Forgiveness Meta-Analysis Approach Tina Robinson Liberty University

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Baskin & Enright, (2004) present that after a review of the studies of forgiveness logically could be grouped into 3 categories: decision-based, process-based group, and process-based individual interventions (p.79). Baskin & Enright show through their studies why forgiveness is relevant by allowing one to see the importance of the counselor and counselee. One of our human natures is holding onto harm, grudges, and unable to forgive others. This article shows us that there are three categories forgiveness is based upon and how meta-analysis which was used in the studies shown throughout the article as mentioned above.

Baskin & Enright, (2004) that a Christian perception that God could meet basic psychological needs, in which a study of 225 Christians testing hypothesis (p. 79). Forgiveness is one of our downfalls its easier to hold onto anger than to let go. In this article it shows how Christians faith helps them forgive and move on without grudges. Baskin & Enright, (2004) In the process versus decision the models of counseling highlight the importance of underlying the philosophical differences; in the first two models it shows that they are process-based, and the third is decision-based (p. 81). Forgiveness is a part of counseling it appears helping our clients see how forgiving can help the healing process is the hard part. Forgiving does not start with others; it starts within one’s self.

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Baskin & Enright, (2004) Each of us grieve in different ways and forgiveness is one of the uniqueness parts of the individual person. In the studies broke down it showed forgiveness is not a mental health variable (p. 87). Knowing that problems seem similar, one needs to remember that each person is unique in how they grieve, work through difficulties, and find a way to move forward. Through Christian counseling most are searching for a belief that will help them find their way; as vessels it is our faith that shines through to help them.

Baskin & Enright, (2004) Forgiveness is a process and which category is approached and given the ultimate attention can and will give each person the tools they need to forgive the offender no matter the situation. 1990’s intervention studies on forgiveness had not been systematically studied (p. 79). Not only does one need to forgive the offender; but forgiving one’s self, is important as well. Forgiving others is difficult but at times it seems forgiving ourselves can be the hard task at hand. Baskin & Enright, (2004) The results of this study showed that the empirical evidence does not endorse the predominant cognitive decision-base intervention; due to forgiveness not being affected by counseling (p,87). Forgiveness needs to begin with the client learning to forgive themselves; so, they can have a better understanding of why they struggle with depression, loss and more. Summary of this article shows that one needs guidance in learning how to forgive and the importance of starting within one self.


In looking back on the article, it appears counselor’s need to focus on help their clients understand forgiveness and it’s meaning. Each person needs to find a place where they are safe and feel at peace within themselves. In the article it states that the studies may be complete or not complete. Baskin & Enright, (2004) the empirical evidence supporting process models of forgiveness are apparent form the second category of studies (p.87) Baskin & Enright, (2004) It showed that 0.82 effect the size of forgiveness; having the average person doing 75% better than the controlled group (p.87). The study does show that if used as a tool counseling can help one to learn what forgiveness is and why it is important to start with one’s self.

Given that each person is unique and know to people are going to deal with the same situation alike; it is the counselors part to teach what forgiveness means. Helping a client learn on a individual basis is important they need to understand why forgiveness is important and why it starts within them. Counselor’s need to make sure they know their limits and that their ideas are not impressed upon the client. Gaining our perspective onto our clients can be damaging more than helpful. In the article, it shows the difference between controlled groups and those who are free to make a choice in what they are taught. Reflection from this article is that each of us learn differently, and we are unique from others.


Applying Biblical worldview in counseling forgiveness seems to hold value in most books of the Bible. Being a Christian counselor, we need to have faith in ourselves to help others. Praying is a part of forgiveness and it begins within each of us. Mark 11: 25-26 (NKJV) And whenever you stand praying, if you have anything against anyone, forgive him, that your Father in heaven may also forgive you your trespasses. [25] But if you do not forgive, neither will your Father in heaven forgive you your trespasses. [26]

Forgiving ourselves is the hardest part of the human dynamics Colossians 3:8 (NKJV) But now you yourselves are to put off all these; anger, wrath, malice, blasphemy, filthy, language out of your mouth. Knowing that our hearts and thoughts are clean as counselors; when we are helping clients and in our personal life gives us peace of mind. Trust with our clients is important and our spirituality comes through in how we help others. I have found that praying and keeping my own self free through forgiveness can be helpful in my sessions. My degree originally was in Criminal Justices, now it is an emphasis for Human Service Counseling,

I have had a long journey into forgiving myself and those who harmed me; this is why I chose this profession. My tendency to fix what is broken has been my downfall in my helping others. I have learned through Christ how to forgive myself and those who hurt me. I am learning that no matter how each situation is similar we all deal and learn forgiveness differently. In applying what this article has to offer will be a new challenge now that I have truly gone through it. Summarizing and reflection of articles are my weakness; but finding areas that can help me with clients is a strong point within myself.


Baskin, T. W., & Enright, R. D. (2004). Intervention Studies on Forgiveness: A Meta-

Analysis. Journal of Counseling & Development, 82(1), 79-90. doi:10.1002/j.1556-


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