The Mesopotamians and the Egyptians both were polytheistic meaning they believed in more than one god, and they built temples to praise their gods. When the Mesopotamians built their temples, they also made 40 feet platform called a ziggurat and Sumerians that were shrine waiting rooms (13). Especially gods and goddesses representing nature. The Mesopotamians believed in Enki the god of water, Gibl the god of fire, Shilpae goddess of earth and Enlil the god of air (12). While the Egyptians had
Aten-Ra was the sun god, Horus, was the sky god, and Ma ‘at the goddess of truth, justice, and harmony (26). Mesopotamians religion does not show any evidence in the belief of recantation but does show a heaven god and a god and goddess of the underworld. The Egyptians all through history have shown belief in afterlife and resurrection of the dead. The Egyptians had a “The Book of the Dead” dedicated to the spells and rituals that would pass the death through the underworld and send you into the afterlife (27).
Homeric worldview started at the beginning of Greek history looking at the world as the Greeks did, and comparing gods to men and men to gods. Homer made the center of the world in the 19th century revolved around Greece. If you were not from Greece people looked at you as if you were barbaric. In the book the Iliad Homer inspired the artist to paint Zeus, “She sank to the ground beside him, put her left arm around his knees, raised her right hand to touch his chin and so made her petition to the Royal Son of Cronos”(54). The artist Jean-Auguste Dominique Ingres depicted Zeus as a fearsome ruler of the sky with one arm raised with a royal scepter and the other resting on clouds, Jean-Auguste Dominique Ingres named the painting “Jupiter and Thetis” (54). After painting “Jupiter and Thetis” was created, multiple artists use the inspiration of Homer’s Epic Poems to create a generation of artwork that we still see to this day.
Each of the Greek dramatists had different worldviews and illustrated Athens in the 5th century. Aeschylus players showed his deep awareness for the human weakness which she saw firsthand when he fought the battle of marathon in 490 BC. In his plays, he showered that right and reasoning will triumph of anything. In the opening scene of his play Agamemnon the chorus states: justice turns the balance scales, sees that we suffer, and we suffer, and we learn. And we suffered will know the future when it comes” (104) Aeschylus Philosophy and background must be kept reading his place he often describes violent and bloody events. He believed “blood for blood” for the legal system of justice (104). While Sophocles saw the world and live a positive light then Aeschylus. You could not tell Sophocles Philosophy in his work. In his place, he can bind in awareness of the tragic consequences of an individual‘s mistakes with a belief in the collective ability and dignity of the human race (107). In Sophocles play Oedipus the King it talks about a plague that has wiped out most of the population, and the people of the kingdom come to Oedipus and ask how he will stop the plague but in the path of helping he finds out the truth about his life. Oedipus finds out that his wife is really his mother on lines 1306-1310 he stays: “O god- All come true all burst to light! O light-now let me look my last on you! I stand revealed at last- cursed in my birth, cursed in my marriage cursed in the lives I cut down with these hands!”(109). These lines Oedipus kills himself. Sophocles created Oedipus to break social taboos, portray him as a tragic hero, and gave him human-like qualities good and bad.
The people Rome and Pompeii lived normal lives and since Pompeii was a resort city they gave multiple businesses and homes to the people. The building created in (27 BCE -79 CE) is very similar to how we still make large corporate buildings and apartment complexes. Also how they used their aqueduct system threw out the city of Pompeii and later in Rome. The city of Pompeii was a major resort city in Ancient Rome in 79 AD, the disaster of Mount Vesuvius struck the city. The city was buried under 20 feet of ash and debris from the eruption (140). In modern day we have used similar aqueduct systems with plumbing and our sewage systems (151). A similar tragedy for modern day is Hurricane Katrina how all of New Orleans was basically underwater is the similar effect of the people of Pompeii. New Orleans, also, has similar agriculture as Rome as well as Pompeii.
Right when Constantine became the Emperor of the Roman Empire the first thing he said was going to make changes. The biggest obstacle he knew he would deal with is convincing the religious leaders to accept the Christians. He considered Christianity as a huge factor for the establishment of the state and his capacity and he composed the Christians who had been dismissed for the past three centuries. Constantine needed Christianity to believe in him and Christianity needed Constantine to spread Christianity. He needed the Christians to follow all the new laws he was about to create and knew he could create an alliance with the Christians. Christians in this era were not the main religion and knew they needed to spread the “gospel” to the world (215). The people of Rome respected what he accomplished for Christians by helping them become a part of the community and not individual targets. Constantine kept up with the Christians with and saw them start going according to his strategy.
Until his imperfect strategy was a deferred consequence of the continuation among religious and individual interests, in any case, this does not impact the manner by which that this system profited Christianity. Constantine helped Christianity to be viewed as a genuine and solid religion inside Roman society.
Justinian is holding a golden bowl for the bread for the sacrament of the Eucharist. He’s surrounded by a priest and other important religious figures in the mosaic as well as his army and people of his disciples. Justinian emperors Theodora is holding a golden chalice and wearing multiple jewels such as sapphires, rubies, and emerald showing her importance. Theodora was surrounded by religious women as well as people of an important during this time. They are both wear purple the sign of royalty. The couple shows off their crowns, and the halos to represent religious power they have during the Byzantine era. The mosaics symbolize them as the imperial court which is a ceremony that is related to Eucharist.
Monasticism comes from the Greek word mono meaning singular or single. Christians in the Carolingian period believed it was an integral part of Christianity (285). Monasticism was very traditional in the east and starting to spread into the west. The great eastern tradition was asceticism meaning self-denial and eremitism meaning the solitary life. The people from the great eastern areas believe you must become one with oneself and have a monastic lifestyle (285). This tradition did not carry well into urban areas due to the living styles and depending on how flexible your monastery was. For example, most Monasticisms in Italy were simpler and rude while one in Europe cities were laxer that had monks walking around (285).
The Chartres cathedrals considered to be the first true high Gothic church (315). The cathedral was reconstructed in 1194 after a terrible fire in the rebuild after 1184 they decided to reconstruct the high Gothic church in a rectangular bay system Creating the shape of an X through visual fact is one of the unity through the reputation in your continuous flow of perfect pattern from the portal to apse(315). By making the regular bay system the windows are much larger increasing the flow of light and airy feeling throughout the whole cathedral. While the Hagia Sophia is Greek for the holy wisdom which was the ideal principle of the church of Constantinople (242). Hagia Sophia interior has multiple windows between the drums in the dorms giving the impression of floating lights this effect goes from the top of the dome all the way down to the ground. Around the floating lightness, you can see a circular shield with Arabic writings from the Qur’an (243). The Hagia Sophia and the Chartres cathedral both share the effects of floating lightness throughout the church and the feeling of the true sanctuary.
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