From the point of view of the population’s health, Romania has some specificities. On the one hand, in the indicator on the incidence of cardiovascular disease, cancer or diabetes, the figures are comparable to those in the developed countries, on the other hand, the indicator on the rate of infectious diseases, tuberculosis or some sexually transmitted diseases (so- called poverty diseases specific to disadvantaged social groups), the figures found in Romania are closer to those recorded in developing countries. The pressure on the medical system is also accentuated by the aging phenomenon of the population as a result of unfavorable demographic trends (decrease in birth rate and emigration of a significant part of the active population at the age of reproduction). The average life expectancy in Romania was among the lowest in 2016, 75.3 years compared to the EU average of 81 years. According to RIS data, the number of doctors (excluding dentists) has increased from 48,199 in 2007 to 57,304 in 2016. It is worth noting that while in 2007 the number of doctors in the public sector was 41,736, this number decreased to 35,680 specialists in 2016, compared with the private sector, where there was a growth of 3.4 times, from 6,463 in 2007 to 21,624 in 2016. Maternal mortality was 12.7 maternal deaths per 100 thousand live births in 2017, compared to 15.5 maternal deaths per 100 thousand live births in 2006. According to Eurostat, infant mortality registered a downward trend from 11 deaths to 1,000 live births in 2008, to 7.2 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2017, but still at a high level compared to the EU average of 3.6 per 1,000 live births. The EU Health Report in Romania in 2017 highlights the fact that the rate of vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis as well as against polio and measles (measles) decreased between 2000 and 2017 by 10% in children of 1 year. A possible reason for this phenomenon is the lack of cases in recent years and the increasing influence of anti-vaccination campaigns. According to the WHO data, in Romania the prevalence of depression was 931,842 cases in 2015 that means 5% of the country’s population. WHO also highlighted the correlation between suicide and mental illness. Thus, in 2016, the suicide rate was in Romania of 10.4 per 100 thousand inhabitants, the incidence in males being 5 times higher than in women.
In Romania, about a quarter of the population (23%) lives in poverty, according to the Civil Society Development Foundation, and the number of children dying before the age of one is double that of the European Union. Romania is also the last in terms of life expectancy. Poverty is one of the most important risk factors for millennium illnesses: HIV, malaria and tuberculosis. Social protection benefits have the lowest percentage of EU GDP. The World Bank estimates that around 1.3 billion people around the world are poor (they live with less then 1 $ a day) and the latest data show that out of the total population of 7 billion people, about 925 million suffer from hunger. The most affected are the children: at least 5 million die each year. In Romania, the poverty rate increased by five percent between 2005 and 2008. Romania is one of the EU Member States spending the smallest percentage of GDP (14%) on social protection, compared to an EU average of 27%.
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