4% of the respondents said “Yes” it is a threat to their health, while 29.6% indicated that poor work posture pose are not threat to health. Majority shows that ergonomics problem is hazards to the workplace. In terms of health and safety matters practices, 92.6% of the respondents truly understand the health and safety issues in the company and 7.4% are not. As shown in the graph 4.5, 100% of the respondents believe health and safety committee is helpful in the company and 81.5% said that they involve in defining and developing the worker health and safety program structure. Further questions, we also asked the respondents: What do you think are the 3 main health’s and safety risks that you facing in your organization; About 10 out of 27 respondents said they had suffered from stress related illnesses as a result of their work, 9 of them expose into the chemicals, 8 of respondents facing eye strain at the workplace and the least health and safety risks is noise, bullying/harassment, fire hazard, tripping, cables/wire lying around, falling object and slippery floors. As the Summary of key findings of the study are:

  • Supervisors‘ do not effectively supervise the utilization of personal protective equipment supplied to employees;
  • Compensation benefits are paid to employees who sustain injuries at the workplace;
  • Nearly 90 percent (88.9 %) of the respondents were aware of hazardous conditions at the workplace;
  • 34.6% of the company did not reviews and updates the safe work procedures regularly
  • Not all managers are communicating and listening to the lower level about health and safety matter
  • 33% of the respondents say, workers are always involved in reviewing safe work procedures and 33% are not and 33% are not sure.
  • High priority is given for Safety in most of the company
  • 70.4% believe that health and safety practices are benefited to the company as a whole.
  • But only 63% believe that implementing health and safety the company can save money in the long term
  • Stress and ergonomics problem are the biggest hazard at the workplace
  • Health and Safety Committee are important in the company
  • All the company provide the PPE for employees at no cost and;
  • All companies provide separate toilets and washing for male and female
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