To learn about external means to measure blood pressure, observe features of venous circulation, and observe the effects of exercise on blood pressure and heart rate and practice using mercury sphygmomanometer and check the BP within 2 minutes. To compare yours resting BP with different apparatus.
Methods: All you need to perform a blood pressure measurement is a cuff and a device (stethoscope or microphone) to detect the sound of the pulse in the artery. While the subject is in a sitting posture, have him/her alternate 6 seconds of deep inhalation followed by 6 seconds of deep exhalation, for one minute.
To observe the effect of the following factors on BP: The First one, we are measured left arm and right arm the blood pressure by the partner.
The second one, we are measured the postural BP each a minute when 6 minutes are finished. We are measured three different actions. The zero minute, we are measured the baseline. The first minute, we are measured standing. The second, third, and fourth minutes, we are measured lay.
The fifth and sixth minutes, we are measured standing again. The third one, we are measured the different BP test which are drank 600ml water fast, walked 5mins stairs, kept water for foot-bathing for 3mins, sat quietly.
This four measurement are measured the blood pressure which is the baseline, immediate after action finished, 5 min and 10 min.
Discussions: Blood pressure is a measurement of the force applied to the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps blood through the body. The pressure is determined by the force and amount of blood pumped, and the size and flexibility of the arteries. Blood pressure is continually changing depending on activity, temperature, diet, emotional state, posture, physical state, and medication use. Blood pressure differentiates between diastolic blood pressure and systolic blood pressure.
Blood pressure is usually measured while you are seated with your arm resting on a table. Your arm should be slightly bent so that it is at the same level as your heart. The upper are should be bare, with your sleeve comfortably rolled up. The normal values which in adults, the ideal top number (systolic pressure) should be less than 120 mmHg. The bottom number (diastolic pressure) should be less than 80mmHg.
Diastolic pressure also increases with age but rather less.
Repeated measurements are important. A single high measurement does not necessarily mean you have high blood pressure. On the other hand, a single normal measurement does not necessarily mean that you don’t have high blood pressure. Blood pressure readings taken at home can provide important information.
Many people become nervous while they’re blood pressure measurement and have higher readings. In experiment2, blood pressure measurements were taken in supine and standing positions for each team member. In order to obtain more accurate results and conclusions, we combined the results from the entire class (60 students). To better understand the results, we calculated the means of all the data for the standing and supine SBP, DBP, MAP, and HR.
The experimentally collected mean values for each of these data points are similar to the normal values for a healthy individual and demonstrates a degree of accuracy in the data collected. When the means of the supine and standing are compared, it is apparent that the results of the standing readings are higher than the results from the supine readings.
In comparison between the two positions, blood is pumped against gravity while standing. Gravity thus causes a higher blood pressure required to pump the blood to the upper part of the body from the lower extremities.
Furthermore, we separated the class by gender, and calculated the mean values for both standing and supine SBP, DBP, MAP, and HR for males and females.
We found that collectively, the means found for the females are generally lower than the class mean while the means of the males are generally higher than the class means. The results that were found coincided with the fact that men tend to have higher blood pressure than females. For the standing position, the heart rate values are higher than for supine, as is to be expected. To make these measurements, we employed the auscultatory method using a sphygmomanometer and stethoscope.
Through the use of these instruments, we measured the systolic and diastolic pressures by listening for the Korotkoff sounds. Sitting which mean that in a resting individual the left ventricle of the heart pumps typically 5 litres of blood each minute into the aorta and arteries of the body. Downstream, the small arterioles restrict the outflow of blood from the arteries and are therefore known as the main ‘resistance vessels’.
The combined effect of the energy generated by the heart and the outflow restriction results in a distending pressure in the arterial system which is referred to as the blood pressure. At rest, each time the heart contracts, it ejects typically 70 ml of blood into the arterial system. This causes a steep increase in arterial pressure, the magnitude of which is dependent both on the volume ejected and on the distensibility of the arteries.
Older people have less distensible arteries, which explains why their systolic blood pressure is usually higher than in younger subjects. Because the shape of the arterial pressure pulse is roughly triangular, the mean level of pressure is nearer to the diastolic value.
The importance of blood pressure is that it effectively provides a store of energy. Foot-bathing generated by the heart, available to cause blood to flow through the working tissues. It is actually the flow of blood, providing oxygen and nutrients and removing waste products including carbon dioxide, which is really the important factor, but without pressure there would be no flow.
Humans, being upright bipedal animals, have a particular problem in supplying blood to all parts of the body. Due just to gravity, pressure in arteries supplying the head is about 100 mm Hg less than that in arteries in the feet.
The fact that the brain must have an adequate arterial pressure places a limitation on the range of effective pressures in the upright person. The 5-minute walk which we are immediately measured the blood pressure higher than the baseline. 5 minutes and 10 minutes after, we are measured the blood pressure is lower than the baseline. Exercise, along with an active lifestyle, may decrease blood pressure.
During exercise, your systolic blood pressure increases to improve blood flow, thus increasing available oxygen to the working muscles. Your blood vessels may also become more relaxed, or dilated, to allow for the increased blood flow.
This may mean a slight lowering of your diastolic blood pressure. Right after exercise, your blood pressure is probably a little bit lower than before you started. This is a very positive response of the body.
Regular exercise has been shown to result in a reduction in blood pressure for those who may be hypertensive. While this method of measurement is a useful diagnostic tool for determining blood pressure and the vascular health of an individual, there are various sources of error involved.
One of the biggest sources of error is the inexperience of individuals in taking blood pressure readings. It is possible that individuals inaccurately measured results, and this can be attributed to many different factors, including background noise and technique. As a result of the excessive noise in the room, the Korotkoff sounds were difficult to hear. Also, there was only one size of cuff available, and in many cases, it was not the size needed to get an accurate reading on an individual. Cuffs that are either too short or too narrow inaccurately result in lower blood pressure readings.
Measurements taken from the same arm less than five minutes apart and an incomplete deflation of the cuff in between these measurements could have had an effect on the results.
It should be noted that every person in a group was asked to try and obtain a blood pressure reading, but in many cases, within the groups there was an inconsistency in the technique used. For the heart rate measurements, no explicit instructions were given about the technique to be used. While some individuals took their reading from the carotid artery, others determined their radial pulse. Generally, a measurement from the carotid artery is more precise.
Also, having the same person take the measurements would reduce the individual error involved. It would also be better to have each team take measurements in separate rooms so that excess noise from the large number of people would be reduced.
Blood pressure, like all biological variables, varies widely in different people and, in the same individual, at different times of the day. Blood pressure is continually changing depending on activity, temperature, diet, emotional state, posture, physical state, and medication use. And then, we do different thing which has measured the different blood pressure. Therefore, if we were measured the high blood pressure, it’s not really had a high blood pressure.
It is because it maybe affect by something such as running, walking, hot-drink, smoking.
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