Agriculture in Ancient Egypt

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Agriculture is the practice or the science of farming. Many people who lived in Ancient Egypt were farmers, and it was common among most people. People farmed to provide food for their family and for others to become successful. The Nile River was one of the primary sources that made Ancient Egypt an agrarian civilization. The farmers farmed by using the rich soil and the water provided by the Nile River. Farmers also used the animals that they had to help them farm. Animals such as cows, cattle, and geese were used. Again, farming was really common, so if your father was a farmer, then you were most likely going to become a farmer. It was usually passed down from generation to generation. Farming was very important and most people relied on it. The food that was farmed helped the economy because it fed most people and allowed people the freedom to take other jobs. Farmers were very successful and lived prosperous lives. They were considered as “rich peasants.” The pharaohs would get the “peasants” to do farm work on the rich lands.

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The Nile River flowed through Ancient Egypt and provided a natural water which was an advantage for farmers. The water would give the soil many nutrients which would be a lot better for farming. Farmers also relied on the river a lot for transportation and growing their crops. Annually, the Nile River would flood in the spring, which would rejuvenate the old soil. The farmers grew their crops along the banks of the Nile River, since there was the rich black dirt. The fresh soil was left behind after the flooding season. There were three seasons for the farmers. The flooding, growing, and harvesting season. The flooding season is when the Nile River floods. It was when there was usually dry and not good soil, and the water from the river helped the old soil become new and enriched it. The growing season was when the farmers had all the crops grow, in preparation for the harvesting season. They had planted the seeds and were waiting for the next season which was when they would all eat the food that they planted.

Farmers in Ancient Egypt harvested many crops during the different seasons with the use of the Nile River and invented many things to help them farm. They harvested wheat, barley, vegetables, figs, melons, pomegranates, corn, and flax which was used to make linen. After they harvested the grain, vegetables like onions, leeks, cabbage, beans, cucumbers, and lettuce were grown. Ancient Egyptians used the grain that they harvested to make bread, porridge, and beer. Farmers were pretty clever and invented things to help them with their farming. They invented shadoofs. Shadoofs were a counterbalance for water wheels, which Ancient Egyptians also used. It was just a long pole with a bucket and something heavy on the other end. The buckets were filled up with water and raised into the water wheels. This was used for irrigation. Farmers also invented the nilometer. Nilometers measured the height of the Nile River and was almost like a warning system which told people when to get ready for the flood. Ancient Egyptian farmers also used irrigation which is when they transported the water through channels.

Many animals were used to help the farmers, or could be killed and sold to the market.

The farmers also used animals to help them farm. They used cattle, goats, pigs, ducks, cows, and geese. The animals would trample on the seeds, pull the plough, and they usually ate the unwanted grain and wheat. Animals were very helpful because they did the things that farmers couldn’t do. They also were a source of food and transportation. Farmers would either use the animals themselves, or they would transport things on top of them. Farmers would kill the animals and used them to barter for other things that they want for their life on the farm.

Ancient Egypt became an agrarian civilization because the natural source of water from the Nile River helped the farmers grow their crops and provided rich soil for growing their crops. They farmed tons of crops and used different animals for many different purposes. Farmers were very successful and grew the crops that they ate, or sold them to other markets. They even got to produce their own cloth. Many people in Ancient Egypt were farmers and farming still goes on today in Egypt.

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Agriculture in Ancient Egypt. (2020, Aug 18). Retrieved February 8, 2023 , from

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