Neolithic Greece- an agricultural societies establishment in 7000 BC and ending in 3200 BC.
Helladic (Minoan or Bronze Age)- metal-based economy in 3200/3100 BC to the rise and fall of the Mycenaean Greek palaces from 1600-1100 BC.
Ancient Greece- a period spanning from 1100 BC to 140 BC covering sub-periods such as the Greek Dark Ages, Archaic period, the Classical period, and the Hellenistic period.
Roman Greece- covering a period of the Roman conquest of Greece in 146 BC to 324 AD
Byzantine Greece- a period from the establishment of the capital city of Constantinople in 324 AD to the fall of Constantinople in 1453 AD.
Ottoman Greece- covering a period of Turkish reign over the Greek government starting in 1463 and ending when the Greek Revolution of 1821 began.
Modern Greece- covering a period of Greek democracy in the Hellenic Republic from 1821 to the present.
The first main event is the Olympic Games. The Olympic Games were a religious celebration. They started in Olympia, the city-state of Elis, in northern Peloponnesus. Records date back to 776 BC. Back then, there was only a footrace. Later on, they added more sports like boxing and chariot racing. Victors were honored among all Greeks (Green, Jen).
The effects of the Olympics Games are what happens every two years now. The Olympics were slowly shaped into what gets the whole world watching every two years and has truly created a great connection with the whole world (Green, Jen).
The second main event is the Peloponnesian War. The war started with the growth of Athenian power. The growth of Athenian power started with the jealousy of Sparta and the discontent of Athens’s subject states. This war started in 431 BC and after 27 grueling years, ended in 404 BC (Ancient Greece).
The main effect of the Peloponnesian War was the ending of the power Athens Athens lost its power because of the war’s death toll and damage (Ancient Greece).
Greece is a slight bit smaller than Alabama, and even though farther east than most Western European countries, is still considered a Western European country. The reason being heritage and its membership in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization or NATO as well as the European Union or EU. Greece is bordered by Albania, Bulgaria, Macedonia, and Turkey. It is also bordered by the Ionian Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, and the Aegean Sea.
There are many mountains in Greece, one being Mount Olympus the highest point in the country, at an elevation of 9,570 feet. Greece also includes thousands of islands, the largest being Crete. These islands grant Greece the title of the twelfth-longest coastline in the world.
Greece’s climate is warm because of the Mediterranean Sea in southern Greece. The North, however, is cold and moist. Winters are mild yet wet, and summers hot and dry.
Greece’s longitude and latitude is 39.0742° N, 21.8243° E, and Europe’s being 54.5260° N, 15.2551° E. The surrounding countries, Albania, Bulgaria, Macedonia, and Turkey’s longitude and latitudes are (41.1533° N, 20.1683° E), (42.7339° N, 25.4858° E), (41.6086° N, 21.7453° E), and (38.9637° N, 35.2433° E).
In Greece, food is an extremely important part of their culture and lifestyle, it is a great part of what makes their country so unique. Because the Aegean Sea covers 83,000 square miles and is roughly 11,600 feet deep, it is one of the largest sources, if not the largest source of food in all of Greece. The Greek-Mediterranean daily diet consists mostly of a base of olive oil, fruits, and vegetables, alongside whole grains and nuts. Often, or about three times weekly they will eat seafood and fish, and then around three times a month is when red meat is eaten. The most commonly eaten meat in Greece is lamb, but pork, chicken, and beef are also popular (Eating Meat In Greece).
The Ancient Greeks were not at all occupied with their looks or clothing, they wore the fabric that was most accessible to them, easiest to perform activities in, and fit the best. Comfort and productivity were the biggest concerns, so ancient Greeks used whatever fabric was easiest to find and work with. The fabrics were sometimes spun from home, often into a heavy wool material (Ancient History Encyclopedia). The clothes were wrapped around the people and held together with pins at the seams. These clothes were also decorated with beautiful patterns and dyed bright colors.
“In the ancient Greek world, religion was personal, direct and present in all areas of life” (Cartwright, 2018). Religion was an everyday thing in the lives of all Greeks and a crucially important one as well. In Ancient Greece, the people believed in their many gods which were used to explain questions about the world and how it functioned before they had the science to prove how things like the seasons worked. There are hundreds, maybe thousands of stories and myths created in the Ancient Greek era that features Zeus, Poseidon, Hera, and the rest of the main 12 Olympian gods of Greece. The people would have animal sacrifices, create temples, have city-wide festivals, and more in honor of their myths and gods (Cartwright, 2018). Now, in modern times, 98% of Greece identifies their religion as Greek Orthodox, which is a branch of orthodox Christianity.
Greek is commonly thought of as “the language of the Gospels” and a language that contributed to a lot of Western languages. Greek was made an official language in 285 AD.
In the 1830s, a Greek scholar named Adamantios tried to create another language based on classical Greek, this being named katharèvousa (Kah-thah-REH-voo-sah). Katharèvousa was supposed to be easier to learn than classical Greek but proved the opposite. Because of that, the language never became popular and demotic Greek became the proficient and official language (Green, Jen).
In greeting, Greeks are usually physically expressive and open; many friends and
relatives will hug or kiss as a greeting, while others may shake hands. “Men often slap each other’s back or arm at shoulder level instead of shaking hands” (Culturegrams). There are a variety of verbal greetings but the simplest and most popular are Kaliméra, good morning, and Kalispéra, which means good evening or good night. As for gestures, they are very common and used in most everyday conversations among Greeks. To indicate yes, one would tilt or nod the head slightly forward, and to indicate no, would tilt the head slightly back (Culturegrams). Pointing a finger at somebody is considered rude and impolite, it usually indicates a threat of contempt. Similarly, the act of directing an open palm with the fingers spread at another person is called moútza and is “severely insulting” (Culturegrams).
The Greek education system is different than the education system in the US, but not by that much. It is divided into 3 levels: primary, secondary, and tertiary. Primary schooling is divided as well. Primary is divided into kindergarten (1-2 years), and primary (ages 6-12). Secondary schooling also has 2 stages. Gymnasio, or commonly known as middle school or junior high, is a three-year school. Ater Gymnasio, students attend a Lykeion or high school. They can later choose to take part in universities for further education (Green, Jen).
Greeks, and more specifically, ancient Greeks loved to do gymnastics and athletics in their free time. These include boxing, discus, running, javelin, and long jump. Other activities include knucklebones, playing music, telling stories, and spending time with friends and family (Green, Jen).
Holidays and Special Events
One of the most important holidays in Greece is Easter. Easter, or Pascha, is a religious holiday, celebrating the ‘resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead’ Easter lunch is comprised of roasted lamb and kokoretsi (lamb or goat intestines wrapped around seasoned organ meat and grilled over a spit), as well as lettuce, onion, and dill salad. Easter eggs (usually painted red or multicolored) are distributed, and an egg-tapping contest follows. The most common Easter cake is the tsoureki which is a long, flat, and sometimes braided sweet bread topped with almonds (Culturegrams).
The GNP, or Gross Nation Proffit, of Greece, is 299.4 billion PPP (purchasing power parity) dollars, giving them 46th place in the world. Greece also has a GDP of $200.288 billion (Greece Gross National Product). The main jobs and industries are tourism, shipping, industrial products, food and tobacco processing, textiles, chemicals, metal products, mining, and petroleum. The main products of those jobs and industries
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