- Is a chronic inflammatory lung diseases characterized by repeated breathing problem.
- The problems are caused by oversensitivity of the air passage
- The condition is most common in children and young adult and tends to improve or resolve with age, Asthma is considered the number 1 emergency in children
- Air passages narrow and mucus builds up, resulting in poor oxygen exchange
- During an attack, air passages get narrower and breathing becomes difficult
- Respiratory tract infections
- Strong odors, perfumes, and paints
- Occupational exposures: dust, smoke, and fumes.
- Certain drugs: aspirin, b-blockers, NSAIDS
- 5- Exercise
- 6- Air pollution
- 7- Emotional stress
Symptoms can range from mild to moderate to severe and can be life threatening.
The signs of an asthma attack include the following
- 1- Cough.
- 2- Cyanosis.
- 3- Inability to speak in complete sentence without pausing for breath.
- 4- Difficulty breathing, including wheezing.
Care for people with asthma
- Place the victim in a comfortable, upright position and leaning slightly forward
- Monitor breathing
- Ask the patient about asthma medication
- If the victim doesn’t respond well to his or her inhaled medication as in severe asthma(status asthmaticus), seek medical care
COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases)
- COPD stands for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
- COPD is a term used for a number of condition, including emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and lung diseases.
- People with COPD find it hard to breathe because their air flow is obstructed.
- COPD affects primarily older adults.
- Chronic bronchitis
- Caused by chronic infection
- Symptoms include coughing, difficulty breathing, and increased sputum
- Alveoli are partially destroyed
- Symptoms include coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath
- Shortness of breath
- Victim has artificially supplied oxygen
- Assist the victim with any prescribed medications he may have.
- Place the victim in the position of comfort.
- Encourage the victim to cough up secretions.
- Encourage the victim to drink fluids.
- If the situation is acute, seek medical care.
- Administer oxygen.
- Rapid, deep breathing often seen with emotional stress (Anxiety Attack)
- Hyperventilation can also be caused by:
1- Aspirin toxicity
2- Diabetic keto acidosis (DKA)
- Dizziness, lightheadedness
- Tingling of hands and feet
- Shortness of breath
- Breathing faster than 40 breaths/min
Care for Hyperventilation
- Calm and reassure the victim.
- Have the victim breathe slowly.
- Inhale through the nose.
- Hold for several seconds.
- Exhale slowly.
- Do not have the victim breathe into a paper bag.
- This rarely restores blood gas but often causes dangerous stress to the heart and respiratory system.
- Fainting is a sudden brief loss of responsiveness associated with decreased blood flow to the brain.
- It is also called syncope or psychogenic shock.
- It can result from physical or emotional causes.
- For example, it can be precipitated by unpleasant emotional stimuli such as the sight of blood or strong fear.
- Sitting or standing for a long time without moving can cause blood to pool, which can lead to fainting as well.
- Seeing spots
- Visual blurring
- Pale skin
Care for Fainting
- If the victim is about to faint:
- Prevent the person from falling.
- Help the person lie down with his legs raised 6 to 12 inches.
- Loosen tight clothing at the neck and waist
- Stay with the victim.
- If fainting occurred:
- Monitor breathing.
- Loosen tight clothing and belts.
- Raise victim’s legs 6 to 12 inches.
- Have the victim sit and drink cool, sweetened liquids.
- Fresh air and a cold, wet cloth may help
- Seek medical care if the victim:
- Has repeated fainting episodes
- Does not quickly regain consciousness
- Loses consciousness while sitting or lying down
- Faints for no apparent reason
Abnormal stimulation of the brain cells causing uncontrollable muscle movement
Causes of seizures
- Seizures can result from various medical conditions:
- Electric shock
- High fever in children
- Brain injury, tumor, or stroke
- The typical sequence for a tonic-clonic seizure is for the patient to experience an aura first.
- This is a strange sensation that lasts a few seconds (such as tingling, smelling an odor that isn’t actually there, or emotional changes) occurs in some people prior to each seizure.
- It can consist of auditory or visual hallucinations, a peculiar taste in the mouth, or a painful sensation in the abdomen.
- This is followed by loss of consciousness and muscle contractions.
- It usually lasts for 2 to 5 minutes.
Management of seizures
- When a seizure occurs, the main goal is to protect the person from injury. Try to prevent a fall. Lay the person on the ground in a safe area. Clear the area of furniture or other sharp objects.
- Cushion the person’s head.
- Loosen tight clothing, especially around the person’s neck.
- Turn the person on his or her side. If vomiting occurs, this helps make sure that the vomit is not inhaled into the lungs.
- Look for a medical I.D. bracelet with seizure instructions.
- Stay with the person until he or she recovers, or until you have professional medical help. Meanwhile, monitor the person’s vital signs (pulse, rate of breathing).
- DO NOT restrain the person.
- DO NOT place anything between the person’s teeth during a seizure (including your fingers).
- DO NOT move the person unless he or she is in danger or near something hazardous.
- DO NOT try to make the person stop convulsing. He or she has no control over the seizure and is not aware of what is happening at the time.
- DO NOT give the person anything by mouth until the convulsions have stopped and the person is fully awake and alert.
Call 911 if:
- This is the first time the person has had a seizure.
- A seizure lasts more than 5 minutes.
- Another seizure starts soon after a seizure ends.
- The person had a seizure in water.
- The person is pregnant, injured, or has diabetes.
- The attack usually end within 1-2 minutes, so call 911 only if
- A seizures occurs in someone who not known to have epilepsy.
- A seizure last more than 5 minute.
- A victim experience a second seizure
- The victim is pregnant or has another medical condition
- There are any signs of injury.
Cite this page
Having doubts about how to write your paper correctly?
Our editors will help you fix any mistakes and get an A+!
Leave your email and we will send a sample to you.
Didn't find the paper that you were looking for?
We can create an original paper just for you!
Get Your Price
Deadline 0 days left