A settler is a person who arrives from another country to an area to use the land, either to cultivate it or establish a permanent residence. While an explorer is someone that goes to places never been discovered to discover the resources. Explorers never settle in any particular region.
At about ACE1000, most Indigenous peoples were hunters and gatherers because they needed food to survive. Archaeologist actually discovered village settlements in Americas way back in 15000-13000 BCE but there’s no exact timeline of the development of agriculture in America. Sources presume that an increase in CO2 in the air made photosynthesis more efficient and thus increased the growth and size of different plants. The 3 sisters; corn, beans and squash were the first plants to be cultivated in North America. The first crop, squash was cultivated in the Northeastern Woodlands of North America in 4300 BCE and remained the only crop until after ACE500 when Corn was cultivated in Southern Ontario. By the 13th century squash had reached Southern Ontario completing the triad of sisters.
The 3 sisters helped capture nitrogen in the air and release into the soil. It curbed erosion and protected other plants from hail, wind and excess sunlight. Now plants had been a common part of the indigenous societies as it was used not only as food but also as sources of medicine to cure illnesses and disease.
Variations in strengths between hunting and gathering encouraged co-operation and trade. A sealed agreement between the Haudenosaunee and the great lake peoples led to the exchange of gifts and hostages which was a vital form of trade for the Indigenous peoples. The trades of gifts created alliancesrading was both material and immaterial goods. The higher the rank of recipient the greater the value of gifts.
First European encounter with North America was in 1497. Explorer and navigator John Cabot, sailed with 18 men to discover new goods to be brought into the British Market. He sailed to southern Labrador an island of New foundland, also called Cape Breton Island.
Cabot named most regions of New foundland such as Cape discovery, Island of St john and Trinity Island. On Cabot return to Bristol he brought back 3 Inuit men that learnt English in a couple of years and thus convincing English people that the Natives of American could be thought English.
Another famous explorer is Jacques Cartier. In 1534 Francis the 1st of France commissioned Cartier to explore Northern America in search of gold and spice. He arrived in Stadakohnan a village in present day Quebec City. Cartier persuaded Donnakoh-Noh the Chief of Stadakohnan to allow his children, Tayagnoagny and Domagaya go with him to France on his return Voyage. He trade them as interpreters for the fur trade. According to Dickason Cartier was said to have discovered Canada. When Cartier left for Stadakohnan on his 2nd Voyage, Stadakohnan people had become aggressive as a means of protecting their territory. Cartier kidnapped Donnakoh-Noh and his sons and took them back to France.
At the end of Cartiers last voyage Hochelaga was the largest of 14 villages on the north shore of the river. The Stadakohnan and Hochelagan people probably withdrew westward, to join the Wendat Confederacy. Through Cartier Fur trade was established in Northern America
The Innu controlled the trade up the Saguenay. James Bay and Great lakes were interior trading networks. Other things such as whaling, maize, moccasins and potatoes were also traded to the Europeans for knives, small mirrors and other goods to the Indigenous peoples.
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