An Issue of Celiac Disease

Task 1

        Pizza digestion starts at the mouth where it is chewed and broken down into smaller particles for easy digestion. The mouth has salivary amylase enzyme which digests the polysaccharides into disaccharides. The pizza particles are rolled into a bolus and swallowed into the stomach via the esophagus.

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The pizza boluses are broken down in the stomach by the gastric juice, pepsin, and several enzymes to break down the proteins. The proteins are broken down and the food is passed to the small intestine where it is digested by the bile, pancreatic juice, and the intestinal juice. Bile from the gallbladder digest the fat and absorbed into the body. The polysaccharides in the pizza are broken down into starch by the amylase enzyme (Guerra 2012).

        The amylase enzyme hydrolyzes the starch and the glucoamylase changes the maltose into maltotriose. The products of the alpha-amylase enzyme are hydrolyzed into respective monosaccharides by the lactase, sucrose and maltase enzymes. The fructose is transported into the body with help of intestinal cells why the glucose competes with sodium ions transporter for absorption. The monosaccharides are absorbed into the blood capillaries via a diffusion mechanism.  The cheese of the pizza belongs to lipids. The fat is broken down by the lipase enzyme.  The fats are digested to be soluble in the gastrointestinal water. The fat in pizza is changed into fatty acid and glycerol molecules. The protein present comes from the meat and the cheese from the pizza. The cheese is digested by the HCl where the pepsinogen is converted into pepsin and into trypsin in the small intestines (Ross 2014). The trypsin is converted into amino acids and peptides for the absorption.

        The pizza carbohydrates which failed to be digested in the small intestines are broken down in the colon. They are broken down into disaccharides and monosaccharides then absorbed into the liver. The fatty acids are transported through the blood capillaries into the skin tissues or the muscles for storage or oxidation to release energy.  The absorption of amino acids occurs at the gastrointestinal tract whereby they are carried by the blood network. The amino acids are used in the maintenance of the body structures and repair of the worn-out tissues.

        The presence of cheese slows down the digestion of pizza because it needs the action of several enzymes to be broken down. Pepperoni has a high content of pork and meat (Payne 2012).  All these are proteins hence they require hydrochloric acid and peptidase enzyme to be digested.  If the pizza lacked the cheese and pepperoni, the digestion would occur fast.

Task 2

        The celiac disease is genetic and occurs when the small intestine is damaged by the gluten. It is an autoimmune disorder. The gluten is found in cereals like wheat, barley, and rye. The proteins generate an immune response which damages the small intestines. The finger-like projections in the small intestines are damaged hence the absorption of food is impaired.The symptoms of celiac disease include:

  • Irregular menstrual periods
  • Fatigue
  • Pain in joints
  • Depression
  • Infertility
  • Skin rash
  • Bone loss
  • Numbness
  • Fatty liver
  • Migraines
  • Mouth sores
  • Arthritis
  • Anemia
  • The possible substitute for gluten-free foods includes canned soups, ice cream, coffee, canned meat, yogurt, and pasta.

Task 3

        Celiac disease is a rare disease and it is limited to the regions in Europe and America. Research shows that celiac disease affects both adults and children from all cultures. It is common in women than in men. The rate in America is about 1% of the total population. In Ethiopia, it is about 0.8-0.85% while in Greece it is 2.5%.  The population affected in Brazil and Japan is approximately 3.5% and 1.5% respectively. The variation of the frequency is small which can be associated with environmental factors such as the microbiome, intestinal infections, and child nutrition.  The prevalence of the disorder is high in America and Europe due to the diet. African and Asian countries have small populations with the disease due to the wide variety of the foods consumed (Sherwood 2015). 

        The culture influences the prevalence of the disease because it affects the nutrition of the community. Most of the Europeans and Americans suffer from the disease due to contained consumption of the diet with gluten.  Ethiopia and Japan countries culture have a wide variety of diet hence they consume heavily gluten-free food. Research shows that American food has a high chance of gluten food due to heavy consumption of wheat and barley which are rich in gluten. Therefore, Americans have a high chance of suffering from the disorder than other countries.

Task 4

        The information about the cause and role of culture in celiac disease is important in developing relevant methods to prevent the disorder.  Celiac disease is hereditary and nutritional disease hence it can be prevented by adopting the right diet.  The people who are affected should come up with a diet which has gluten-free meals. They should take a lot of fruits and vegetables.  The substitutes for gluten include yogurt and canned meat.  The celiac victims should avoid wheat, barley and rye cereals which have high gluten content.

The lifestyle of people is changing due to the effect of modernization. The affected population should have regular exercise to help in the digestion of the gluten substitutes which might develop high content of fat in their body tissues. High consumption of vegetables and fruits minimizes the occurrence of nutritional diseases.

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