Muslim reflection on biotechnology are manifested by enormous divergences in the representations of reality that impact ethical deliberations. Due to the cultural and political diversity of Muslim civilizations around the globe, attain meaningful harmony is very tough. Certain key changes that Muslim ethical practices experience under pressures of rapid modernization and globalization, with its associated agonies, debates about biotechnology show the weakness of Muslim ethics from a variety of outlooks.
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Islam is truly a system of life that represents the important sphere of connection with Allah, with the human beings along with other living organisms. The associations to be well reputable, three important axes of Islamic cores which highlighted are faith (tawheed), workshop (ibadah) and morality (akhlaq). These principles will balance and keep one’s moral and spiritual beliefs while continuing to strive on the path in which leads to Allah’s wish. Islamization of knowledge is a method which combines the ideologies of educational philosophy of Quranic science into the national education curriculum with the intention to integrate science and theological knowledge to upload the understanding and the civilization related to Islam. Science is an analysis, synthesis and philosophy of the universe.
In biotechnology faith is strictly linked to the question of religious principles, morals and ethics. This was further supported by that the humanitarian problems that frequently become a serious arguments between the scholars and scientists which contains human cloning, molecular biology and genetics. In the view of religion and law, human cloning is considered as a risk to social life and it will disturbs the personal organization as it is actually a effect of an asexual reproduction. According to the Islamic view based on creation, the formation of human embryo is the role of male and female cells in the practice of sexual relations which are confined or permitted to a legal marriage. Hence, offspring ancestry or family bond between the child and his parents is evidently recognized. Another negative outcome comprise a marriage that is no longer essential as a technological development in the modern world has generated new desire in the minds of most people specially among infertile pair or the couples whose children died in dreadful accident. When human population is denied, humaneness will be demolished as human clones do not have a soul. Due to the inferences that cloning holds, Islam consider it as religious as well as ethical violation and thus such technology should not be practiced at all. International Islamic scholars exclude and act against all forms of human cloning and these include Said Ramadhan al-Buti, Abdul Aziz bin Baz, Dr. Wahbah al- Zuhayli, Dr. Gamal Serour , Dr. Muhammad Sayyid Tantain, Sheikh Muhammed bin Saleh al-Othimin, Dr.Nasr Farid Wasil, Dr. Muhammad Syaikh Mukthar al- Salami, Abd.al-Muhsin al-Turki, Suleiman Al-Ashqar. Certain Islamic groups and experts around the world which call for forbidding of human cloning.
A sudden development in biotechnology has raised several problems and arguments on the Islamic legislation between Muslims all over the world. The results of new theories in biotechnology have always caused a problem whether they are right or wrong. Many findings are only based on the logical reasoning. Some of them are manipulating the outcomes by not revealing the real facts and truth. This unprincipled issue has been debated or raised up in the international conference on bio-etiquette held in Beirut. Numerous proposals have been highlighted in the conference to confirm the compatibility between biotechnology and value or moral of human kind such as:
• The significance must be given to the formation of a national committee to decide the role of culture in facing the challenges related to biotechnology.
• The necessity for the agreement to harmonize bio-etiquette with the local and national situations.
• Legislative mechanism and institutions are desired to regulate person’s greediness in biotechnological commerce.
• To improve plans in generating a consciousness associated to bio-etiquette, so that one make a choice based on correct information.
Therefore, the integration between biotechnology and theology appears to be solves the problem by teaching the moral values and Islamic etiquette.
The contribution of Islamic civilization in the field of biotechnology. Some people accepted the technologies were others are not accepting the new or modern technologies in related with the religion Islam. According to the Islamic religion, they will not agree with the artificial methods of reproduction that are done asexually such as human cloning, molecular biology, genetics etc. many Muslim scholars stay against the new artificial technologies developed in the case of reproduction. The civilization in the field of biotechnology faith is strictly linked to the question of spiritual beliefs, morals and ethics. The integration between biotechnology and theology appears to solve the problem by teaching the moral values and Islamic etiquette.
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