This paper explores how proteins affect hatching chicken eggs. The paper covers a brief overview of how proteins react in the egg and how the embryo consumes the protein. It also discusses chemical interactions between the protein and the embryo.
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Crude protein interacts with the chick to determine future weight and even mortality. Different amounts of crude protein and the temperature and humidity at which the eggs are kept at makes a difference in whether the chick will survive to live a happy life or not. The paper describes positive and negative aspects of different amounts of crude protein, different temperatures, and different humidities. The paper will conclude that there is a certain amount of crude protein that is safe for a hatching chick and that the temperature and humidity fluctuates through the different hatching periods.
There are many chemical interactions between hatching eggs and proteins within the eggs. Proteins have many links with the eggs including hatchability, high protein hen diets, and the influences that diets have on egg production and egg weight. Hatchability is the ability to hatch or being able to reproduce. Chicks must have a high protein diet in order to be strong enough to break through the shell at the time in which they hatch. They must also have a high protein intake, so they can survive after breaking through the shell. This chemical reaction includes proteins changing into strength for the growing embryo or chick (Neves, 2017). Hen diets influence egg production and egg weight in hatching eggs. Egg weight is considerably higher when crude protein is higher. After the 24th day, it is time for chicks to begin hatching (Neves, 2017).
The structure of the egg not only provides a diet for the hatching egg, but serves as a main food source during the developing stages. All poultry interacts in the same way within the egg. The yolk sac provides food to the fast growing embryo in the early stages of its life cycle. Certain parts of the egg are exceptional pieces of what are used in protein consumption including the yolk (Johnson & Ridlen, 2019). The yolk is the main part of protein consumed during hatching period and has a tremendous amount of protein that is useful to chicks and humans.
Conditions during the hatching period are very important to the developing embryo. The temperature in which the eggs are kept is also very important to the growing chick. In the experiment, the eggs were kept at 18? for 7 days in trays. Next, the eggs were kept at 37.7? for 21 days in a cupboard type incubator. For the last three days, the eggs were kept at 37.5? in the incubator. The eggs also have to stay at a specific percentage of moisture. They were kept at 75% moisture for the first seven days. For the next 21 days, they were kept at 65% moisture. For the last 3 days, the eggs were kept at 90% moisture. After 24 days, the egg is measured to determine approximate chick weight (Neves, 2017). If the temperature and moisture aren’t exactly right, it is more likely for the embryo not to make it.
Egg nutrient and availability is also very important to the developing embryo. There are typically physiological differences in strains of layer versus broiler eggs. Layers and broilers are used for many different reasons including egg producing chickens versus meat producing chickens. These differences control nutrient utilization and how the nutrients taken in are used. Protein amounts cause differences in development among the eggs. In this experiment, energy content was measured in hatching eggs and chicks that had been hatched for six hours. Both broilers and layers were measured. Eggs and hatched chicks that had consumed a higher amount of protein, had a higher p-value (Nangsuay, Molenaar, Meijerhof, VandenAnker, Heetkamp, Kemp, VandenBrand, 2015). P-value is the probability value that the given hypothesis was true. The hypothesis stated that the total amount of energy from protein was higher than those without protein.
Early embryonic development is caused by hatching time, hatching size, and chick maturity. The timeline of the development for the growing embryo is very important to the early stages of the chick. The early stages are crucial due to the first cells being developed. Chicks have shorter or longer hatching times due to the different genes in breeds. Size of the egg is also breed based, such as Lavender Orpington chicken eggs are lots smaller than Barred Rock chicken eggs. Chick maturity is typically determined in the individual chick’s genes. Temperament can be more settled or rowdy depending on breed, but there will be a few in the mix that are different (Lumsangkul, Fan, Chang, Ju, & Chiang, 2018).
Protein levels in breeder diets are extremely important to the newly developing chick. Protein levels can completely alter hatching characteristics and embryonic mortality. Hatching characteristics can include sex, color, or their own egg production and quality. Fertility increased with higher protein levels and hatchability decreased with high protein levels. There was an 18% crude protein amount involved in this experiment, which is actually a small amount higher than the average hatching chick needs, so this led to some minor hatchability and mortality issues (Neves, 2017).
In the experiment, soybean protein and sunflower meal protein were used. Soybean protein contained 44% crude protein. Sunflower meal protein contained 28% crude protein (Neves, 2017). Crude protein is the amount of protein of a specific food or amount in animal feed. Crude protein is the amount of oxygen in food proteins.
Chemical properties of late incubation eggs include protein in the eggs and soy protein supplements given in poultry diets. After 17 days of incubation, amniotic fluid determines the amount of protein in the egg (Neves, 2017). Some experimenters use Ovo feeding to supplement the embryo. Ovo feeding is the injection of supplements to used to help the growing embryo during its growing stages and later on in life (Omede, Bhuiyan, Islam, Iji, 2017).
During laying, hens can change the amount of protein in the eggs they lay based on the amount of protein in the hens own diet. Other experimenters use soy protein supplements. Soy is very rich in protein. It also used commonly in poultry diet.
Protein consumption does have its pros and cons. Proteins are a vital part of growing chicks, without them, flocks and new baby chicks can not be grown. Proteins play a huge role in biological factors for the growing chicks. Protein plays a role in the structure and function of the baby chick. Protein does enhance growth, egg production, immunity, and adaptations to the environment. The proteins in hatching chicken eggs are made up of amino acids, especially Leucine and Lysine (Esmail, 2016). The yolk of the egg provides proteins and vitamins in the egg. Chicks absorb the yolk before they are born, so it becomes their food source. A con of proteins in hatching chicken is eggs is that one person would not want to add too much crude protein to a diet or Ovo feeding, because it can cause decreased hatchability rate (Esmail, 2016).
In conclusion, proteins in hatching chicken eggs are a vital part part of the embryos first growing stages. Without consuming protein, the chicks would not make it through the first part of their lives. The yolk is a sufficient amount of protein for the chick to survive until its hatching period. Through research, it was found that protein is a necessary food source to the developing chick. The study of protein consumption of hatching chicken eggs may lead to a new way to help the growing embryos consume protein.
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