A History of the Juvenile Justice System in the United States

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The adolescent justice system was developed in the late 1800s. And also was designated to punish young people culprits (History of America's adolescent justice system, 2008). The early adolescent court system had distinctive procedures, specifically:

Decreased criminal duty of juveniles, described as absence of their mental and also physical maturation, which brought assumption of them and also idea that they were not capable of committing a criminal offense.

A kid well-being technique, which was based on assertion of needs by assessing the social history of the culprit. As opposed to identifying guilt or virtue.

Family-like or informal procedures, which disposed of the policies of criminal procedure and also caused the rehabilitative suitable, which primary function was to exchange tests for "hearings" (Burfiend & Bartusch, 2011).

All those treatment were based upon the parens patriae teaching, which explained government's responsibility to be worried about the welfare of the certain social groups, mostly orphan kids (Burfiend & Bartusch, 2011).

Nevertheless, 5 significant court cases in the history of the adolescent justice system diminished the rehabilitative ideal as well as parens patriae of the conventional juvenile court.

Kent v. United States (1966 ). Moris Kent, age 16, while being on probation, was charged with break-in and also rape (History of America's JJS, 2008). The adolescent court judge offered the situation a "judicial waiver", after making full investigation of it as well as denying his attorney's demand of a hearing on the problem of jurisdiction (Burfiend & Bartusch, 2011). After Kent was condemned in criminal court on six counts and also punished to 30 to 90 years behind bars, his attorney filled the main wit to validate culprit's arrest (Burfiend & Bartusch, 2011). Eventually after rejection of appeal, Kent' attorney appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court and it ruled hearing on the motion of waiver with attorney's representation and accessibility to all records involved (Burfiend & Bartusch, 2011). The rejection of the standard procedure civil liberties and lack of the complete examination was confirmed by the Supreme Court (Burfiend & Bartusch, 2011).

In re Gault (1967 ). Gerald Gault, age 15, allegedly made the "obscene" statements to a grown-up neighbor as well as after adjudication hearing was devoted to a training school (History of America's JJS, 2008). Eventually U.S. Supreme Court heard the problem on demand of validation of the youth's arrest by his attorney as well as stated that the adhering to civil liberties need to be duly respected, specifically: the right to see of the costs, the right to advice, the right to doubt witnesses and the right to shield versus self-incrimination (Burfiend & Bartusch, 2011). The court's rejection of the parens patriae doctrine reinforced the conclusion of the infraction of the fourteenth amendment due the procedure (Burfiend & Bartusch, 2011).

In re Winhip (1970 ). Samuel Winship, age 12, was devoted to a training camp, after purportedly stealing $ 112 from the females's purse in the store (History of America's JJS, 2008). Winhip was figured out as a "delinquent young people" after the court ruled on the "prevalence proof" (burden of proof) instead of grown-up criminal law criteria of proof beyond an affordable uncertainty (Burfiend & Bartusch, 2011). After studying the case the U.S. Supreme Court turned down lower courts debates and required the juvenile courts by operating on the exact same standards as grown-up courts as crucial of due process as well as fair treatment (Burfiend & Bartusch, 2011).

McKevier v. Pennsylvania (1971 ). Joseph McKevier, age 16, along with 20 to 30 youths purportedly taken 25 cents from 3 youths and also consequently was placed on probation after court test was refuted by the court at adjudicatory hearing (History of America's JJS, 2008). The U.S. Supreme Court traced the violation of the Fourteenth Amendment as well as procedural demands in the adolescent's court fact- finding phase (Burfiend & Bartusch, 2011).

Type v. Jones (1975 ). Gary Jones, age 17, was charged with the burglary and also encountered fees of 2 various other robberies, after his instance was offered a jurisdiction waiver to the criminal court (History of America's JJS, 2008). The U.S. Supreme Court, after adolescent's court denial of lawful request, confirmed double infraction of the Fifth Amendment clause and also specified that the waiver can not occur after risk was affixed to the case (Burfiend & Bartusch, 2011).

Furthermore, these cases formed the procedures of the juvenile courts to end up being a lot more like criminal courts. However, the due process revolution recognized the need for a separate system and also a distinctive strategy to juvenile criminal activity (Burfiend & Bartusch, 2011).

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A History of the Juvenile Justice System in the United States. (2022, Dec 13). Retrieved April 16, 2024 , from

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