Intangible Creations of the Human Intellect

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Purpose of intellectual property:

  • To encourage the creation of a large variety of intellectual goods.
  • Gives economic incentive for their creation,
  • Stimulates innovation and contribute to the technological progress of countries


1624- Origins of patent law - The Statute of Monopolies

1710- Origins of copyright - British Statute of Anne Firmly established the concept of intellectual property.

1769- First known use of the term intellectual property

Jewish law includes several considerations which are similar to modern intellectual property laws

500 BCE- government of the Greek state of Sybaris offered one year's patent ""to all who should discover any new refinement in luxury"".

Intellectual property rights


A. copyrights, patents, and trademarks

B. Trade secrets, publicity rights, moral rights, rights against unfair competition.

C. Artistic works like music and literature, as well as some discoveries, inventions, words, phrases, symbols, and designs

A. Patents- a form of right granted by the government to an inventor or their successor-in-title, giving the owner the right to exclude others from making, using, selling, offering to sell, and importing an invention for a limited period of time, in exchange for the public disclosure of the invention.

B. Copyright-gives the creator of an original work exclusive rights to it, usually for a limited time. Copyright may apply to a wide range of creative, intellectual, or artistic forms, or ""works"".

C. Industrial design rights(“design right"" or design patent) -protects the visual design of objects that are not purely utilitarian.

D. Plant varieties -rights to commercially use a new variety of a plant.

E. Trademarks- a recognizable sign, design or expression which distinguishes products or services of a particular trader from the similar products or services of other traders.

F. Trade dress- legal term of art that generally refers to characteristics of the visual and aesthetic appearance of a product or its packaging that signify the source of the product to consumers.[35]

G. Trade secrets- a formula, practice, process, design, instrument, pattern, or compilation of information which is not generally known or reasonably ascertainable, by which a business can obtain an economic advantage over competitors and customers.

Infringement: Violation of intellectual property rights with respect to patents, copyright, and trademarks,

Misappropriation: with respect to trade secrets, may be a breach of civil law or criminal law,

Indian government approved its first Intellectual Property Rights Policy in May 2016


  1. Copyrights- The ""Copyright Act, 1957"" (as amended by the Copyright Amendment Act 2012) governs the subject of copyright law in India.
  2. Trademarks Statutory protection of trademark is administered by the Controller General of Patents, Designs and Trade Marks, a government agency which reports to the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP), under the Ministry of Commerce and Industry.
  3. Indian Patent Office - is administered by the Office of the Controller General of Patents, Designs & Trade Marks (CGPDTM). This is a subordinate office of the Government of India and administers the Indian law of Patents, Designs and Trade Marks

Copyright and Related Rights:

  • The Universal Copyright Convention (with Protocols)
  • The Geneva Treaty on International Registration of Audio-Visual Works, 1992.
  • WIPO Copyright Treaty, 1996
  • WIPO Performance and Phonograms Treaty, 1996
  • Patents:

    • Patent Cooperation Treaty, 1970
    • European Patent Convention (with Protocols), 1973
    • UPOV International Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants, 1991

    28 February 1856- Government of India- promulgated legislation to grant what was then termed as ""exclusive privileges for the encouragement of inventions of new manufactures"".

    02 September 1856- De Penning- invention was granted the first ever Intellectual Property protection in India. Amendments to the Patents Act - 1999, 2002, 2005, 2012

    Indian Patent Office - patent office is headquartered at Kolkata with branches in Chennai, New Delhi and Mumbai, office of the Patent Information System and National Institute for Intellectual Property Management is at Nagpur Indian Patent Office has 526 Patent Examiners, 97 Assistant Controllers, 42 Deputy Controllers, 1 Joint Controller, and 1 Senior Joint Controller Patent durationin India is 20 years from the date of filing of patent application.

    World Intellectual Property Day

    • Observed annually on 26 April.
    • was established by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) in 2000
    • to ""raise awareness of how patents, copyright, trademarks and designs impact on daily life"" and ""to celebrate creativity, and the contribution made by creators and innovators to the development of societies across the globe
    • 26 April was chosen as the date for World Intellectual Property Day because it coincides with the date on which the Convention Establishing the World Intellectual Property Organization entered into force in 1970.


    • 2001 – Creating the Future Today
    • 2002 – Encouraging Creativity
    • 2003 – Make Intellectual Property Your Business
    • 2004 – Encouraging Creativity
    • 2005 – Think, Imagine, Create
    • 2006 – It Starts With An Idea
    • 2007 – Encouraging Creativity
    • 2008 – Celebrating innovation and promoting respect for intellectual property
    • 2009 – Green Innovation
    • 2010 – Innovation – Linking the World
    • 2011 – Designing the Future
    • 2012 – Visionary Innovators
    • 2013 – Creativity – The Next Generation
    • 2014 – Movies – a Global Passion
    • 2015 – Get Up, Stand Up. For Music.
    • 2016 – Digital Creativity: Culture Reimagined
    • 2017 – Innovation – Improving Lives
    • 2018 – Powering Change: Women in Innovation and Creativity
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    Cite this page

    Intangible Creations of the Human Intellect. (2019, Feb 20). Retrieved February 22, 2024 , from

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