Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky

Piaget and Vygotsky are some of the most well-known theorists in the world of Psychology. They have both spent many years studying various academics. Piaget was born on August 9, 1896, and Vygotsky was born on November 17, 1896. They both are only a few months apart. Piaget and Vygotsky were born within the same year. However, they were in two different countries. Lev Vygotsky was born in Orsha, Belarus, which is in Russia. He was best known for Cultural-historical psychology, and the zone of proximal development. Lev Vygotsky studied at three different universities which are: Shaniavskii Moscow City People’s University, Moscow State University, and Herzen University. He died on June 11, 1934, in Moscow, Russia.

Jean Piaget was born in Neuchatel, Switzerland. He was best known for Constructivism, Genetic epistemology, Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, object permanence, and egocentrism. Piaget studied at the University of Neuchatel, University of Zurich, and the University of Geneva. He died Geneva, Switzerland on September 16, 1980. Piaget believed that there were stages of development. These stages last from zero to elderly years. So, he decided to create the four stages of development. These stages were Sensorimotor, Preoperational stage, the Concrete Operational stage, and the Operational phase. He was also known to be the Swiss Developmentalist of Psychology. Piaget found more psychological occurrences and decides to create the eight stages of social and moral development. These stages are Trust versus Mistrust, Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt, Initiative versus Guilt, Industry versus Inferiority, Identity versus Identity Confusion, Intimacy versus isolation, Generativity versus Stagnation, and Integrity versus despair.

Vygotsky is a Russian developmentalist. He was the first to develop the zone of proximal development. Vygotsky did not believe in stages as Piaget did. In fact, Vygotsky did not discuss it or even mention it. He also said that there are no stages in life because learning is continuous. Lev Vygotsky focused on social interactions for children to learn ( Santrock). He stated that language plays a big part in development as Piaget did not mention or studied. Vygotsky also indicated that children learn through social interactions, and this occurs typically within that child’s culture. He also said that the children could not learn outside of the cultural setting.

Vygotsky did not do like Pigment did as Piaget assumed that children did not have the mental ability to solve problems. Vygotsky worked with the children by using a variety of psychological techniques. Those techniques are scaffolding, encouragement, and other strategies. Vygotsky had many different points of views from Piaget on how education in the classrooms is to be accomplished. Piaget studied educational approach while Vygotsky focused on constructive knowledge and how to incorporate them (Woolfolk). Lev Vygotsky by the time of 1934, his work was known as a foundation of research.

He then had what was called a Social Theory (McLeod). This theory was very well known to the world of psychology. Piaget theories and research never really became as famous as Vygotsky. By 1978, Vygotsky work was in the process of becoming known for his culturally organized psychological functions (McLeod). Unlike Piaget, his work was very well known. Paget’s theories could not account for any learning or educational strategies (McLeod). Vygotsky work proved that adults are essential to the method of cognitive development (McLeod). He had four types of mental functions. Those are mental functions of attention, sensation, perception, and memory (McLeod). Piaget focused on his many stages.

Piaget and Vygotsky work have made people better understand the world of mental and behavioral development (Geert). When Piaget and Vygotsky first started their research and studies, it opened a potential for criticism (Geert). Their work also focused on egocentric skills. Both theorists believed that the teachers are, guides and facilitators for the students (Sandrock). Both Piaget and Vygotsky theories are a type of constructivist (Sandrock). The two-theorist believed that social interference sets the foundation for development. They both shared the similarities of readiness, challenge, constructivist process, and social interactions.

The difference between Vygotsky and Piaget work is that Vygotsky’s human activity is a form of social learning. Piaget does not have this. Piaget believes that the child will function independently and discover the world on his or her own. Vygotsky has definite ideas, and Piaget had many weak ideas. But Piaget did have a strong cognitive constructive idea. Vygotsky had an active social constructive idea. Vygotsky also plays an active role in shaping thoughts, and Piaget does not play a role in developing theories.

A human now more understands the world of psychology. These two theorists have now made their work internationally. Without these two researchers’, psychology we would not make sense or be understood, so therefore, many mentally ill patients may not be treated. Their theories are in everything that a human does from interactions to the thoughts in your brain. Because of these two researchers breaking the world of psychology to a more understandable level we can now observe and understand the world much better. We can also see interactions among people and put them in each category. These two psychologists have now become well known to the world. The modern times are now referring to their research and generate new ideas that may better psychology. They had many similarities, but at the same time, these two researchers had very different cultures, environments, colleges, concepts, and theories.

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Jean Piaget And Lev Vygotsky. (2021, Apr 09). Retrieved August 4, 2021 , from
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