Suicide is the third-leading cause of death for adolescents between 15 and 24 years of age in the United States and more than 1 million individuals commit suicide worldwide, annually. The diversity of the populations needs to be thought about when talking about suicide prevention. Different values and health beliefs make it difficult to serve and protect against depression and suicide; prevention services need to be tailored creatively with and to the needs of each culture, and should be at the forefront of the services provided.
Suicide was the second leading cause of death in 2013, among teenagers and young adults aged 15–24. NCHS Health E-Stat examines the suicide rate and methods among young adults from five race and ethnic groups; non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, Asian or Pacific Islander [API], and American Indian or Alaska Native [AIAN]. Of the five cultures studied the suicide rate was highest in the AIAN population for both males at 34.3 and females. at 9.9 deaths per 100,000 population, it is suggested that these numbers are likely to be underestimated by 30%.( Jiang; Mitran, Miniño, and Ni, 2015) The rates vary by race and ethnicity, a study done in 2016 shows the white suicide rate at it was 18.15; with the suicide rate among Asian/Pacific Islanders at 7.00; and for blacks the rate was 6.35; and the rate among Hispanics group it was 6.38 per 100,000.( Suicide Prevention Resource Center.2019)
This topic is very important as youth suicide and self-inflicted injury are serious important social and public health concerns across all ethnic groups. Nationwide more than 1 in 6 high school students reported seriously considering suicide in the previous year, with 1 in 12 attempting to take their life. ( Kidsdata.org.2015). Research has also shown that lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth are more likely to engage in suicidal behavior than their
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Teen Suicide heterosexual peers, and many suicides and attempted suicides are not reported due to social stigma. ( Kidsdata org.2015).
Taking the suicide rates population size into account, if gives an understanding to the relative proportion of people affected within different ethnic and demographic groups. Suicidal behavior has different meanings in different ethnic groups, so being culturally competent is important so the suicidal behavior may not be misunderstood or neglected.
In the Asian culture Asian culture suicide is condoned and accepted; the practice of suicide as legitimate in the context of familial shame, interpersonal conflict, and for altruistic reasons. As a Asians students absorb more of the American way of individualism, they can feel ostracized by parents suggesting that they have betrayed their culture, this is a powerful source of stress can lead to the desire to end their life. ((Goldston & Molock & Whitbeck,&Murakami,&Zayas and Hall ,2009).
Blacks die by suicide a full ten years earlier than the general population; they may not seek help from a mental health professional because it can be viewed as a personal or spiritual weakness. Discrimination and living in impoverished communities, being exposed to violence and feeling devalued, are some of the reasons there is suicide committed in black communities.
The suicide rates between AI/AN youth and other ethnic youths have been noted for over thirty years. (Goldston & Molock & Whitbeck,&Murakami,&Zayas and Hall ,2009). AI/ AN adolescent have many of the same experience and risk factors as other youths. However, life on rural, isolated reservations appears to heighten the risks of suicide, which may come from Teen Suicide economic deprivation, lack of education, and low employment opportunities, giving a sense of hopelessness among young people.
Factors that play a part in Latino suicidal behavior are the impact of the often traumatic process and acculturation. Like the Asian youth they are more likely than their parents to adopt the values, beliefs, and behaviors associated with the new culture; resulting in dysfunctional outcomes such as suicide attempts and psychological maladjustment. (Goldston & Molock & Whitbeck,&Murakami,&Zayas and Hall ,2009).
Different values and health beliefs make it difficult to serve and protect against depression and suicide; prevention services need to be tailored creatively with and to the needs of each culture, and should be at the forefront of the services provided. As much as each ethnic group is different, some of the cultural groups have been subject to the same trauma, repression, discrimination. The cultural strength of their communities needs to be reinforced to help address the mental health of the youth, and stop the oppression that has been undeserved.
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